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1.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 63(2): 25-28, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297495

RESUMO

Aim is to study morphology of the traces of a large drop of blood formed on snow-covered surface when it falls from different heights. In the experiment, we studied the morphology of blood drop traces fallen from 20, 50 and 100 cm on a just settled dry snow cover in a moderately frosty environment (-8 °C) Dropping from a height of up to 20 cm, a blood drop formed a cylindrical channel in the snow cover and spread out to form a disc-shaped element. However if the bleeding source was located at a 50 and 100 cm distance, an element close to a ball, consisting of blood crystals and ice was formed in the final section of the cylindrical channel. Morphology of the trace in freshly settled dry snow is due to the realization of the kinetic energy of a falling drop on the one hand, and the cooling of blood and crystallization on the other. Data obtained may be used to identify and describe traces of blood found on the scene in the street in the winter.

2.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 63(1): 20-23, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040083

RESUMO

Aim of this study is to determine the influence of the surface irregularities on the presence and pattern of splashing in the area of the blood drop trace.Spraying of a freely falling drop of blood on various surfaces from a height of 10 to 150 cm was studied. It is suggested to distinguish primary and secondary spraying. Primary spraying is the result of the drop falling and its collision with the surface, the secondary spraying is caused by the second and subsequent drops falling into the formed trace, as well as by mechanical affect on the region of not fully dried, liquid blood. Satellite drops splashing should be evaluated separately. We received experimental blood traces from falling of the 40 µl drops on a smooth surface, smooth slightly fibrous surface and rough surface. It is established that when a drop falls on a smooth surface (glass), primary spraying is absent. Signs of spray appear on a flat, slightly fibrous surface (cardboard) when a drop falls from a height of 60 cm, on a rough surface (corrugated vinyl film) - from a height of 20 cm.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Manchas de Sangue , Ciências Forenses , Humanos , Propriedades de Superfície
3.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(3): 4-8, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198196

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop a detailed applied classification of medical-criminalistic situational examinations. This paper proposes a classification of importance for practice and research of medical-criminalistic expertise on the reconstruction of events. The basic criteria which determine how the classification of situational examinations is performed are considered.


Assuntos
Crime/classificação , Ciências Forenses , Humanos
4.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(3): 17-20, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198199

RESUMO

The aim of this study was the morphological analysis of traces of arterial bleeding, depending on the size of the blood vessel damage. A total of 21 archived medical-criminalistic expert reports related to the establishment of the types and mechanisms of blood trace formations were analysed. In all cases, there was damage to the arteries with external bleeding. The relationship between the size of arterial damage and the morphological characteristics of blood traces was established.


Assuntos
Artérias/lesões , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Medicina Legal , Hemorragia/sangue , Humanos
5.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(3): 33-36, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198202

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify the peculiarities of blood droplets on the street in frosty weather on the surfaces of objects with a negative temperature. The effect of negative ambient temperature (-19 °C) on the morphology of blood droplet traces was experimentally established. On cold trace surfaces, the droplet footprint was smaller, relatively flat and with wave-shaped edges; there was no splashing. Such a morphological presentation in frosty weather arises from the rapid cooling of the falling drop of blood which crystallizes in contact with the cold surface. There was no complete spreading of liquid droplets. The data obtained should be taken into account when assessing the traces of blood droplets detected at the scene of the incident on the street in winter, in order to avoid expert errors in determining their mechanism and the height of the blood source.


Assuntos
Sangue , Temperatura Baixa , Patologia Legal , Humanos , Propriedades de Superfície
6.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(1): 21-23, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724889

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to determine the size of the bloodspots produced by the blood drops of different volume (5, 20, 40, and 80 mcl) falling down from different heights to enable the evaluation of the height of a suspended bloodstained object. The bloodspots of the blood drops of different volume (5, 20, 40, and 80 mcl) falling down from different heights were obtained under the experimental conditions. It was shown that the size of the bloodspots increases with the increasing height of fall: the greater the height the larger is the diameter of the bloodspots. Given that the drop volume is known, the size of the bloodspots can be used to determine the height of the suspended bloodstained object. In the practical work of the forensic medical expert, the blood drop volume is as a rule unknown, therefore the height of their fall can be roughly determined based on the morphological features of the bloodspots.


Assuntos
Manchas de Sangue , Medicina Legal/métodos , Humanos
8.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 61(4): 10-12, 2018.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168520

RESUMO

This article presents the materials devoted to the long-term history of collaboration between the Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise of the Moscow Health Department and the Department of Forensic Medicine of the Sechenovsky University. Special attention is given to the contribution made by the Department of Forensic Medicine to the scientific and practical activities, methodological and staffing support first of the Moscow forensic medical services and thereafter of the Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise operating under the auspices of the Moscow Health Department. Simultaneously, the influence of the work of the Moscow Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise on the development and improvement of the scientific, methodological, and pedagogical activities of the Russia's oldest Department of Forensic Medicine is overviewed. The personal contribution of the most prominent forensic medical experts and physicians of Moscow to medical science and practice is illustrated by concrete examples.


Assuntos
Educação , Medicina Legal , Órgãos Governamentais/história , Pesquisa , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Educação/história , Educação/organização & administração , Medicina Legal/educação , Medicina Legal/história , Medicina Legal/organização & administração , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Moscou , Pesquisa/história , Pesquisa/organização & administração
9.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 61(4): 39-41, 2018.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168528

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was the analysis of the results of the medical criminalistics expertises of the blood stains with reference to their different characteristics including the occurrence across the years, variability, the forms and parameters of the traumatizing impacts, the properties of the objects with which the injuries were inflicted, etc. The majority of the data necessary for the analysis were extracted from the archive materials of the Medical and Criminalistic Department of the Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise of the Moscow Health Department for the period from 2011 till 2015. A total of 5749 expertises performed during this time included 107 analyses of blood stains, 98 trace-evidence and 9 situational analyses. The specific features of such expertises include a large number of objects carrying blood stains available for the analysis. In the majority of the cases, such objects are stained with blood of several types differing in the mechanisms of their formation. 3D-scanning of the scene of the event with the subsequent three-dimensional computer-assisted simulation of the actions of each participant of the accident is considered to be the most promising method for the medical criminalistic expertise of the blood stains. The application of this approach is believed to make the work of the forensic medical experts significantly easier.


Assuntos
Manchas de Sangue , Simulação por Computador , Prova Pericial , Medicina Legal , Prova Pericial/métodos , Prova Pericial/normas , Medicina Legal/métodos , Medicina Legal/normas , Humanos , Moscou , Melhoria de Qualidade
10.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 61(3): 60-62, 2018.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29863723

RESUMO

This article is published on the occasion of the 2nd All-Russian forensic medicine student Olympiad. The Olympiad has been held during three years in succession and attracts attention of the students from different Universities of the Russian Federation and the former Soviet republics. The Olympiad is considered to be a highly efficient form of the intellectual leisure activities of the students; moreover, it facilitates formation of motivation for the self-education and the acquisition of the professional skills and competences envisaged by the state standards for higher education that have not yet been incorporated into the program of modern medical education adopted in the Russian Federation.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal/educação , Competência Clínica/normas , Humanos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Federação Russa
11.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 61(2): 14-17, 2018.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29667631

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to determine the minimal and maximum volume of blood droplets freely falling from various droplet-forming surfaces and to characterize the specific morphological features of the resulting stains. The experiments were designed so that the blood droplets were allowed to fall down from the height of 10 cm to 1.5 m. The drop volume varied from 5 mcl to 134 mcl depending on the shape of the objects and the area of the droplet-forming surfaces. The size of the blood stains ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 cm. The stains of a smaller size were regarded as splashes while a stain resulting from the fall of a droplet having a volume greater than 200 mcl was considered to be a result of merging of several droplets and was termed 'blood volume'. The morphological features of the blood stains of different volume are described.


Assuntos
Manchas de Sangue , Propriedades de Superfície , Medicina Legal/métodos , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
12.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 61(1): 7-11, 2018.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405181

RESUMO

The present article was designed to summarize the results of the 20 year scientific, practical, and educational activities of the Department of Forensic Medicine, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenovsky University). The main directions of the research work and achievements of the Department's staff are described, and the prospects for its further development are highlighted. The new approaches to and technologies for the teaching and training specialists in forensic medicine are introduced to meet the novel requirements imposed in the framework of the ongoing reform of higher medical education in accordance with the main principles of the Bologna declaration.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal/educação , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Universidades/tendências , Educação Médica Continuada , Medicina Legal/tendências , Humanos , Moscou
13.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 61(1): 39-41, 2018.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405187

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to elucidate the specific morphological features of the imprints of blood-soaked straight and wavy head hair. The contact imprints of straight and wavy head hair dirtied with blood were obtained experimentally. The imprints of straight hair were shown to exhibit the elements in the form of the rectilinear and bow-shaped slightly bent stripes. The imprints of wavy hair were shaped as the arches, waves, circles, and a large number of various small elements, such as dashes and commas.


Assuntos
Manchas de Sangue , Patologia Legal/métodos , Cabelo/patologia , Modelos Biológicos , Manequins
14.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 61(1): 42-44, 2018.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405188

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to elucidate the peculiar morphological features of the blood stains on the snow over of different density. We have undertaken the modeling and investigation of the blood stains on the loose snow cover (ρ=0.35±0.03 g/cm3) and at the areas of snow compacted by a motor-vehicle wheel (ρ=0.96±0.03 g/cm3) with the use of the visual, metric, descriptive, and statistical methods. The analysis of the blood stain patterns on the loose snow showed that a blood drop tends to form a depressed cylindrical canal at the bottom of which an irregularly shaped spherical element can be seen; it is composed of small snow crystals soaked with blood. The upper end of the canal has the fine-scalloped edge tending to shed unevenly. The morphological picture of the blood stains at the compacted snow cover is similar to that on the hard wettable rough surfaces; they have the oval shape and the unevenly serrated edge with the well apparent signs of sputtering.at the periphery.


Assuntos
Manchas de Sangue , Patologia Legal/métodos , Neve/química , Humanos , Propriedades de Superfície
15.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 61(1): 52-54, 2018.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405191

RESUMO

Forensic medical expertise carried out with a view to reconstruction of an event is a time-consuming procedure because it requires collection of a large amounts of various materials for the institution of a criminal investigation including physical evidence, photoboards of the site of an occurrence, etc. A forensic medical expert may encounter difficulties when reconstructing and scrutinizing the scene of action at a single computer monitor in order to analyze the behaviour of each participant of the event. Of great help in such situations are modern software programs allowing to visualize the site of an occurrence with a maximum approximation to reality, simulate the actions of the victim(s) and alleged offender(s), perform a large number of other forensic studies. The present article provides the practical examples illustrating the possibilities of reconstruction of various events with the use of the three-dimensional modeling based on the MicroSmith Poser and Agisoft PhotoScan software packages for clarifying various circumstances, facts, and conditions of special interest for the preliminary investigation and inquiries.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Patologia Legal/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Software , Patologia Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos
16.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 61(1): 65-67, 2018.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405194

RESUMO

Russia joined the Bologna process in 2003 and since that time has become integrated into the unified European educational space. The key element of the new form of the higher education process is the self-guided unsupervised work of the students. Motivation is needed to promote the involvement of the students in the educational process which implies the necessity of the goal-oriented initiative for the acquisition of professional knowledge and practical experience in the field of forensic medicine. To achieve this goal, the Department of Forensic Medicine of I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University places special emphasis on the experience with carrying out student competitions. Each such competition consists of several contests focused on the solution of a specific problem, e.g. the inspection of the place of occurrence under investigation with a gunshot or punctured-and-incised wound, forensic medical autopsy, problem studies, and intelligence tests. All the contests and problem studies are held in the form of an interactive game. The experience gained in the course of the student competitions gives practical evidence that the interdepartmental intelligence contests contribute to raising the interest of students in forensic medicine. The open competition provides a highly efficient tool for the popularization of scientific knowledge and the promotion of interest in the participation in the forensic medical research activities. Moreover, the student competitions facilitate formation of the earlier professional skills indispensable for team working and the development of abilities for making decisions under the extreme conditions. In addition, the contests teach the participants the art of public appearance. They improve the quality of vocational training in forensic medicine and help to establish the first professional contacts at the interinstitutional (including international) level.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Medicina Legal/educação , Motivação , Competência Profissional/normas , Faculdades de Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Medicina Legal/normas , Moscou , Faculdades de Medicina/normas , Universidades
17.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 60(5): 15-17, 2017.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28980548

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was the experimental investigation of the morphological characteristics of the 20 mcl blood droplets which freely fell down onto the surfaces that were either dry or moderately and profusely lubricated with water. The morphological properties of the resulting blood stains on the glass surfaces, dry or moderately and profusely lubricated with water, are described. The most characteristic features of such stains at the wet surface were the uneven serrated and stripe-like prominences, radial 'lucent stripes' passing into the splashing elements. The size of the blood stains at the water-lubricated surface increased by 8-44%.


Assuntos
Sangue , Medicina Legal/métodos , Tensão Superficial , Humanos
18.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 60(5): 61-63, 2017.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28980558

RESUMO

The modern educational concept for the organization of the teaching and learning activities (continuous, free, and open education) implies the necessity for its implementation the development and introduction of the new approaches to the work with the students. This problem should be addressed based on the use of the up-to-date technologies for education of the adult subjects. Such technologies find the increasingly wider application at the Department of Forensic Medicine of the I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University. It markedly contributes to the improvement of the quality of education.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal/educação , Modelos Educacionais , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Humanos , Moscou , Universidades
19.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 59(4): 25-27, 2016.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27500478

RESUMO

The present case study demonstrates the possibility of reconstruction of the occurrence circumstances by means of the three-dimensional modeling technique and of the application of this method for the solution of the problems facing forensic medical expertise.


Assuntos
Manchas de Sangue , Medicina Legal , Humanos
20.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 58(2): 36-38, 2015.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26036072

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to study blood stains of small volume (20 mcl). It was shown that the fall of a blood droplet from the height of 5 to 200 cm at the angle of 90 degrees on a smooth non-absorbing surface (glass) leaves round stains. Their size increases with increasing height of the fall. The character of the stain edges also depends on the height of the fall. The edges are even when the drops fall from the height of less than 20 cm but become wave-shaped with blunt projections when the height of the fall is increased to 30-90 cm. The fall from the height of 100 to 200 cm gives rise to the stains with the scalloped edges having the rectangular or nearly rectangular protrusions. From one to three additional Plateau drops can be observed near the main one.


Assuntos
Manchas de Sangue , Patologia Legal/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Humanos , Propriedades de Superfície
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