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2.
Can J Cardiol ; 35(8): 1047-1057, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal strategy and timing of revascularization in hemodynamically stable patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and multivessel disease is unknown. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the comparative efficacy and safety of early complete revascularization vs culprit-only or staged revascularization in this setting. METHODS: We searched the literature for randomized clinical trials that assessed this issue. Early complete revascularization was defined as a complete revascularization achieved during the index procedure or within 72 hours. Efficacy outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization, and all-cause mortality. Safety outcomes were all bleeding events, stroke, and contrast-induced acute kidney injury. RESULTS: Nine randomized clinical trials with a total of 2837 patients were included; 1254 received early complete revascularization and 1583 were treated with other revascularization strategies. After a mean follow-up of 15.3 ± 9.4 months early complete revascularization was associated with a lower risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (relative risk [RR], 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-0.62; P < 0.00001; number needed to treat = 8), myocardial infarction (RR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.40-0.87), and repeat revascularization (RR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.28-0.55) without any difference in all-cause mortality and in safety outcomes compared with culprit-only or staged revascularization. Moreover, fractional flow reserve-guided complete revascularization reduced the incidence of repeat revascularization compared with angiography-guided procedure (χ2 = 4.36; P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Early complete revascularization should be considered in hemodynamically stable patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and multivessel disease deemed suitable for percutaneous interventions. Fractional flow reserve-guided complete revascularization might be superior to angiography-guided procedures in reducing need for further interventions.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361651

RESUMO

AIMS: Although the benefits of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) in patients with stable chronic ischemic heart disease (SIHD) are controversial, a large number of PCIs are currently performed in SIHD patients, frequently after coronary angiography (ad-hoc procedures), without the use of fractional flow reserve (FFR) to identify patients most likely to benefit from PCI. METHODS: Assessment of regional variations in PCI for SIHD performed in Italy in 2017 and correlation of the regional number of PCI per million inhabitants with the use of FFR were performed using the data reported in the registry of the Italian Society of Interventional Cardiology (SICI-GISE) registry for the year 2017. RESULTS: PCI for SIHD accounted for 44.5% of all PCI performed in Italy with large variations among the Italian regions. There was a significant and inverse relationship between the use of FFR and the PCI number per million inhabitants performed for SIHD in the various Italian regions (P = 0.01). In the Veneto region, where local authorities mandated Heart Team reports to select the most appropriate treatment choice in multivessel disease patients, the rate of ad-hoc procedures was significantly lower than the national average. CONCLUSION: PCI for SIHD patients represent almost half of all procedures currently performed in Italy with regional variations inversely related to physiologic guidance use. The mandatory assessment by the Heart Team to select the most appropriate treatment choice in multivessel disease patients is associated with a significantly lower number of ad-hoc procedures.

4.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(7): e007342, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the CHAMPION PHOENIX trial, cangrelor reduced the primary composite end point of death, myocardial infarction (MI), ischemia-driven revascularization, or stent thrombosis at 48 hours. This study aimed to explore the impact of event adjudication and the prognostic importance of MI reported by a clinical events committee (CEC) or site investigators (SIs). METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from the CHAMPION PHOENIX trial of patients undergoing elective or nonelective percutaneous coronary intervention were analyzed. A CEC systematically identified and adjudicated MI using predefined criteria, a computer algorithm to identify suspected events, and semilogarithmic plots to review biomarker changes. Thirty-day death was modeled using baseline characteristics. Of 10 942 patients, 462 (4.2%) patients had at least 1 MI by 48 hours identified by the CEC (207 [3.8%] cangrelor; 255 [4.7%] clopidogrel; odds ratio [OR] 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67-0.97; P=0.022), and 143 patients had at least 1 MI by 48 hours reported by the SI (60 [1.1%] cangrelor; 83 [1.5%] clopidogrel; OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.52-1.01; P=0.053). Of the 462 MIs identified by the CEC, 92 (20%) were reported by SI, and 370 (80%) were not. Of the 143 MI reported by the SI, 51 (36%) were not confirmed by CEC. All categories were associated with an increased adjusted risk for 30-day death (CEC: OR, 5.35; 95% CI, 2.56-11.2; P<0.001; SI: 9.08 [4.01-20.5]; P<0.001; CEC and SI: 10.9 [3.23-36.6]; P<0.001; CEC but not SI: 4.69 [1.94-11.3]; P<0.001; SI but not CEC: 15.4 [5.26-44.9]; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, CEC procedures identified 3 times as many MIs as the SI reported. Compared with clopidogrel, cangrelor significantly reduced MIs identified by the CEC with a qualitatively similar relative risk reduction in MIs reported by the SI. MIs identified by CEC or reported by SI were independently associated with worse 30-day death. Central adjudication identified additional, prognostically important events. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01156571.

5.
Heart Vessels ; 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222553

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to evaluate completeness of coronary revascularization in patients with complex stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) who underwent percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), but a surgical revascularization indicated according to 2018 European Society of Cardiology guidelines. The optimal mode of revascularization for SCAD should take into account clinical, anatomic, and procedural characteristics-including anticipated completeness of revascularization-and modality of treatment should be discussed by a Heart Team. Among patients enrolled in the APpropriAteness of percutaneous Coronary interventions in patients with ischemic heart disease study, we identified patients with complex SCAD. Rates of ad-hoc PCI and documented heart team discussion were reported stratified by guideline recommended mode of revascularization. Completeness of revascularization was assessed by an angiographic core laboratory using residual SS (rSS) ≤ 8 and SYNTAX Revascularization Index (SRI) ≥ 70%. Among 336 PCI patients with SCAD, 182 (54.2%) had complex coronary disease and 152 underwent ad-hoc PCI (83.5%). Patients for whom surgery was the recommended revascularization option (9.3%) had a significantly and substantial higher rate of incomplete revascularization than patients for whom either mode of revascularization or PCI was recommended (61.3% vs 23.6% with rSS > 8, p < 0.001 and 77.4% vs 44.6% with SRI < 70%, p < 0.001). Patients with complex SCAD receiving percutaneous myocardial revascularization when surgery was recommended have substantially incomplete myocardial revascularization. These data support multidisciplinary decision-making in these patients and suggest considering anticipated completeness when deciding mode of coronary revascularization.

6.
Eur Heart J ; 40(24): 1903-1906, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226211
7.
Platelets ; : 1-4, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066332

RESUMO

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicating ischemic stroke is a well known and undertreated event. A conservative management is not infrequent in these settings, due to the fear of hemorrhagic complications related to antithrombotic therapy. Notably, an invasive approach with a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been shown to be associated with a lower in-hospital mortality in patients with concomitant ischemic stroke and AMI. The optimal antiplatelet regimen in these cases has been not clearly defined, yet. We report two cases of patients with AMI complicating ischemic stroke, successfully treated with cangrelor infusion, which was started during PCI and maintained up to 48 h at bridge therapy dosage (0.75 mcg/kg/min). Both patients underwent successful PCI in the acute phase, and neither ischemic nor hemorrhagic complications occurred during in-hospital stay.

8.
BMJ Open ; 9(3): e026053, 2019 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852547

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The GLOBAL LEADERS is an open-label, pragmatic and superiority randomised controlled trial designed to challenge the current treatment paradigm of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for 12 months followed by aspirin monotherapy among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. By design, all study endpoints are investigator reported (IR) and not subject to formal adjudication by an independent Clinical Event Committee (CEC), which may introduce detection, reporting or ascertainment bias. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We designed the GLOBAL LEADERS Adjudication Sub-StudY (GLASSY) to prospectively implement, in a large sample of patients enrolled within the GLOBAL LEADERS trial (7585 of 15 991, 47.5%), an independent adjudication process of reported and unreported potential endpoints, using standardised CEC procedures, in order to assess whether 23-month ticagrelor monotherapy (90 mg twice daily) after 1-month DAPT is non-inferior to a standard regimen of DAPT for 12 months followed by aspirin monotherapy for the primary efficacy endpoint of death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke or urgent target vessel revascularisation and superior for the primary safety endpoint of type 3 or 5 bleeding according to the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium criteria.This study will comprehensively assess the comparative safety and efficacy of the two tested antithrombotic strategies on CEC-adjudicated ischaemic and bleeding endpoints and will provide insights into the role of a standardised CEC adjudication process on the interpretation of study findings by quantifying the level of concordance between IR-reported and CEC-adjudicated events. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: GLASSY has been approved by local ethics committee of all study sites and/or by the central ethics committee for the country depending on country-specific regulations. In all cases, they deemed that it was not necessary to obtain further informed consent from individual subjects. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01813435.

9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(7): 758-774, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The value of prolonged bivalirudin infusion after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with or without ST-segment elevation remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of a full or low post-PCI bivalirudin regimen in ACS patients with or without ST-segment elevation. METHODS: The MATRIX program assigned bivalirudin to patients without or with a post-PCI infusion at either a full (1.75 mg/kg/h for ≤4 h) or reduced (0.25 mg/kg/h for ≤6 h) regimen at the operator's discretion. The primary endpoint was the 30-day composite of urgent target-vessel revascularization, definite stent thrombosis, or net adverse clinical events (composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, or major bleeding). RESULTS: Among 3,610 patients assigned to bivalirudin, 1,799 were randomized to receive and 1,811 not to receive a post-PCI bivalirudin infusion. Post-PCI full bivalirudin was administered in 612 (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI], n = 399; non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes [NSTE-ACS], n = 213), whereas the low-dose regimen was administered in 1,068 (STEMI, n = 519; NSTE-ACS, n = 549) patients. The primary outcome did not differ in STEMI or NSTE-ACS patients who received or did not receive post-PCI bivalirudin. However, full compared with low bivalirudin regimen remained associated with a significant reduction of the primary endpoint after multivariable (rate ratio: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.35; p < 0.001) or propensity score (rate ratio: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.26; p < 0.001) adjustment. Full post-PCI bivalirudin was associated with improved outcomes consistently across ACS types compared with the no post-PCI infusion or heparin groups. CONCLUSIONS: In ACS patients with or without ST-segment elevation, the primary endpoint did not differ with or without post-PCI bivalirudin infusion but a post-PCI full dose was associated with improved outcomes when compared with no or low-dose post-PCI infusion or heparin (Minimizing Adverse Haemorrhagic Events by TRansradial Access Site and Systemic Implementation of angioX [MATRIX]; NCT01433627).

11.
Am Heart J ; 209: 97-105, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal duration of antiplatelet therapy in high-bleeding risk (HBR) patients with coronary artery disease treated with newer-generation drug-eluting bioresorbable polymer-coated stents remains unclear. DESIGN: MASTER DAPT (clinicaltrial.govNCT03023020) is an investigator-initiated, open-label, multicenter, randomized controlled trial comparing an abbreviated versus a standard duration of antiplatelet therapy after bioresorbable polymer-coated Ultimaster (TANSEI) sirolimus-eluting stent implantation in approximately 4,300 HBR patients recruited from ≥100 interventional cardiology centers globally. After a mandatory 30-day dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) run-in phase, patients are randomized to (a) a single antiplatelet regimen until study completion or up to 5 months in patients with clinically indicated oral anticoagulation (experimental 1-month DAPT group) or (b) continue DAPT for at least 5 months in patients without or 2 in patients with concomitant indication to oral anticoagulation, followed by a single antiplatelet regimen (standard antiplatelet regimen). With a final sample size of 4,300 patients, this study is powered to assess the noninferiority of the abbreviated antiplatelet regimen with respect to the net adverse clinical and major adverse cardiac and cerebral events composite end points and if satisfied for the superiority of abbreviated as compared to standard antiplatelet therapy duration in terms of major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. Study end points will be adjudicated by a blinded Clinical Events Committee. CONCLUSIONS: The MASTER DAPT study is the first randomized controlled trial aiming at ascertaining the optimal duration of antiplatelet therapy in HBR patients treated with sirolimus-eluting bioresorbable polymer-coated stent implantation.

12.
Eur Heart J ; 40(15): 1226-1232, 2019 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30689825

RESUMO

AIMS: In the Minimizing Adverse Haemorrhagic Events by TRansradial Access Site and Systemic Implementation of angioX (MATRIX) trial, adults with acute coronary syndrome undergoing coronary intervention who were allocated to radial access had a lower risk of bleeding, acute kidney injury (AKI), and all-cause mortality, as compared with those allocated to femoral access. The mechanism of the mortality benefit of radial access remained unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used multistate and competing risk models to determine the effects of radial and femoral access on bleeding, AKI and all-cause mortality in the MATRIX trial and to disentangle the relationship between these different types of events. There were large relative risk reductions in mortality for radial compared with femoral access for the transition from AKI to death [hazard ratio (HR) 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31-0.97] and for the pathway from coronary intervention to AKI to death (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.26-0.92). Conversely, there was little evidence for a difference between radial and femoral groups for the transition from bleeding to death (HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.42-2.64) and the pathway from coronary intervention to bleeding to death (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.28-2.49). CONCLUSION: The prevention of AKI appeared predominantly responsible for the mortality benefit of radial as compared with femoral access in the MATRIX trial. There was little evidence for an equally important, independent role of bleeding.

13.
Int J Cardiol ; 273: 80-87, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is contrasting evidence regarding the optimal antithrombotic regimen after percutaneous coronary stent implantation in patients on oral anticoagulants. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to explore the comparative efficacy and safety of dual (an antiplatelet plus an oral anticoagulant) versus triple therapy (dual antiplatelet therapy plus an oral anticoagulant). METHODS: We searched the literature for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or observational studies (OSs) addressing this issue. The efficacy outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis. The safety outcomes were major bleeding events and all bleeding events. The analyses were stratified by type of anticoagulant and of antiplatelet used in dual therapy. RESULTS: Four RCTs and ten OSs met our inclusion criteria including a total of 10,126 patients. 5671 patients received triple therapy whereas 4455 received dual therapy. Median follow up was 12 months. There was no difference between dual therapy and triple therapy regarding efficacy outcomes. Dual therapy significantly reduced the risk of major bleeding (RR 0.66; CI 95% 0.52-0.83; P = 0.0005) and of all bleeding events (RR 0.67, CI 95% 0.55-0.80; P < 0.0001). The effect was consistent regardless of the type of antiplatelet and anticoagulant used in dual therapy. CONCLUSION: Dual antithrombotic therapy after coronary stenting in anticoagulated patients significantly reduces bleeding events compared with triple therapy. Dual therapy might be considered in this setting especially when bleeding risk outweighs ischemic risk, although our study was not sufficiently powered to detect a difference in ischemic endpoints.

14.
Lancet ; 392(10150): 835-848, 2018 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Minimizing Adverse Haemorrhagic Events by Transradial Access Site and Systemic Implementation of Angiox (MATRIX) programme was designed to assess the comparative safety and effectiveness of radial versus femoral access and of bivalirudin versus unfractionated heparin with optional glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in patients with the whole spectrum of acute coronary syndrome undergoing invasive management. Here we describe the prespecified final 1-year outcomes of the entire programme. METHODS: MATRIX was a programme of three nested, randomised, multicentre, open-label, superiority trials in patients with acute coronary syndrome in 78 hospitals in Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, and Sweden. Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction were simultaneously randomly assigned (1:1) before coronary angiography to radial or femoral access and to bivalirudin, with or without post-percutaneous coronary intervention infusion or unfractionated heparin (one-step inclusion). Patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome were randomly assigned (1:1) before coronary angiography to radial or femoral access and, only if deemed eligible to percutaneous coronary intervention after angiography (two-step inclusion), entered the antithrombin type and treatment duration programmes. Randomisation sequences were computer generated, blocked, and stratified by intended new or current use of P2Y12 inhibitor (clopidogrel vs ticagrelor or prasugrel), and acute coronary syndrome type (ST-elevation myocardial infarction, troponin-positive, or troponin-negative non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome). Bivalirudin was given as a bolus of 0·75 mg/kg, followed immediately by an infusion of 1·75 mg/kg per h until completion of percutaneous coronary intervention. Heparin was given at 70-100 units per kg in patients not receiving glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, and at 50-70 units per kg in patients receiving glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. Clinical follow-up was done at 30 days and 1 year. Co-primary outcomes for MATRIX access and MATRIX antithrombin type were major adverse cardiovascular events, defined as the composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, or stroke up to 30 days; and net adverse clinical events, defined as the composite of non-coronary artery bypass graft-related major bleeding, or major adverse cardiovascular events up to 30 days. The primary outcome for MATRIX treatment duration was the composite of urgent target vessel revascularisation, definite stent thrombosis, or net adverse clinical events up to 30 days. Analyses were done according to the intention-to-treat principle. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01433627. FINDINGS: Between Oct 11, 2011, and Nov 7, 2014, we randomly assigned 8404 patients to receive radial (4197 patients) or femoral (4207 patients) access. Of these 8404 patients, 7213 were included in the MATRIX antithrombin type study and were randomly assigned to bivalirudin (3610 patients) or heparin (3603 patients). Patients assigned to bivalirudin were included in the MATRIX treatment duration study, and were randomly assigned to post-procedure infusion (1799 patients) or no post-procedure infusion (1811 patients). At 1 year, major adverse cardiovascular events did not differ between patients assigned to radial access compared with those assigned to femoral access (14·2% vs 15·7%; rate ratio 0·89, 95% CI 0·80-1·00; p=0·0526), but net adverse clinical events were fewer with radial than with femoral access (15·2% vs 17·2%; 0·87, 0·78-0·97; p=0·0128). Compared with heparin, bivalirudin was not associated with fewer major adverse cardiovascular (15·8% vs 16·8%; 0·94, 0·83-1·05; p=0·28) or net adverse clinical events (17·0% vs 18·4%; 0·91, 0·81-1·02; p=0·10). The composite of urgent target vessel revascularisation, stent thrombosis, or net adverse clinical events did not differ with or without post-procedure bivalirudin infusion (17·4% vs 17·4%; 0·99, 0·84-1·16; p=0·90). INTERPRETATION: In patients with acute coronary syndrome, radial access was associated with lower rates of net adverse clinical events compared with femoral access, but not major adverse cardiovascular events at 1 year. Bivalirudin with or without post-procedure infusion was not associated with lower rates of major adverse cardiovascular events or net adverse clinical events. Radial access should become the default approach in acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing invasive management. FUNDING: Italian Society of Invasive Cardiology, The Medicines Company, Terumo, amd Canada Research Chairs Programme.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Antitrombinas/administração & dosagem , Artéria Femoral , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Hirudinas/administração & dosagem , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Artéria Radial , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Angiografia Coronária , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Hirudinas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Assistência Perioperatória , Complexo Glicoproteico GPIIb-IIIa de Plaquetas/antagonistas & inibidores , Falha de Prótese/etiologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Stents/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
15.
Circulation ; 138(16): 1666-1676, 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29871978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is associated with an increased risk of death. High-sensitivity troponin T, growth differentiation factor-15, NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), and interleukin-6 levels are predictive of cardiovascular events and total cardiovascular death in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation. The prognostic utility of these biomarkers for cause-specific death is unknown. METHODS: The ARISTOTLE trial (Apixaban for the Prevention of Stroke in Subjects With Atrial Fibrillation) randomized 18 201 patients with atrial fibrillation to apixaban or warfarin. Biomarkers were measured at randomization in 14 798 patients (1.9 years median follow-up). Cox models were used to identify clinical variables and biomarkers independently associated with each specific cause of death. RESULTS: In total, 1272 patients died: 652 (51%) cardiovascular, 32 (3%) bleeding, and 588 (46%) noncardiovascular/nonbleeding deaths. Among cardiovascular deaths, 255 (39%) were sudden cardiac deaths, 168 (26%) heart failure deaths, and 106 (16%) stroke/systemic embolism deaths. Biomarkers were the strongest predictors of cause-specific death: a doubling of troponin T was most strongly associated with sudden death (hazard ratio [HR], 1.48; P<0.001), NT-proBNP with heart failure death (HR, 1.62; P<0.001), and growth differentiation factor-15 with bleeding death (HR, 1.72; P=0.028). Prior stroke/systemic embolism (HR, 2.58; P>0.001) followed by troponin T (HR, 1.45; P<0.0029) were the most predictive for stroke/ systemic embolism death. Adding all biomarkers to clinical variables improved discrimination for each cause-specific death. CONCLUSIONS: Biomarkers were some of the strongest predictors of cause-specific death and may improve the ability to discriminate among patients' risks for different causes of death. These data suggest a potential role of biomarkers for the identification of patients at risk for different causes of death in patients anticoagulated for atrial fibrillation. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00412984.

17.
Int J Cardiol ; 270: 96-101, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29937301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Controversies exist over the appropriate definition for peri-procedural myocardial infarction (PPMI) and its association with mortality. This study aims to evaluate one-year survival following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the association of different definitions of PPMI with survival among patients with stable angina (SA) or acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the contemporary era. METHODS: We used data from the CHAMPION PLATFORM and CHAMPION PCI trials of patients undergoing PCI and conducted univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models to evaluate mortality risk during the first year after PCI. A blinded events committee adjudicated suspected PPMI defined by biomarker elevations ≥3× the upper limit of normal (ULN) or new Q-waves. We further analyzed PPMI by the magnitude of CK-MB elevation ([a] 3 to <5× ULN, [b] 5 to <10× ULN, [c] ≥10× ULN) or by the 2nd universal definition of myocardial infarction (UDMICK-MB) excluding patients with evidence of myocardial infarction (MI) prior to PCI. RESULTS: Of 13,968 patients, 11% initially presented with SA, and 89% with ACS. One-year mortality was 3.4% (SA: 1.5%; ACS: 3.6%). PPMI occurred in 6.3% of the patients (3 to <5× ULN: 2.5%; 5 to <10× ULN: 2.1%; ≥10× ULN: 1.6%; UDMICK-MB: 2.7%). After multivariable adjustment, a significantly higher risk of one-year mortality was observed for patients with PPMI compared with patients without PPMI (HR 2.35 [1.74-3.18], p < 0.001; 3 to <5× ULN: 1.55 [0.92-2.62], p = 0.10; 5 to <10× ULN: 1.22 [0.67-2.20], p = 0.52; ≥10× ULN: 4.78 [3.06-7.47], p < 0.001; UDMICK-MB: 2.19 [1.29-3.73], p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: PPMI occurred in 6.3% of the patients and was associated with increased risk of death within one year. Survival was not significantly impacted by PPMI if defined by periprocedural CK-MB elevations <10× ULN alone and without additional evaluation of symptoms or evidence of ischemia. These findings highlight the importance of PPMI for long-term outcome in the contemporary era and of its definition in the planning and interpretation of clinical trials.

18.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(9): 856-864, 2018 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29747915

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In 13,038 patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome undergoing index percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the EARLY ACS (Early Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibition in Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome) and TRACER (Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome) trials, the relationship between PCI-related myocardial infarction (MI) and 1-year mortality was assessed. BACKGROUND: The definition of PCI-related MI is controversial. The third universal definition of PCI-related MI requires cardiac troponin >5 times the 99th percentile of the normal reference limit from a stable or falling baseline and PCI-related clinical or angiographic complications. The definition from the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) requires creatine kinase-MB elevation >10 times the upper limit of normal (or 5 times if new electrocardiographic Q waves are present). Implications of these definitions on prognosis, prevalence, and implementation are not established. METHODS: In our cohort of patients undergoing PCI, PCI-related MIs were classified using the third universal type 4a MI definition and SCAI criteria. In the subgroup of patients included in the angiographic core laboratory (ACL) substudy of EARLY ACS (n = 1,401) local investigator- versus ACL-reported angiographic complications were compared. RESULTS: Altogether, 2.0% of patients met third universal definition of PCI-related MI criteria, and 1.2% met SCAI criteria. One-year mortality was 3.3% with the third universal definition (hazard ratio: 1.96; 95% confidence interval: 1.24 to 3.10) and 5.3% with SCAI criteria (hazard ratio: 2.79; 95% confidence interval: 1.69 to 4.58; p < 0.001). Agreement between ACL and local investigators in detecting angiographic complications during PCI was overall moderate (κ = 0.53). CONCLUSIONS: The third universal definition of MI and the SCAI definition were both associated with significant risk for mortality at 1 year. Suboptimal concordance was observed between ACL and local investigators in identifying patients with PCI complications detected on angiography. (Trial to Assess the Effects of Vorapaxar [SCH 530348; MK-5348] in Preventing Heart Attack and Stroke in Participants With Acute Coronary Syndrome [TRA·CER] [Study P04736]; NCT00527943; EARLY ACS: Early Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibition in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome [Study P03684AM2]; NCT00089895).

19.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(16): 1576-1586, 2018 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29805112

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study sought to assess whether treatment with ticagrelor, as compared with prasugrel and clopidogrel, improves endothelium-dependent dilation throughout the course of the treatment and other vascular biomarkers, including systemic adenosine plasma levels. BACKGROUND: The in vivo off-target effects of ticagrelor in post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients remain poorly characterized. METHODS: Fifty-four stable post-ACS patients were sequentially exposed to each of the 3 oral P2Y12 inhibitors following a 3-period balanced Latin square crossover design with 4 weeks per treatment in 5 European centers. The primary endpoint was the assessment of endothelial function with pulse amplitude tonometry and expressed as reactive hyperemia index at treatment steady state. Secondary endpoints included reactive hyperemia index after loading or before maintenance regimen, systemic adenosine plasma levels, a wide set of vascular biomarkers, and ticagrelor or AR-C124910XX plasma levels throughout each ticagrelor period. In 9 patients, the evaluation of endothelial function was performed simultaneously by pulse amplitude tonometry and flow-mediated dilation. RESULTS: Reactive hyperemia index did not differ after ticagrelor (1.970 ± 0.535) as compared with prasugrel (2.007 ± 0.640; p = 0.557) or clopidogrel (2.072 ± 0.646; p = 0.685), nor did systemic adenosine plasma levels or vascular biomarkers at any time points. P2Y12 platelet reactivity units were lower after ticagrelor as compared with clopidogrel at all time points and after maintenance dose as compared with prasugrel. Flow-mediated dilation did not differ after the maintenance dose of ticagrelor as compared with clopidogrel and prasugrel. CONCLUSIONS: Ticagrelor did not improve endothelial function or increased systemic adenosine plasma levels as compared with prasugrel and clopidogrel in stabilized patients who suffered from an ACS. (Hunting for the Off-Target Properties of Ticagrelor on Endothelial Function in Humans [HI-TECH]; NCT02587260).

20.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 19(7): 373-381, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29708911

RESUMO

AIMS: About one-third of ischemic stroke are cryptogenic. Paradoxical embolism through patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been identified as a possible cause of cryptogenic stroke. Therefore, PFO closure has been considered for secondary prevention of cryptogenic stroke. However, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing PFO closure versus medical therapy led to conflicting results. Our objectives were to examine if PFO closure is superior to medical therapy alone for secondary prevention of cryptogenic stroke and to investigate whether PFO closure is associated with an increased incidence of atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter (AFL). METHODS: The authors systematically searched MEDLINE for RCTs that compared PFO closure with medical therapy. Efficacy outcome was cerebrovascular event (CVE) recurrence and safety outcome was new-onset atrial fibrillation/AFL. The outcomes of interest were investigated according to device type with subgroup analyses and meta-regression. RESULTS: The authors included eight RCTs constituting 4114 patients. Patients who underwent PFO closure had a lower risk of CVE recurrence compared with medically treated patients [relative risk (RR): 0.56; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40-0.80; P = 0.001; I = 30%]. This protective effect was consistent across the different device types. Patients who underwent PFO closure developed more frequently atrial fibrillation/AFL (RR 4.96; 95% CI 2.74-8.99; P < 0.00001; I = 0%), which was mainly transient and within 1 month. Atrial fibrillation/AFL risk was consistent according to device types, although marginally significant in the Amplatzer subgroup. CONCLUSION: PFO closure might have a role in secondary CVE prevention of patients with PFO and cryptogenic stroke. However, it is associated with an increased incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation/AFL especially within 1 month.

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