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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(12): 1519-1528, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with coronary or peripheral artery disease, the combination of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily and aspirin 100 mg once daily compared with aspirin 100 mg once daily reduced major adverse cardiovascular events and mortality and increased bleeding. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to explore the effects of the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin on sites, timing, severity, and management of bleeding in the COMPASS (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) study. METHODS: This study reports, by treatment group, the number and proportion of patients; hazard rate ratios for bleeding according to site and severity; the timing of bleeding using landmark analyses; and the number and proportion of patients who received blood products and other hemostatic treatments. RESULTS: Of 27,395 patients enrolled (mean age 68 years, 22% women), 18,278 were randomized to the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin or to aspirin alone and followed for a mean of 23 months. Compared with aspirin alone, the combination increased modified International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis major bleeding (288 of 9,152 [3.1%] vs. 170 of 9,126 [1.9%]), (HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.40 to 2.05; p < 0.001), International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis major bleeding (206 of 9,152 [2.3%] vs. 116 of 9,126 [1.3%]), (HR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.41 to 2.23; p < 0.0001), and minor bleeding (838 of 9,152 [9.2%] vs. 503 of 9,126 [5.5%]), (HR: 1.70; 95% CI 1.52 to 1.90; p < 0.0001); the combination also increased the need for any red cell transfusion (87 of 9,152 [1.0%] vs. 44 of 9,126 [0.5%]), (HR: 1.97; 95% CI 1.37 to 2.83, p = 0.0002). The gastrointestinal (GI) tract was the most common site of increased major bleeding (140 of 9,152 [1.5%] vs. 65 of 9,126 [0.7%]), (HR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.60 to 2.89; p < 0.001), and the increase in bleeding was predominantly in the first year after randomization. Approximately one-third of major GI bleeding was gastric or duodenal, one-third was colonic or rectal, and one-third was from an unknown GI site. The study investigators reported that approximately three-quarters of major bleeding episodes were of mild or moderate intensity. A similar proportion of patients in each treatment group who experienced major bleeding received platelets, clotting factors, or other hemostatic agents. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin alone increased major bleeding, mainly from the GI tract. Most excess bleeding occurred during the first year after randomization, was of mild or moderate intensity, and was managed with conventional supportive therapy. (Rivaroxaban for the Prevention of Major Cardiovascular Events in Coronary or Peripheral Artery Disease [COMPASS]; NCT01776424).

2.
Lancet ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global estimates of the effect of common modifiable risk factors on cardiovascular disease and mortality are largely based on data from separate studies, using different methodologies. The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study overcomes these limitations by using similar methods to prospectively measure the effect of modifiable risk factors on cardiovascular disease and mortality across 21 countries (spanning five continents) grouped by different economic levels. METHODS: In this multinational, prospective cohort study, we examined associations for 14 potentially modifiable risk factors with mortality and cardiovascular disease in 155 722 participants without a prior history of cardiovascular disease from 21 high-income, middle-income, or low-income countries (HICs, MICs, or LICs). The primary outcomes for this paper were composites of cardiovascular disease events (defined as cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure) and mortality. We describe the prevalence, hazard ratios (HRs), and population-attributable fractions (PAFs) for cardiovascular disease and mortality associated with a cluster of behavioural factors (ie, tobacco use, alcohol, diet, physical activity, and sodium intake), metabolic factors (ie, lipids, blood pressure, diabetes, obesity), socioeconomic and psychosocial factors (ie, education, symptoms of depression), grip strength, and household and ambient pollution. Associations between risk factors and the outcomes were established using multivariable Cox frailty models and using PAFs for the entire cohort, and also by countries grouped by income level. Associations are presented as HRs and PAFs with 95% CIs. FINDINGS: Between Jan 6, 2005, and Dec 4, 2016, 155 722 participants were enrolled and followed up for measurement of risk factors. 17 249 (11·1%) participants were from HICs, 102 680 (65·9%) were from MICs, and 35 793 (23·0%) from LICs. Approximately 70% of cardiovascular disease cases and deaths in the overall study population were attributed to modifiable risk factors. Metabolic factors were the predominant risk factors for cardiovascular disease (41·2% of the PAF), with hypertension being the largest (22·3% of the PAF). As a cluster, behavioural risk factors contributed most to deaths (26·3% of the PAF), although the single largest risk factor was a low education level (12·5% of the PAF). Ambient air pollution was associated with 13·9% of the PAF for cardiovascular disease, although different statistical methods were used for this analysis. In MICs and LICs, household air pollution, poor diet, low education, and low grip strength had stronger effects on cardiovascular disease or mortality than in HICs. INTERPRETATION: Most cardiovascular disease cases and deaths can be attributed to a small number of common, modifiable risk factors. While some factors have extensive global effects (eg, hypertension and education), others (eg, household air pollution and poor diet) vary by a country's economic level. Health policies should focus on risk factors that have the greatest effects on averting cardiovascular disease and death globally, with additional emphasis on risk factors of greatest importance in specific groups of countries. FUNDING: Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).

3.
Lancet ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, no previous study has prospectively documented the incidence of common diseases and related mortality in high-income countries (HICs), middle-income countries (MICs), and low-income countries (LICs) with standardised approaches. Such information is key to developing global and context-specific health strategies. In our analysis of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, we aimed to evaluate differences in the incidence of common diseases, related hospital admissions, and related mortality in a large contemporary cohort of adults from 21 HICs, MICs, and LICs across five continents by use of standardised approaches. METHODS: The PURE study is a prospective, population-based cohort study of individuals aged 35-70 years who have been enrolled from 21 countries across five continents. The key outcomes were the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases, cancers, injuries, respiratory diseases, and hospital admissions, and we calculated the age-standardised and sex-standardised incidence of these events per 1000 person-years. FINDINGS: This analysis assesses the incidence of events in 162 534 participants who were enrolled in the first two phases of the PURE core study, between Jan 6, 2005, and Dec 4, 2016, and who were assessed for a median of 9·5 years (IQR 8·5-10·9). During follow-up, 11 307 (7·0%) participants died, 9329 (5·7%) participants had cardiovascular disease, 5151 (3·2%) participants had a cancer, 4386 (2·7%) participants had injuries requiring hospital admission, 2911 (1·8%) participants had pneumonia, and 1830 (1·1%) participants had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cardiovascular disease occurred more often in LICs (7·1 cases per 1000 person-years) and in MICs (6·8 cases per 1000 person-years) than in HICs (4·3 cases per 1000 person-years). However, incident cancers, injuries, COPD, and pneumonia were most common in HICs and least common in LICs. Overall mortality rates in LICs (13·3 deaths per 1000 person-years) were double those in MICs (6·9 deaths per 1000 person-years) and four times higher than in HICs (3·4 deaths per 1000 person-years). This pattern of the highest mortality in LICs and the lowest in HICs was observed for all causes of death except cancer, where mortality was similar across country income levels. Cardiovascular disease was the most common cause of deaths overall (40%) but accounted for only 23% of deaths in HICs (vs 41% in MICs and 43% in LICs), despite more cardiovascular disease risk factors (as judged by INTERHEART risk scores) in HICs and the fewest such risk factors in LICs. The ratio of deaths from cardiovascular disease to those from cancer was 0·4 in HICs, 1·3 in MICs, and 3·0 in LICs, and four upper-MICs (Argentina, Chile, Turkey, and Poland) showed ratios similar to the HICs. Rates of first hospital admission and cardiovascular disease medication use were lowest in LICs and highest in HICs. INTERPRETATION: Among adults aged 35-70 years, cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality globally. However, in HICs and some upper-MICs, deaths from cancer are now more common than those from cardiovascular disease, indicating a transition in the predominant causes of deaths in middle-age. As cardiovascular disease decreases in many countries, mortality from cancer will probably become the leading cause of death. The high mortality in poorer countries is not related to risk factors, but it might be related to poorer access to health care. FUNDING: Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(5): 672-682, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370960

RESUMO

As new treatments continue to improve clinical outcomes in coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure, it is necessary to characterize the appropriate use of ß-adrenergic receptor blockers (ß-blockers) in the contemporary management of these conditions. This review examines the current evidence supporting ß-blocker use in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), heart failure with midrange ejection fraction (HFmEF), and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), following acute coronary syndrome and in stable CAD. ß-Blockers remain essential in the treatment of HFrEF, but limited evidence supports their use in HFmEF or HFpEF. They should still be considered routinely following acute coronary syndrome, but there is a need for contemporary trials that re-examine this in patients without left ventricular dysfunction, as well as in patients with stable CAD. From a global perspective, more studies are needed to characterize the extent of ß-blocker use in CAD and heart failure, and how evidence-based use can be improved in these conditions.

5.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(5): 683-698, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370961

RESUMO

The pharmacological inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system as a therapeutic strategy is one of the most significant advances in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and in coronary artery disease. Recently, the addition of neprilysin inhibition to angiotensin receptor blockade has been shown to be even more effective than angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition alone in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, marking an important new milestone in heart failure treatment. This review summarizes the major trials that have informed the clinical role of inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and neprilysin pathways, as well as the limitations of these strategies.

6.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 682-691, ago., 30 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1015771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial. METHODS: We performed a 3 x 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. (AU)


Assuntos
Bactérias , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Aspirina
7.
Gastroenterology ; 157(2): 403-412, Aug., 2019. tabela, grafico
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1022748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are associated with increased upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated whether proton pump inhibitor therapy could reduce this risk. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo, as well as rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin 100 mg once daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or aspirin 100 mg alone. The primary outcome was time to first upper gastrointestinal event, defined as a composite of overt bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastroduodenal lesion or of unknown origin, occult bleeding, symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcer or ≥5 erosions, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, or perforation. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in upper gastrointestinal events between the pantoprazole group (102 of 8791 events) and the placebo group (116 of 8807 events) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.15). Pantoprazole significantly reduced bleeding of gastroduodenal lesions (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.94; P = .03); this reduction was greater when we used a post-hoc definition of bleeding gastroduodenal lesion (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.74), although the number needed to treat still was high (n = 982; 95% confidence interval, 609-2528).CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that routine use of proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving low-dose anticoagulation and/or aspirin for stable cardiovascular disease does not reduce upper gastrointestinal events, but may reduce bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions. ClinicalTrials. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(16): e010870, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394972

RESUMO

Background The predictive value of adiposity indices and the newly developed index for cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remains unclear in the Chinese population. This study aimed to compare the predictive value of A Body Shape Index with other 5 conventional obesity-related anthropometric indices (body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio) in Chinese population. Methods and Results A total of 44 048 participants in the study were derived from the baseline data of the PURE-China (Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology) study in China. All participants' anthropometric parameters, CVDs, and risk factors (dyslipidemia, abnormal blood pressure, and hyperglycemia) were collected by standard procedures. Multivariable logistic regression models and receiver operator characteristic curve analysis were used to evaluate the predictive values of obesity-related anthropometric indices to the cardiometabolic risk factors and CVDs. A positive association was observed between each anthropometric index and cardiometabolic risk factors and CVDs in all models (P<0.001). Compared with other anthropometric indices (body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and A Body Shape Index), waist-to-height ratio had significantly higher areas under the curve (AUCs) for predicting dyslipidemia (AUCs: 0.646, sensitivity: 65%, specificity: 44%), hyperglycemia (AUCs: 0.595, sensitivity: 60%, specificity: 45%), and CVDs (AUCs: 0.619, sensitivity: 59%, specificity: 41%). Waist circumference showed the best prediction for abnormal blood pressure (AUCs: 0.671, sensitivity: 66%, specificity: 40%) compared with other anthropometric indices. However, the new body shape index did not show a better prediction to either cardiometabolic risk factors or CVDs than that of any other traditional obesity-related indices. Conclusions Waist-to-height ratio appeared to be the best indicator for dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and CVDs, while waist circumference had a better prediction for abnormal blood pressure.

9.
Oncologist ; 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315962

RESUMO

Trastuzumab is an effective treatment for HER2-positive breast cancer. Current guidelines recommend withholding trastuzumab in patients experiencing a significant asymptomatic decline in left ventricular function. In this commentary, we discuss the survival benefits afforded by trastuzumab juxtaposed against the risk of trastuzumab-mediated cardiotoxicity. It is not known whether the net benefit of continuing trastuzumab in the setting of mild cardiotoxicity outweighs the associated risks. We describe a potential approach undertaken by our group, and others, and call for a randomized trial.

10.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 682-691.e2, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Pantoprazol/administração & dosagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/induzido quimicamente , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/microbiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pantoprazol/efeitos adversos , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Gastroenterology ; 157(2): 403-412.e5, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are associated with increased upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated whether proton pump inhibitor therapy could reduce this risk. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo, as well as rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin 100 mg once daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or aspirin 100 mg alone. The primary outcome was time to first upper gastrointestinal event, defined as a composite of overt bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastroduodenal lesion or of unknown origin, occult bleeding, symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcer or ≥5 erosions, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, or perforation. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in upper gastrointestinal events between the pantoprazole group (102 of 8791 events) and the placebo group (116 of 8807 events) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.15). Pantoprazole significantly reduced bleeding of gastroduodenal lesions (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.94; P = .03); this reduction was greater when we used a post-hoc definition of bleeding gastroduodenal lesion (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.74), although the number needed to treat still was high (n = 982; 95% confidence interval, 609-2528). CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that routine use of proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving low-dose anticoagulation and/or aspirin for stable cardiovascular disease does not reduce upper gastrointestinal events, but may reduce bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Pantoprazol/administração & dosagem , Úlcera Péptica/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Úlcera Péptica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Péptica/epidemiologia , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Can J Cardiol ; 35(4): 544.e1-544.e2, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935646

RESUMO

Cabozantinib is a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, with activity against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, as well as MET, RET, and AXL. It is currently approved for treating advanced thyroid and kidney cancers, and is being investigated in other cancers. We present a case of reversible heart failure due to cabozantinib use in a 70-year-old man with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. This is, to our knowledge, one of the first reported cases of cardiomyopathy associated with cabozantinib use.

14.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(5): e613-e623, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The associations between the extent of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) impairment and mortality, incident cardiovascular disease, and respiratory hospitalisations are unclear, and how these associations might vary across populations is unknown. METHODS: In this international, community-based cohort study, we prospectively enrolled adults aged 35-70 years who had no intention of moving residences for 4 years from rural and urban communities across 17 countries. A portable spirometer was used to assess FEV1. FEV1 values were standardised within countries for height, age, and sex, and expressed as a percentage of the country-specific predicted FEV1 value (FEV1%). FEV1% was categorised as no impairment (FEV1% ≥0 SD from country-specific mean), mild impairment (FEV1% <0 SD to -1 SD), moderate impairment (FEV1% <-1 SD to -2 SDs), and severe impairment (FEV1% <-2 SDs [ie, clinically abnormal range]). Follow-up was done every 3 years to collect information on mortality, cardiovascular disease outcomes (including myocardial infarction, stroke, sudden death, or congestive heart failure), and respiratory hospitalisations (from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pneumonia, tuberculosis, or other pulmonary conditions). Fully adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated by multilevel Cox regression. FINDINGS: Among 126 359 adults with acceptable spirometry data available, during a median 7·8 years (IQR 5·6-9·5) of follow-up, 5488 (4·3%) deaths, 5734 (4·5%) cardiovascular disease events, and 1948 (1·5%) respiratory hospitalisation events occurred. Relative to the no impairment group, mild to severe FEV1% impairments were associated with graded increases in mortality (HR 1·27 [95% CI 1·18-1·36] for mild, 1·74 [1·60-1·90] for moderate, and 2·54 [2·26-2·86] for severe impairment), cardiovascular disease (1·18 [1·10-1·26], 1·39 [1·28-1·51], 2·02 [1·75-2·32]), and respiratory hospitalisation (1·39 [1·24-1·56], 2·02 [1·75-2·32], 2·97 [2·45-3·60]), and this pattern persisted in subgroup analyses considering country income level and various baseline risk factors. Population-attributable risk for mortality (adjusted for age, sex, and country income) from mildly to moderately reduced FEV1% (24·7% [22·2-27·2]) was larger than that from severely reduced FEV1% (3·7% [2·1-5·2]) and from tobacco use (19·7% [17·2-22·3]), previous cardiovascular disease (5·5% [4·5-6·5]), and hypertension (17·1% [14·6-19·6]). Population-attributable risk for cardiovascular disease from mildly to moderately reduced FEV1 was 17·3% (14·8-19·7), second only to the contribution of hypertension (30·1% [27·6-32·5]). INTERPRETATION: FEV1 is an independent and generalisable predictor of mortality, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory hospitalisation, even across the clinically normal range (mild to moderate impairment). FUNDING: Population Health Research Institute, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, AstraZeneca, Sanofi-Aventis, Boehringer Ingelheim, Servier, and GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, and King Pharma. Additional funders are listed in the appendix.

15.
Can J Cardiol ; 35(4): 389-395, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) has been associated with cardiac rhythm device (CRD) implantation with intracardiac lead insertion. However, data on the incidence of postdevice TR are limited and largely from retrospective studies. We hypothesized that permanent lead implantation would be associated with an increase in TR. METHODS: We prospectively included consecutive patients with a clinical indication for CRD. Patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography 1 month before and 1 year after CRD implantation. RESULTS: A total of 328 patients were prospectively enrolled (69 ± 15 years, 38% female). Echocardiograms before and 1 year after CRD were available in 290 patients (15 died, 23 lost to follow-up). Compared with baseline, there was a significant change in TR grade 1 year after CRD insertion (no/trivial TR: 66% vs 29%; mild TR: 29% vs 61%; moderate TR: 3% vs 8%; severe TR 2% vs 2%; P < 0.001 for an increase in TR by at least 1 grade). Compared with baseline, there was a higher prevalence of moderate or severe TR in the 247 patients with CRD without cardiac resynchronization therapy (4% vs 10%, P = 0.004), but no progression in the 43 patients who received cardiac resynchronization therapy (14% vs 11%, P = 1). Multivariable analysis in the patients with less than moderate TR at baseline (n = 274) showed that only a history of atrial fibrillation was independently associated with progression to moderate or severe TR after correction for baseline TR grade (P = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: One year after endocardial lead insertion, there was a 5% increase in the prevalence of moderate or severe TR, which may be clinically relevant.

16.
Eur Heart J ; 40(9): 712-714, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821325
17.
Urol Oncol ; 37(4): 282-288, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630735

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy among men. Given its prevalence and relatively low mortality rates, several biopsychosocial survivorship issues have garnered recent attention. This article reviews the literature on the association between depression and prostate cancer, emphasizing key practice points relevant for clinicians. Depression is prevalent among men with prostate cancer, with approximately 1 in 6 patients experiencing clinical depression. Suicidal ideation is also not uncommon in this population and does not always present in those with other depressive symptoms. While choice of definitive cancer treatment (radiation or surgery) does not seem to affect depressive symptoms, receipt of androgen deprivation therapy appears to have a negative effect. Not only are patients at increased risk for depression following a prostate cancer diagnosis, but depression itself seems to adversely affect oncologic outcomes. We were not able to identify any clinical trials examining the efficacy of antidepressant medications for depressive symptoms in these patients, however population-based studies suggest antidepressant prescriptions are commonly utilized. Taken together, the literature on the intersection between urologic oncology and psychology/psychiatry affirms the importance of depression among men with prostate cancer. Clinicians should consider assessment of this symptom domain and treat or refer judiciously. Clinical trials represent a priority for future research.

18.
Int J Cardiol ; 280: 124-129, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Presence of myocardial fibrosis in well-established non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. However, the impact of myocardial fibrosis at first presentation in NIDCM, and its long-term association with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, heart failure (HF) and ventricular arrhythmia (VA) remains unclear. We investigated whether the presence of myocardial fibrosis quantified by late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) at presentation, is independently associated with long-term major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with first presentation NIDCM. METHODS: Consecutive patients with a first diagnosis of NIDCM were recruited. Patients underwent LGE-CMR at baseline. Replacement myocardial fibrosis by LGE-CMR was quantified by experienced observers blinded to patient outcome. MACE was defined as a composite end-point including cardiac death, HF rehospitalisation and the occurrence of sustained VA. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients with first presentation NIDCM were included, of which 49 (96%) had follow up and outcome data. Median follow up was 8.2 years. Both the LGE positive and LGE negative groups had similar clinical characteristics at follow up. In univariate Cox regression analysis, positive LGE was associated with MACE (HR:3.44; 95% CI:1.89 to 6.24, p-value < 0.001) and HF rehospitalisation (HR:2.89; 95% CI:1.42 to 5.85, p-value = 0.003). In multivariate Cox regression, positive LGE-CMR was independently associated with MACE (HR:3.53; 95% CI:1.51 to 8.27, p-value = 0.004) and HF rehospitalisation (HR:3.07; 95% CI:1.24 to 7.59, p-value = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of myocardial fibrosis in first presentation NIDCM is independently associated with an increased risk of HF rehospitalisation, at long term follow-up.

19.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209486, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preclinical evidence suggests statins may have anti-tumor properties. Large observational studies are also consistent with improved survival and cancer-specific outcomes among cancer patients on statins. We sought to evaluate the randomized controlled trials of statins in addition to usual anti-cancer therapy. METHODS: A systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Papers First and Clinicaltrials.gov was performed from inception through to July 4, 2017 to identify randomized clinical trials that investigated statin therapy in cancer patients. Our primary outcome was overall survival and our secondary outcome was progression-free survival. We calculated summary hazard ratio's (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on random-effects models using aggregate data. PROSPERO (CRD42017065503). RESULTS: Ten studies with 1,881 individuals were included with 1,572 deaths and a median follow-up of 23 months. All trials included patients with advanced (stage 3 or higher) disease. There was minimal between-study statistical heterogeneity (I2 = 1.8%, for OS; I2 = 0%, for PFS). The pooled HR for overall survival in patients randomized to statins plus standard anti-cancer therapy versus standard therapy alone was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.85 to 1.04). In the 9 studies that reported progression-free survival (1,798 participants), the pooled HR for statin plus standard therapy versus standard therapy alone was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.87 to 1.07). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with advanced cancer and a prognosis <2 years, the addition of statins to standard anti-cancer therapy does not appear to improve overall survival or progression-free survival. Future research should assess if cancer patients with better prognosis benefit from longer-term statin therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 4: 149, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258648

RESUMO

Background: Heart failure (HF) is a major cardiovascular disease with increasing prevalence. Thiamine deficiency occurs in 33% of patients with HF. However, the effectiveness of thiamine supplementation in HF is not known. Methods: In a placebo-controlled randomized two-period crossover feasibility trial, patients age ≥ 60 years with HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF, EF ≤ 45%) will be randomized to thiamine 500 mg oral capsule once daily or placebo for 3 months, then crossed over to the other intervention after a 6-week washout period. The primary outcome is recruitment rate. Secondary outcomes include feasibility and clinical measures. Feasibility outcomes include refusal rate, retention rate, and compliance rate. Secondary clinical outcomes include left ventricular ejection fraction, peak global longitudinal strain measured by echocardiography, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) quality of life score, and clinical outcomes (all-cause mortality, HF hospitalizations, and HF emergency room visits). Discussion: Thiamine is potentially a safe and low-cost treatment for older patients with HFrEF. Results from this study will inform the feasibility of a large clinical trial with clinical endpoints. The findings will be published in a peer review journal and presented at a relevant conference. This study has received full approval from the Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board (18-4537) and Health Canada (210603). This trial is funded by the Hamilton Health Sciences New Investigator Grant (15-387) and the McMaster/St. Peter's Hospital Chair of Aging. Trial registration: NCT03228030 (ClinicalTrials.gov), registered July 24, 2017.

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