Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 133
Filtrar
2.
Curr Oncol ; 28(1): 390-395, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445506

RESUMO

Metastatic lesions of the heart are rare but have the potential to cause significant morbidity. We describe the case of a patient with renal cell carcinoma who presented with shortness of breath and palpitations and was found to have a metastatic myocardial lesion causing arrythmia. He received stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to alleviate symptoms and provide local control. SBRT planning was executed using a four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scan to account for respiratory and cardiac motion. Images from a planning magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan and a gated diagnostic MRI scan of the heart were fused with the 4DCT to assist with delineating the tumour. A dose of 30 Gy in five fractions was delivered without incident. The patient's cardiac MRI at two months post-treatment showed stability of his cardiac lesion. He subsequently died of distant disease progression, without any recurrence of his cardiac symptoms. SBRT may be considered for patients who present with a symptomatic metastatic cardiac lesion.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470403

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine whether gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists (an emerging class of drugs to suppress testosterone synthesis in the treatment of prostate cancer) cause less adverse cardiovascular events than the more commonly use GnRH agonists. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a systematic review to identify all randomised, controlled trials in which a GnRH antagonist was compared with a GnRH agonist in men with prostate cancer. We identified ten eligible studies including two different GnRH antagonists, degarelix (n = 1681) and relugolix (n = 734), which were compared with the GnRH agonists, leuprolide (n = 714) and goserelin (n = 600). The pooled risk ratios (95% confidence intervals) among GnRH antagonist recipients for adverse cardiovascular events, cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality were 0.57 (0.39-0.81); 0.49 (0.25-0.96); and 0.48 (0.28-0.83) respectively. Important limitations of the included trials were their short duration of follow-up, unblinded study design and (in most of the studies) the identification of adverse cardiovascular events through safety reporting mechanisms rather than as a pre-specified outcome. There was no evidence of heterogeneity of findings among the studies. CONCLUSIONS: There is consistent but methodologically limited data to suggest that GnRH antagonists - a relatively new class of androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer - cause significantly less cardiovascular adverse effects than the more frequently used GnRH agonists.

4.
Heart ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419879

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: (1) Describe how the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in individuals with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) has evolved; (2) evaluate the risk of MACE associated with the prescription of different CML tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). METHODS: A population-based retrospective study including all patients (n=4238) diagnosed with CML in Ontario, Canada between 1986 and 2017 and and age-matched and sex-matched individuals who received healthcare but who did not have CML (controls: n=42 380). The cohort was divided into those entering before 2001 vs from 2001 onwards (when TKIs were introduced). We developed competing risks models to compare time-to-event in CML cases versus controls. We adjusted for baseline comorbidities and present subdistribution HRs and 95% CIs. The relationship between TKI use and MACE was assessed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Before 2001 and from 2001 on, patients with CML had a higher crude incidence of MACE than patients without CML (19.8 vs 15.3 and 20.3 vs 12.6 per 1000 person-years, respectively). After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, patients with CML had a lower subdistribution hazard for MACE (0.59, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.76) before 2001; but from 2001, the adjusted subdistribution HR for MACE (1.27, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.43) was similar to age-matched and sex-matched patients. The incidence (9.3 vs 13.8 per 1000 person-years) and subdistribution hazard for cardiovascular death (0.43, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.52) were lower in patients with CML than controls before 2001. From 2001 on, the incidence (6.3 vs 5.4 per 1000 person-years) and subdistribution hazard for cardiovascular death (0.99, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.18) were similar to age-matched and sex-matched patients without CML with a higher risk of cerebrovascular events (8.6 vs 5.6 per 1000 person-years; 1.35, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.83) and peripheral arterial events (6.9 vs 3.0 per 1000 person-years; 1.66 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.39) in patients with CML than patients without CML. Compared with imatinib, there was no difference in the risk of MACE among those prescribed dasatinib (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.10) or nilotinib (OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.97). CONCLUSIONS: In a contemporary CML population, the risk of MACE and cardiovascular death is at least as high as among age-matched and sex-matched patients without CML and may be higher for cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial events. No difference in the risk of MACE between imatinib, dasatinib and nilotinib was observed.

5.
CJC Open ; 2(6): 722-725, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305238

RESUMO

Takotsubo syndrome is a well described clinical phenomenon that often mimics acute coronary syndrome. We present an atypical case of Takotsubo syndrome, characterized by delayed troponin elevation and electrocardiogram changes suggestive of acute coronary syndrome, but a normal coronary angiogram. We describe the integration of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to identify syndrome overlap, and discuss the utilization of diagnostic modalities beyond coronary angiogram if clinical equipoise exists, including B-type natriuretic peptide/troponin ratio, intravascular coronary imaging, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

6.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212008

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Across all cancer sites and stages, prostate cancer has one of the greatest median five-year survival rates, highlighting the important focus on survivorship issues following diagnosis and treatment. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of depression in a large, multicenter, contemporary, prospectively collected sample of men with prostate cancer. METHODS: Data from the current study were drawn from the baseline visit of men enrolled in the RADICAL PC study. Men with a new diagnosis of prostate cancer or patients initiating androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer for the first time were recruited. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the nine-item version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). To evaluate factors associated with depression, a multivariable logistic regression model was constructed, including biological, psychological, and social predictor variables. RESULTS: Data from 2445 patients were analyzed. Of these, 201 (8.2%) endorsed clinically significant depression. Younger age (odds ratio [OR] 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-1.60 per 10-year decrease), being a current smoker (OR 2.77; 95% CI 1.66-4.58), former alcohol use (OR 2.63; 95% CI 1.33-5.20), poorer performance status (OR 5.01; 95% CI 3.49-7.20), having a pre-existing clinical diagnosis of depression or anxiety (OR 3.64; 95% CI 2.42-5.48), and having high-risk prostate cancer (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.05-2.12) all conferred independent risk for depression. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically significant depression is common in men with prostate cancer. Depression risk is associated with a host of biopsychosocial variables. Clinicians should be vigilant to screen for depression in those patients with poor social determinants of health, concomitant disability, and advanced disease.

7.
J Sport Health Sci ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both hypertension and grip strength (GS) are predictors of mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but whether these risk factors interact to affect CVD and all-cause mortality is unknown. This study sought to investigate the associations of GS with the risk of major CVD incidence, CVD mortality, and all-cause mortality in patients with hypertension. METHODS: GS was measured using a Jamar dynamometer (Sammons Preston, Bolingbrook, IL, USA) in participants aged 35-70 years from 12 provinces included in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology China study. Cox frailty proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations of GS and hypertension and the outcomes of all-cause mortality and CVD incidence/mortality. RESULTS: Among 39,862 participants included in this study, 15,964 reported having hypertension, and 9095 had high GS at baseline. After a median follow-up of 8.9 years (interquartile range, 6.7-9.9 years), 1822 participants developed major CVD, and 1250 deaths occurred (388 as a result of CVD). Compared with normotensive participants with high GS, hypertensive patients with high GS had a higher risk of major CVD incidence (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.39; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.86-3.06; p < 0.001) or CVD mortality (HR = 3.11; 95%CI: 1.59-6.06; p < 0.001) but did not have a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 1.24; 95%CI: 0.92-1.68; p = 0.159). These risks were further increased if hypertensive participants whose GS level was low (major CVD incidence, HR = 3.31, 95%CI: 2.60-4.22, p < 0.001; CVD mortality, HR = 4.99, 95%CI: 2.64-9.43, p < 0.001; and all-cause mortality, HR = 1.93, 95%CI: 1.47-2.53, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that low GS is associated with the highest risk of major CVD incidence, CVD mortality, and all-cause mortality among hypertensive patients. High levels of GS appear to mitigate long-term mortality risk among hypertensive patients.

8.
Am Heart J ; 227: 56-63, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679282

RESUMO

The goal of the global congestive heart failure (G-CHF) registry is to collect comparative international data on heart failure characteristics, management, and outcomes and to better understand the determinants that impact the clinical course of heart failure. METHODS: G-CHF is a multicenter, prospective cohort study of adult patients with a new or prior clinical diagnosis of heart failure. We have enrolled 23,047 participants from 257 centers in 40 countries from 8 major geographic regions of the world, with recruitment ongoing. Approximately 4,000 participants will also participate in substudies to assess frailty, comorbidity, diet, barriers to care, biomarkers, and planned detailed echocardiographic analyses. Follow-up is planned for a period of 5 years. The primary outcome is cause-specific mortality. Key secondary outcomes include hospitalizations, quality of life, and major cardiovascular and noncardiovascular outcomes. A total of 31.9% of participants were enrolled as inpatients. Thus far, mean age of the cohort at baseline is 63.1 years, and 60.8% are male. Participants most commonly have heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (53.6%) followed by preserved ejection fraction (24.2%) and midrange ejection fraction (20.6%). The most common causes of heart failure are ischemic (37.8%) followed by hypertensive (20.0%), idiopathic (15.1%), and valvular disease (8.8%). CONCLUSION: G-CHF will provide a greater understanding of the characteristics of the global heart failure population, variations in its management, clinical outcomes, and what continues to impact morbidity and mortality in this high-risk population.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(3): e014686, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986990

RESUMO

Background Frailty is associated with higher mortality in individuals at high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We hypothesize that frailty is a more important prognostic factor than CVD risk factors and aim to determine the prognostic value of a cumulative deficit frailty index in patients with or at high risk for CVD. Methods and Results We conducted an individual-level pooled analysis of participants with or at risk for CVD, recruited in 14 multicenter clinical trials. The cumulative deficit index was calculated as the proportion of 26 deficits exhibited. Individuals were categorized as nonfrail, prefrail, or frail if they had indexes of ≤0.1, >0.1 to 0.21, or >0.21, respectively. CVD risk was assessed using the Framingham score. Outcomes included CVD event (new or recurrent myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure) and mortality. We studied 154 696 patients (mean age, 70.8 years; 63% men) with median follow-up of 3.2 years. There were 17 535 CVD events and 15 067 deaths. The frail group (n=13 872) had higher risk of a CVD event (incidence rate ratio, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.85-2.08), all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.79-2.03), and CVD mortality (hazard ratio, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.77-2.05) than the nonfrail group (n=101 343). Associations remained unchanged after adjusting for CVD risk factors. The index statistically outperformed the Framingham score in its ability to discriminate CVD events (C-statistic, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.60-0.61] versus 0.58 [95% CI, 0.57-0.58], respectively; P<0.001). Conclusions In individuals with or at high risk of developing CVD, the cumulative deficit index is associated with increased CVD events and mortality, independent of CVD risk factors, and adds incremental prognostic value.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Feminino , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977016

RESUMO

AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) and frailty are common, and the prevalence is expected to rise further. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of frailty and the ability of a frailty index (FI) to predict unplanned hospitalizations, stroke, bleeding and death in patients with AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with known AF were enrolled in a prospective cohort study in Switzerland. Information on medical history, lifestyle-factors and clinical measurements were obtained. The primary outcome was unplanned hospitalization; secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, bleeding and stroke. The FI was measured using a cumulative deficit approach, constructed according to previously published criteria and divided into three groups (non-frail, pre-frail, frail). The association between frailty and outcomes was assessed using multivariable adjusted Cox regression models. Of the 2369 included patients, prevalence of pre-frailty and frailty was 60.7% and 10.6%, respectively. Pre-frailty and frailty were associated with a higher risk of unplanned hospitalizations (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-2.22, p < 0.001; and aHR 3.59; 95%CI 2.78-4.63, p < 0.001), all-cause mortality (aHR 5.07; 95%CI 2.43-10.59, p < 0.001; and aHR 16.72; 95%CI 7.75-36.05, p < 0.001), and bleeding (aHR 1.53; 95%CI 1.11-2.13, p = 0.01; and aHR 2.46; 95%CI 1.61-3.77, p < 0.001). Frailty, but not pre-frailty was associated with a higher risk of stroke (aHR 3.29; 95%CI 1.29-8.39, p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Over two thirds of patients with AF are pre-frail or frail. These patients have a high risk for unplanned hospitalizations and other adverse events. These findings emphasize the need to carefully evaluate these patients. However, whether screening for pre-frailty and frailty and targeted prevention strategies improve outcomes needs to be shown in future studies.

11.
J Urol ; 203(6): 1109-1116, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899651

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We describe the cardiovascular risk profile in a representative cohort of patients with prostate cancer treated with or without androgen deprivation therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively characterized in detail 2,492 consecutive men (mean age 68 years) with prostate cancer (newly diagnosed or with a plan to prescribe androgen deprivation therapy for the first time) from 16 Canadian sites. Cardiovascular risk was estimated by calculating Framingham risk scores. RESULTS: Most men (92%) had new prostate cancer (intermediate risk 41%, high risk 50%). The highest level of education achieved was primary school in 12%. Most (58%) were current or former smokers, 22% had known cardiovascular disease, 16% diabetes, 45% hypertension, 31% body mass index 30 kg/m2 or greater, 24% low levels of physical activity, mean handgrip strength was 37.3 kg and 69% had a Framingham risk score consistent with high cardiovascular risk. Participants in whom androgen deprivation therapy was planned had higher Framingham risk scores than those not intending to receive androgen deprivation therapy, and this risk was abolished after adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Two-thirds of men with prostate cancer are at high cardiovascular risk. There is a positive association between a plan to use androgen deprivation therapy and baseline cardiovascular risk factors. However, this association is explained by confounding factors.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
12.
Lancet ; 395(10226): 785-794, 2020 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, no previous study has prospectively documented the incidence of common diseases and related mortality in high-income countries (HICs), middle-income countries (MICs), and low-income countries (LICs) with standardised approaches. Such information is key to developing global and context-specific health strategies. In our analysis of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, we aimed to evaluate differences in the incidence of common diseases, related hospital admissions, and related mortality in a large contemporary cohort of adults from 21 HICs, MICs, and LICs across five continents by use of standardised approaches. METHODS: The PURE study is a prospective, population-based cohort study of individuals aged 35-70 years who have been enrolled from 21 countries across five continents. The key outcomes were the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases, cancers, injuries, respiratory diseases, and hospital admissions, and we calculated the age-standardised and sex-standardised incidence of these events per 1000 person-years. FINDINGS: This analysis assesses the incidence of events in 162 534 participants who were enrolled in the first two phases of the PURE core study, between Jan 6, 2005, and Dec 4, 2016, and who were assessed for a median of 9·5 years (IQR 8·5-10·9). During follow-up, 11 307 (7·0%) participants died, 9329 (5·7%) participants had cardiovascular disease, 5151 (3·2%) participants had a cancer, 4386 (2·7%) participants had injuries requiring hospital admission, 2911 (1·8%) participants had pneumonia, and 1830 (1·1%) participants had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cardiovascular disease occurred more often in LICs (7·1 cases per 1000 person-years) and in MICs (6·8 cases per 1000 person-years) than in HICs (4·3 cases per 1000 person-years). However, incident cancers, injuries, COPD, and pneumonia were most common in HICs and least common in LICs. Overall mortality rates in LICs (13·3 deaths per 1000 person-years) were double those in MICs (6·9 deaths per 1000 person-years) and four times higher than in HICs (3·4 deaths per 1000 person-years). This pattern of the highest mortality in LICs and the lowest in HICs was observed for all causes of death except cancer, where mortality was similar across country income levels. Cardiovascular disease was the most common cause of deaths overall (40%) but accounted for only 23% of deaths in HICs (vs 41% in MICs and 43% in LICs), despite more cardiovascular disease risk factors (as judged by INTERHEART risk scores) in HICs and the fewest such risk factors in LICs. The ratio of deaths from cardiovascular disease to those from cancer was 0·4 in HICs, 1·3 in MICs, and 3·0 in LICs, and four upper-MICs (Argentina, Chile, Turkey, and Poland) showed ratios similar to the HICs. Rates of first hospital admission and cardiovascular disease medication use were lowest in LICs and highest in HICs. INTERPRETATION: Among adults aged 35-70 years, cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality globally. However, in HICs and some upper-MICs, deaths from cancer are now more common than those from cardiovascular disease, indicating a transition in the predominant causes of deaths in middle-age. As cardiovascular disease decreases in many countries, mortality from cancer will probably become the leading cause of death. The high mortality in poorer countries is not related to risk factors, but it might be related to poorer access to health care. FUNDING: Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Adulto , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Lancet ; 395(10226): 795-808, 2020 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global estimates of the effect of common modifiable risk factors on cardiovascular disease and mortality are largely based on data from separate studies, using different methodologies. The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study overcomes these limitations by using similar methods to prospectively measure the effect of modifiable risk factors on cardiovascular disease and mortality across 21 countries (spanning five continents) grouped by different economic levels. METHODS: In this multinational, prospective cohort study, we examined associations for 14 potentially modifiable risk factors with mortality and cardiovascular disease in 155 722 participants without a prior history of cardiovascular disease from 21 high-income, middle-income, or low-income countries (HICs, MICs, or LICs). The primary outcomes for this paper were composites of cardiovascular disease events (defined as cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure) and mortality. We describe the prevalence, hazard ratios (HRs), and population-attributable fractions (PAFs) for cardiovascular disease and mortality associated with a cluster of behavioural factors (ie, tobacco use, alcohol, diet, physical activity, and sodium intake), metabolic factors (ie, lipids, blood pressure, diabetes, obesity), socioeconomic and psychosocial factors (ie, education, symptoms of depression), grip strength, and household and ambient pollution. Associations between risk factors and the outcomes were established using multivariable Cox frailty models and using PAFs for the entire cohort, and also by countries grouped by income level. Associations are presented as HRs and PAFs with 95% CIs. FINDINGS: Between Jan 6, 2005, and Dec 4, 2016, 155 722 participants were enrolled and followed up for measurement of risk factors. 17 249 (11·1%) participants were from HICs, 102 680 (65·9%) were from MICs, and 35 793 (23·0%) from LICs. Approximately 70% of cardiovascular disease cases and deaths in the overall study population were attributed to modifiable risk factors. Metabolic factors were the predominant risk factors for cardiovascular disease (41·2% of the PAF), with hypertension being the largest (22·3% of the PAF). As a cluster, behavioural risk factors contributed most to deaths (26·3% of the PAF), although the single largest risk factor was a low education level (12·5% of the PAF). Ambient air pollution was associated with 13·9% of the PAF for cardiovascular disease, although different statistical methods were used for this analysis. In MICs and LICs, household air pollution, poor diet, low education, and low grip strength had stronger effects on cardiovascular disease or mortality than in HICs. INTERPRETATION: Most cardiovascular disease cases and deaths can be attributed to a small number of common, modifiable risk factors. While some factors have extensive global effects (eg, hypertension and education), others (eg, household air pollution and poor diet) vary by a country's economic level. Health policies should focus on risk factors that have the greatest effects on averting cardiovascular disease and death globally, with additional emphasis on risk factors of greatest importance in specific groups of countries. FUNDING: Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Política de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(12): 1519-1528, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with coronary or peripheral artery disease, the combination of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily and aspirin 100 mg once daily compared with aspirin 100 mg once daily reduced major adverse cardiovascular events and mortality and increased bleeding. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to explore the effects of the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin on sites, timing, severity, and management of bleeding in the COMPASS (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) study. METHODS: This study reports, by treatment group, the number and proportion of patients; hazard rate ratios for bleeding according to site and severity; the timing of bleeding using landmark analyses; and the number and proportion of patients who received blood products and other hemostatic treatments. RESULTS: Of 27,395 patients enrolled (mean age 68 years, 22% women), 18,278 were randomized to the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin or to aspirin alone and followed for a mean of 23 months. Compared with aspirin alone, the combination increased modified International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis major bleeding (288 of 9,152 [3.1%] vs. 170 of 9,126 [1.9%]), (HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.40 to 2.05; p < 0.001), International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis major bleeding (206 of 9,152 [2.3%] vs. 116 of 9,126 [1.3%]), (HR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.41 to 2.23; p < 0.0001), and minor bleeding (838 of 9,152 [9.2%] vs. 503 of 9,126 [5.5%]), (HR: 1.70; 95% CI 1.52 to 1.90; p < 0.0001); the combination also increased the need for any red cell transfusion (87 of 9,152 [1.0%] vs. 44 of 9,126 [0.5%]), (HR: 1.97; 95% CI 1.37 to 2.83, p = 0.0002). The gastrointestinal (GI) tract was the most common site of increased major bleeding (140 of 9,152 [1.5%] vs. 65 of 9,126 [0.7%]), (HR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.60 to 2.89; p < 0.001), and the increase in bleeding was predominantly in the first year after randomization. Approximately one-third of major GI bleeding was gastric or duodenal, one-third was colonic or rectal, and one-third was from an unknown GI site. The study investigators reported that approximately three-quarters of major bleeding episodes were of mild or moderate intensity. A similar proportion of patients in each treatment group who experienced major bleeding received platelets, clotting factors, or other hemostatic agents. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin alone increased major bleeding, mainly from the GI tract. Most excess bleeding occurred during the first year after randomization, was of mild or moderate intensity, and was managed with conventional supportive therapy. (Rivaroxaban for the Prevention of Major Cardiovascular Events in Coronary or Peripheral Artery Disease [COMPASS]; NCT01776424).


Assuntos
Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Doença Arterial Periférica/complicações , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Combinação de Medicamentos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(16): e010870, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394972

RESUMO

Background The predictive value of adiposity indices and the newly developed index for cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remains unclear in the Chinese population. This study aimed to compare the predictive value of A Body Shape Index with other 5 conventional obesity-related anthropometric indices (body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio) in Chinese population. Methods and Results A total of 44 048 participants in the study were derived from the baseline data of the PURE-China (Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology) study in China. All participants' anthropometric parameters, CVDs, and risk factors (dyslipidemia, abnormal blood pressure, and hyperglycemia) were collected by standard procedures. Multivariable logistic regression models and receiver operator characteristic curve analysis were used to evaluate the predictive values of obesity-related anthropometric indices to the cardiometabolic risk factors and CVDs. A positive association was observed between each anthropometric index and cardiometabolic risk factors and CVDs in all models (P<0.001). Compared with other anthropometric indices (body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and A Body Shape Index), waist-to-height ratio had significantly higher areas under the curve (AUCs) for predicting dyslipidemia (AUCs: 0.646, sensitivity: 65%, specificity: 44%), hyperglycemia (AUCs: 0.595, sensitivity: 60%, specificity: 45%), and CVDs (AUCs: 0.619, sensitivity: 59%, specificity: 41%). Waist circumference showed the best prediction for abnormal blood pressure (AUCs: 0.671, sensitivity: 66%, specificity: 40%) compared with other anthropometric indices. However, the new body shape index did not show a better prediction to either cardiometabolic risk factors or CVDs than that of any other traditional obesity-related indices. Conclusions Waist-to-height ratio appeared to be the best indicator for dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and CVDs, while waist circumference had a better prediction for abnormal blood pressure.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Adulto , Antropometria , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatias/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Quadril , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocardite/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura , Razão Cintura-Estatura
16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(5): 672-682, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370960

RESUMO

As new treatments continue to improve clinical outcomes in coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure, it is necessary to characterize the appropriate use of ß-adrenergic receptor blockers (ß-blockers) in the contemporary management of these conditions. This review examines the current evidence supporting ß-blocker use in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), heart failure with midrange ejection fraction (HFmEF), and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), following acute coronary syndrome and in stable CAD. ß-Blockers remain essential in the treatment of HFrEF, but limited evidence supports their use in HFmEF or HFpEF. They should still be considered routinely following acute coronary syndrome, but there is a need for contemporary trials that re-examine this in patients without left ventricular dysfunction, as well as in patients with stable CAD. From a global perspective, more studies are needed to characterize the extent of ß-blocker use in CAD and heart failure, and how evidence-based use can be improved in these conditions.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(5): 683-698, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370961

RESUMO

The pharmacological inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system as a therapeutic strategy is one of the most significant advances in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and in coronary artery disease. Recently, the addition of neprilysin inhibition to angiotensin receptor blockade has been shown to be even more effective than angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition alone in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, marking an important new milestone in heart failure treatment. This review summarizes the major trials that have informed the clinical role of inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and neprilysin pathways, as well as the limitations of these strategies.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos
18.
Gastroenterology ; 157(2): 403-412, Aug., 2019. tabela, grafico
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1022748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are associated with increased upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated whether proton pump inhibitor therapy could reduce this risk. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo, as well as rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin 100 mg once daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or aspirin 100 mg alone. The primary outcome was time to first upper gastrointestinal event, defined as a composite of overt bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastroduodenal lesion or of unknown origin, occult bleeding, symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcer or ≥5 erosions, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, or perforation. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in upper gastrointestinal events between the pantoprazole group (102 of 8791 events) and the placebo group (116 of 8807 events) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.15). Pantoprazole significantly reduced bleeding of gastroduodenal lesions (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.94; P = .03); this reduction was greater when we used a post-hoc definition of bleeding gastroduodenal lesion (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.74), although the number needed to treat still was high (n = 982; 95% confidence interval, 609-2528).CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that routine use of proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving low-dose anticoagulation and/or aspirin for stable cardiovascular disease does not reduce upper gastrointestinal events, but may reduce bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions. ClinicalTrials. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem
19.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 682-691, ago., 30 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1015771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial. METHODS: We performed a 3 x 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. (AU)


Assuntos
Bactérias , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Aspirina
20.
Oncologist ; 24(11): 1405-1409, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315962

RESUMO

Trastuzumab is an effective treatment for HER2-positive breast cancer. Current guidelines recommend withholding trastuzumab in patients experiencing a significant asymptomatic decline in left ventricular function. In this commentary, we discuss the survival benefits afforded by trastuzumab juxtaposed against the risk of trastuzumab-mediated cardiotoxicity. It is not known whether the net benefit of continuing trastuzumab in the setting of mild cardiotoxicity outweighs the associated risks. We describe a potential approach undertaken by our group, and others, and call for a randomized trial.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Cardiotoxicidade/prevenção & controle , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Prognóstico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA