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1.
Tumori ; 108(1): 47-55, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of CTLA-4, PD-1 (programmed death-1), and PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in predicting clinical outcome of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). METHODS: A total of 166 consecutive patients were included. We correlated SNPs with clinical benefit, progression-free survival, time to treatment failure, and overall survival and evaluated the incidence of SNPs in nonresponder and long clinical benefit groups. RESULTS: Considering the entire cohort, no correlation was found between SNPs and clinical outcome; however, PD-L1 rs4143815 SNP and the long clinical benefit group showed a statistically significant association (p = 0.02). The nonresponder cohort displayed distinctive PD-L1 haplotype (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: PD-L1 SNPs seem to be marginally involved in predicting clinical outcome of NSCLC treated with ICI, but further investigations are required.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771566

RESUMO

In order to study alternatives at the tissue biopsy to study EGFR status in NSCLC patients, we evaluated three different liquid biopsy platforms (plasma, urine and exhaled breath condensate, EBC). We also reviewed the literature of the cfDNA biological sources other than plasma and compared our results with it about the sensitivity to EGFR mutation determination. Twenty-two EGFR T790M-mutated NSCLC patients in progression to first-line treatment were enrolled and candidate to osimertinib. Plasma, urine and EBC samples were collected at baseline and every two months until progression. Molecular analysis of cfDNA was performed by ddPCR and compared to tissue results. At progression NGS analysis was performed. The EGFR activating mutation detection reached a sensitivity of 58 and 11% and for the T790M mutation of 45 and 10%, in plasma and urine samples, respectively. Any DNA content was recovered from EBC samples. Considering the plasma monitoring study, the worst survival was associated with positive shedding status; both plasma and urine molecular progression anticipated the radiological worsening. Our results confirmed the role of plasma liquid biopsy in testing EGFR mutational status, but unfortunately, did not evidence any improvement from the combination with alternative sources, as urine and EBC.

3.
Tumori ; : 3008916211047888, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585625

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Osimertinib is a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) approved as first-line therapy for advanced EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Some osimertinib-related interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) were shown to be transient, called transient asymptomatic pulmonary opacities (TAPO)-clinically benign pulmonary opacities that resolve despite continued osimertinib treatment-and are not associated with the clinical manifestations of typical TKI-associated ILDs. METHODS: In this multicentric study, we retrospectively analyzed 92 patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC treated with osimertinib. Computed tomography (CT) examinations were reviewed by two radiologists and TAPO were classified according to radiologic pattern. We also analyzed associations between TAPO and patients' clinical variables and compared clinical outcomes (time to treatment failure and overall survival) for TAPO-positive and TAPO-negative groups. RESULTS: TAPO were found in 18/92 patients (19.6%), with a median follow-up of 114 weeks. Median onset time was 16 weeks (range 6-80) and median duration time 14 weeks (range 8-37). The most common radiologic pattern was focal ground-glass opacity (54.5%). We did not find any individual clinical variable significantly associated with the onset of TAPO or significant difference in clinical outcomes between TAPO-positive and TAPO-negative groups. CONCLUSIONS: TAPO are benign pulmonary findings observed in patients treated with osimertinib. TAPO variability in terms of CT features can hinder the differential diagnosis with either osimertinib-related mild ILD or tumor progression. However, because TAPO are asymptomatic, it could be reasonable to continue therapy and verify the resolution of the CT findings at follow-up in selected cases.

5.
Curr Treat Options Oncol ; 22(11): 96, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524570

RESUMO

OPINION STATEMENT: The quest for immunotherapy (IT) biomarkers is an element of highest clinical interest in both solid and hematologic tumors. In non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, besides PD-L1 expression evaluation with its intrinsic limitations, tissue and circulating parameters, likely portraying the tumor and its stromal/immune counterparts, have been proposed as potential predictors of IT responsiveness. STK11 mutations have been globally labeled as markers of IT resistance. After a thorough literature review, STK11 mutations condition the prognosis of NSCLC patients receiving ICI-containing regimens, implying a relevant biological and clinical significance. On the other hand, waiting for prospective and solid data, the putative negative predictive value of STK11 inactivation towards IT is sustained by less evidence. The physiologic regulation of multiple cellular pathways performed by STK11 likely explains the multifaceted modifications in tumor cells, stroma, and tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) observed in STK11 mutant lung cancer, particularly explored in the molecular subgroup of KRAS co-mutation. IT approaches available thus far in NSCLC, mainly represented by anti-PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, are not promising in the case of STK11 inactivation. Perceptive strategies aimed at modulating the TIME, regardless of STK11 status or specifically addressed to STK11-mutated cases, will hopefully provide valid therapeutic options to be adopted in the clinical practice.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/etiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Imunomodulação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , /genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Metabolismo Energético , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunomodulação/genética , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mutação , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais , Resultado do Tratamento , Evasão Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
6.
Clin Med Insights Oncol ; 15: 11795549211043427, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), an acute respiratory syndrome caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread worldwide, significantly affecting the outcome of a highly vulnerable group such as cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical impact of COVID-19 infection on outcome and oncologic treatment of cancer patients. PATIENT AND METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled cancer patients with laboratory and/or radiologic confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, admitted to our center from February to April 2020. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the clinical data and univariate analyses were performed to investigate the impact of anticancer treatment modifications due to COVID-19 outbreak on the short-term overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Among 61 patients enrolled, 49 (80%) were undergoing anticancer treatment and 41 (67%) had metastatic disease. Most patients were men; median age was 68 years. Median OS was 46.6 days (40% of deaths occurred within 20 days from COVID-19 diagnosis). Among 59 patients with available data on therapeutic course, 46 experienced consequences on their anticancer treatment schedule. Interruption or a starting failure of the oncologic therapy correlated with significant shorter OS. Anticancer treatment delays did not negatively affect the OS. Lymphocytopenia development after COVID was significantly associated with worst outcome. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 diagnosis in cancer patients may affect their short-term OS, especially in case of interruption/starting failure of cancer therapy. Maintaining/delaying cancer therapy seems not to influence the outcome in selected patients with recent COVID-19 diagnosis.

7.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 166: 103454, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455092

RESUMO

Three generations of epidermal growth factor receptor - tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have been developed for treating advanced/metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring EGFR-activating mutations, while a fourth generation is undergoing preclinical assessment. Although initially effective, acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs usually arises within a year due to the emergence of clones harboring multiple resistance mechanisms. Therefore, the combination of EGFR-TKIs with other therapeutic agents has emerged as a potential strategy to overcome resistance and improve clinical outcomes. However, results obtained so far are ambiguous and ideal therapies for patients who experience disease progression during treatment with EGFR-TKIs remain elusive. This review provides an updated landscape of EGFR-TKIs, along with a description of the mechanisms causing resistance to these drugs. Moreover, it discusses the current knowledge, limitations, and future perspective regarding the use of EGFR-TKIs in combination with other anticancer agents, supporting the need for bench-to-bedside approaches in selected populations.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
8.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resistance to EGFR-TKIs constitutes a major challenge for the management of EGFR-mutated NSCLC, and recent evidence suggests that deregulation of specific microRNAs (miRNAs) may influence resistance to targeted agents. In this retrospective study, we explored the role of specific plasmatic miRNAs (miR-21, miR-27a and miR-181a) as a surrogate for predicting EGFR-TKI performance in EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients. METHODS: Plasma samples of 39 advanced EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients treated with EGFR-TKIs were collected at different points in time and miRNA levels were assessed by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Higher basal values of miR-21 were reported in patients who achieved a partial/complete response (PR/CR) compared to those with stability/progression of disease (SD/PD) (p = 0.011). Along the same line, patients who experienced a clinical benefit lasting at least six months displayed higher basal levels of circulating miR-21 (p = 0.039). However, dynamic evaluation of miRNA values after two months from the start of EGFR-TKI treatment showed that patients who experienced SD had an increase in miR-21 levels (Fold Change [FC] = 2.6) compared to patients achieving PR/CR (p = 0.029). The same tendency was observed for miR-27a (FC = 3.1) and miR-181a (FC = 2.0), although without reaching statistical significance. Remarkably, preclinical studies showed an increase in miR-21 levels in NSCLC cells that became resistant after exposure to EGFR-TKIs. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides interesting insights on the role of circulating miRNAs, in particular miR-21, and their dynamic change over time in predicting EGFR-TKI response in EGFR-mutated NSCLC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , MicroRNAs/sangue , Adulto , Afatinib/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , MicroRNA Circulante/sangue , Receptores ErbB/genética , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Gefitinibe/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Front Oncol ; 11: 642190, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33981604

RESUMO

Introduction: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) transformation represents a mechanism of resistance to osimertinib in EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma, which dramatically impacts patients' prognosis due to high refractoriness to conventional treatments. Case Description: We present the case of a patient who developed a SCLC phenotypic transformation as resistance mechanism to second-line osimertinib for T790M-positive EGFR-mutated NSCLC. Our patient received platinum-etoposide doublet following SCLC switch and achieved a modest clinical benefit which lasted 4 months. NGS and IHC analyses for p53 and Rb were performed on subsequent liver biopsies, revealing baseline TP53 mutation and complete absence of p53 and Rb expression. Primary cell cultures were established following a liver biopsy at the time of SCLC transformation, and drug sensitivity assays showed meaningful cell growth inhibition when osimertinib was added to platinum-etoposide compared with control (p < 0.05). A review of the current literature regarding SCLC transformation after failure of osimertinib was performed. Conclusions: Based on retrospective data available to date, platinum-etoposide chemotherapy is the preferred treatment choice in the occurrence of SCLC transformation after osimertinib failure. The extension of osimertinib in combination with chemotherapy in the occurrence of SCLC transformation as resistance mechanism to osimertinib is a matter of debate. The combination of osimertinib and platinum-etoposide was effective in inhibiting cell growth in our primary cell cultures. Clinical studies are needed to further explore this combination in the occurrence of SCLC transformation as a resistance mechanism to osimertinib.

11.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(4): 3485-3494, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856606

RESUMO

Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease characterized by extrauterine benign leiomyomatosis in patients with a previous or concomitant history of uterine leiomyoma. Currently, there are no specific criteria to predict the metastasizing ability of the uterine leiomyoma and the risk of malignant degeneration of pulmonary BML, and these are the aims of this study. We analyzed 10 uterine (three leiomyomas, four leiomyomas that gave rise to lung BML, three healthy tissues) and 11 pulmonary tissue samples (eight lung BML, three healthy tissues). Interestingly, one of the BML lesions exceptionally evolved into a leiomyosarcoma (case 2). Uterine leiomyoma microvascular density (MVD) was higher in the patients with uterine leiomyomas that gave rise to lung BML, reaching a peak in case 2. Strong positivity for the estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors and a low proliferation index (Ki67 < 1%) were discovered both in patients with uterine leiomyoma and in patients with BML. Interestingly, in case 2, the last dedifferentiated leiomyosarcoma showed a weaker ER and PR positivity with a higher proliferation index (Ki67:30%). Regarding the uterine miRNA-126, a trend toward a hypo-expression between uterine leiomyoma and uterine leiomyoma that gave rise to lung BML was discovered, reaching the lowest level in case 2. Considering the pulmonary samples, we observed a higher miRNA-221 and a lower miRNA-126 expression in the leiomyosarcoma. We tried to better elucidate the biological behaviour of this rare disease. The analysis of the miRNA-221 and miRNA-126 could offer new diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic perspectives.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Leiomioma/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Uterinas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Leiomioma/metabolismo , Leiomioma/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo
12.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(4)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some concomitant medications including antibiotics (ATB) have been reproducibly associated with worse survival following immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in unselected patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (according to programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and treatment line). Whether such relationship is causative or associative is matter of debate. METHODS: We present the outcomes analysis according to concomitant baseline medications (prior to ICI initiation) with putative immune-modulatory effects in a large cohort of patients with metastatic NSCLC with a PD-L1 expression ≥50%, receiving first-line pembrolizumab monotherapy. We also evaluated a control cohort of patients with metastatic NSCLC treated with first-line chemotherapy. The interaction between key medications and therapeutic modality (pembrolizumab vs chemotherapy) was validated in pooled multivariable analyses. RESULTS: 950 and 595 patients were included in the pembrolizumab and chemotherapy cohorts, respectively. Corticosteroid and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy but not ATB therapy was associated with poorer performance status at baseline in both the cohorts. No association with clinical outcomes was found according to baseline statin, aspirin, ß-blocker and metformin within the pembrolizumab cohort. On the multivariable analysis, ATB emerged as a strong predictor of worse overall survival (OS) (HR=1.42 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.79); p=0.0024), and progression free survival (PFS) (HR=1.29 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.59); p=0.0192) in the pembrolizumab but not in the chemotherapy cohort. Corticosteroids were associated with shorter PFS (HR=1.69 (95% CI 1.42 to 2.03); p<0.0001), and OS (HR=1.93 (95% CI 1.59 to 2.35); p<0.0001) following pembrolizumab, and shorter PFS (HR=1.30 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.56), p=0.0046) and OS (HR=1.58 (95% CI 1.29 to 1.94), p<0.0001), following chemotherapy. PPIs were associated with worse OS (HR=1.49 (95% CI 1.26 to 1.77); p<0.0001) with pembrolizumab and shorter OS (HR=1.12 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.24), p=0.0139), with chemotherapy. At the pooled analysis, there was a statistically significant interaction with treatment (pembrolizumab vs chemotherapy) for corticosteroids (p=0.0020) and PPIs (p=0.0460) with respect to OS, for corticosteroids (p<0.0001), ATB (p=0.0290), and PPIs (p=0.0487) with respect to PFS, and only corticosteroids (p=0.0033) with respect to objective response rate. CONCLUSION: In this study, we validate the significant negative impact of ATB on pembrolizumab monotherapy but not chemotherapy outcomes in NSCLC, producing further evidence about their underlying immune-modulatory effect. Even though the magnitude of the impact of corticosteroids and PPIs is significantly different across the cohorts, their effects might be driven by adverse disease features.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimedicação , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Anticancer Drugs ; 32(7): 758-762, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675607

RESUMO

Osimertinib is a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) used both as the first-line treatment of EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer patients and in second-line after T790M-positive disease progression to first- or second-generation TKIs. Unfortunately, patients unavoidably experience disease progression to osimertinib and the current research is focused on resistance mechanisms and the relative therapeutic strategy. We report the case of a patient with advanced EGFR-mutated (exon 19 deletion and T790M-positive) non-small cell lung cancer who developed disease progression to osimertinib characterized by the loss of T790M concurrently with the emergence of G724S EGFR mutation, which was tackled by subsequent afatinib treatment. Next-generation sequencing molecular study of rebiopsy at time of progression to osimertinib revealed the persistence of EGFR exon 19 deletion, loss of T790M with a new G724S EGFR mutation; other concomitant mechanisms were excluded. Retrospective analysis of cell-free DNA revealed the emergence of G724S EGFR mutation four months before the radiologically-proven disease progression. The patient, after chemotherapy, was treated with afatinib with clinical and radiological benefit. Our case report contributes to increase the knowledge on acquired resistance mechanisms to osimertinib treatment, and it shows, for the first time, the efficacy of afatinib in the case of T790M loss and emergence of G724S EGFR mutation.


Assuntos
Afatinib/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Acrilamidas/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Anilina/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Éxons , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 22(5): 473-477, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alectinib is a potent anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) which is currently used in the first-line setting of advanced ALK+ non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite favorable results in the metastatic setting, the activity of alectinib in locally-advanced ALK+ NSCLC as a neoadjuvant treatment remains to be assessed. We report the case of a patient with stage IIIA ALK+ NSCLC (cT2aN2) who received alectinib as neoadjuvant treatment, achieving major pathological response (MPR) at pathologic examination. Hence we present the treatment rationale and study design of a phase II, open-label, single-arm, multicenter clinical trial (ALNEO study, EUDRACT number 2020-003432-25). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with potentially resectable stage III ALK+ NSCLC (any T with N2, T4N0-1) will be registered to receive oral alectinib 600 mg twice daily for 2 cycles of 4 weeks each (8 weeks totally) during the neoadjuvant phase. After definitive surgery, patients will enter in the adjuvant setting, during which they will receive alectinib 600 mg twice daily for 24 cycles (96 weeks). The primary endpoint is MPR, defined as ≤10% residual viable tumor cells histologically detected in the resected primary tumor and all resected lymph nodes after surgery. Secondary endpoints include pathological complete response, objective response, event-free survival, disease-free survival, overall survival, adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Our case report supports the feasibility of alectinib as neoadjuvant treatment. ALNEO study will further explore the activity and safety of this novel treatment strategy.


Assuntos
Carbazóis/farmacologia , Carbazóis/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Segurança do Paciente , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 159: 103241, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) has different molecular and genetic features from the commonest carcinoma of the bladder, suggesting a possible different sensitivity to immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of all relevant clinical studies including advanced UTUC patients treated with ICI was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: Six prospective trials for a total 2537 patients, including 396 (15.6 %) with advanced UTUC, were eligible for the analysis. In UTUC patients, the pooled ORR was 21.2 % (95 % CI, 12.5 %-33.7 %); the risk of death was reduced by 24 % over the standard platinum-based chemotherapy, but this was not statistically significant (hazard ratio = 0.76; 95 % confidence interval, 0.41-1.40; p = 0.37, χ2 = 3.28, p = 0.07; I2 = 70 %). CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence does not support a statistically significant effect from ICI over the standard treatment for advanced UTUC patients. Properly performed pre-planned subgroup analyses from randomized clinical trials are eagerly awaited.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(6): 880-889, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved outcome in tobacco smoking patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) following immunotherapy has previously been reported. However, little is known regarding this association during first-line immunotherapy in patients with high PD-L1 expression. In this study we compared clinical outcomes according to the smoking status of two large multicenter cohorts. METHODS: We compared clinical outcomes according to the smoking status (never smokers vs. current/former smokers) of two retrospective multicenter cohorts of metastatic NSCLC patients, treated with first-line pembrolizumab and platinum-based chemotherapy. RESULTS: A total of 962 NSCLC patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50% who received first-line pembrolizumab and 462 NSCLC patients who received first-line platinum-based chemotherapy were included in the study. Never smokers were confirmed to have a significantly higher risk of disease progression (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.49 [95% CI: 1.15-1.92], p = 0.0022) and death (HR = 1.38 [95% CI: 1.02-1.87], p = 0.0348) within the pembrolizumab cohort. On the contrary, a nonsignificant trend towards a reduced risk of disease progression (HR = 0.74 [95% CI: 0.52-1.05], p = 0.1003) and death (HR = 0.67 [95% CI: 0.45-1.01], p = 0.0593) were reported for never smokers within the chemotherapy cohort. After a random case-control matching, 424 patients from both cohorts were paired. Within the matched pembrolizumab cohort, never smokers had a significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (HR = 1.68 [95% CI: 1.17-2.40], p = 0.0045) and a nonsignificant trend towards a shortened overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.32 [95% CI: 0.84-2.07], p = 0.2205). On the contrary, never smokers had a significantly longer PFS (HR = 0.68 [95% CI: 0.49-0.95], p = 0.0255) and OS (HR = 0.66 [95% CI: 0.45-0.97], p = 0,0356) compared to current/former smoker patients within the matched chemotherapy cohort. On pooled multivariable analysis, the interaction term between smoking status and treatment modality was concordantly statistically significant with respect to ORR (p = 0.0074), PFS (p = 0.0001) and OS (p = 0.0020), confirming the significantly different impact of smoking status across the two cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Among metastatic NSCLC patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50% receiving first-line pembrolizumab, current/former smokers experienced improved PFS and OS. On the contrary, worse outcomes were reported among current/former smokers receiving first-line chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Fumar/tendências , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Análise de Sobrevida
17.
Future Oncol ; 17(9): 1097-1104, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538178

RESUMO

We presented the rationale for the use of thymosin α1 as prophylaxis of severe COVID-19 in cancer patients undergoing active treatment, constituting the background for the PROTHYMOS study, a prospective, multicenter, open-label, Phase II randomized study, currently in its start-up phase (Eudract no. 2020-006020-13). We aim to offer new hope for this incurable disease, especially to frail patient population, such as patients with cancer. The hypothesis of an effective prophylactic approach to COVID-19 would have immediate clinical relevance, especially given the lack of curative approaches. Moreover, in the 'COVID-19 vaccine race era' both clinical and biological results coming from the PROTHYMOS trials could even support the rationale for future combinatorial approaches, trying to rise vaccine efficacy in frail individuals.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/complicações , Timalfasina/uso terapêutico , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Lung Cancer ; 150: 123-131, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the most of cases, for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who progressed to previous immune checkpoint inhibitors (CKI) administered as first- or as second-line therapy, chemotherapy (CT) remains the only viable options in the absence of "druggable" mutations. We aimed to explore the efficacy of salvage chemotherapy after immunotherapy (SCAI) in advanced NSCLC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed a retrospective, multicenter study, involving 20 Italian centers, with the primary objective of describing the clinical outcome of advanced NSCLC patients treated with SCAI at the participating institutions from November 2013 to July 2019. The primary endpoint of the study was represented by overall survival (OS), defined as the time from CT initiation to death. Secondary outcome endpoints of the SCAI (progression free survival, PFS, objective response rate, ORR and toxicity) and explorative biomarkers (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, NLR during immunotherapy) were also analyzed. RESULTS: In our study population of 342 NSCLC patients, SCAI obtained a median OS of 6.8 months (95 % confidence interval, CI 5.5-8.1), median PFS of 4.1 months (95 % CI 3.4-4.8) and ORR of 22.8 %. A "Post-CKI score" was constructed by combining significant predictors of OS at the multivariate analyses (sex, ECOG PS, disease control with prior immunotherapy), Harrell'C was 0.65, (95 % CI:0.59-0.71). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the late-line settings, our findings support the hypothesis that previous immunotherapy might increase the sensitivity of the tumor to the subsequent chemotherapy. The "Post-CKI score" was clinically effective in successfully discriminating three distinct prognostic subgroups of patients after the failure of CKI, representing a possibly useful tool for the tailored decision-making process of advanced treatment-line settings in NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Immunotherapy ; 12(15): 1139-1148, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933369

RESUMO

Aim: Evaluating the incidence and course of COVID-19 in cancer patients treated with immunotherapy. Patients & methods: We reported the influenza-like illness events with diagnosis of COVID-19 within the patient cohort enrolled in the prospective observational multicenter INVIDIa-2 study in the single center of Parma. Results: Among 53 patients, eight experienced influenza-like illness during the influenza season 2019/2020, and three of them had diagnosis of COVID-19. They were males, elderly, with cardiovascular disease. Radiological features of COVID-19 pneumonitis were found in all of three cases, although the pharyngeal swab resulted positive in only two. Two of these three patients died due to respiratory failure. Conclusion: Cancer patients are at high risk of severe events from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Faringe/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 4807-4818, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878769

RESUMO

The microbiome is extremely important for human health; more recently its role in the context of cancer became clear. Microbial effects range from enhancing cancer immunity and cancer therapy efficacy, to promoting cancer progression and inhibiting treatment efficacy. These broad implications led researchers to investigate these specific interactions, as well as how modification of the microbiome can improve cancer survival and treatment efficacy. While these interactions are better established for cancers such as gastric cancer, they are far less understood in others. As non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) makes up the majority of lung cancer cases, and is among the top causes of cancer deaths worldwide, understanding the mechanisms by which the microbiome may impact progression and treatment is crucial to improve patient survival and treatment response. A literature review was conducted to reveal the crosslink between human microbiome and lung cancer. This includes immune priming, induction of pro- or anti-tumor response, and the local effects of intra-tumoral microbiota. Overall, this is a complex multifactorial relationship, and there are broad implications as to how this knowledge can improve cancer treatment. Solutions include manipulation of the microbiome using probiotics, bacterial vaccines and antibiotics. Bacteria biomarkers may also be used as a diagnostic tool.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/microbiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/microbiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
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