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1.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696405

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are widespread and highly diversified in wildlife and domestic mammals and can emerge as zoonotic or epizootic pathogens and consequently host shift from these reservoirs, highlighting the importance of veterinary surveillance. All genera can be found in mammals, with α and ß showing the highest frequency and diversification. The aims of this study were to review the literature for features of CoV surveillance in animals, to test widely used molecular protocols, and to identify the most effective one in terms of spectrum and sensitivity. We combined a literature review with analyses in silico and in vitro using viral strains and archive field samples. We found that most protocols defined as pan-coronavirus are strongly biased towards α- and ß-CoVs and show medium-low sensitivity. The best results were observed using our new protocol, showing LoD 100 PFU/mL for SARS-CoV-2, 50 TCID50/mL for CaCoV, 0.39 TCID50/mL for BoCoV, and 9 ± 1 log2 ×10-5 HA for IBV. The protocol successfully confirmed the positivity for a broad range of CoVs in 30/30 field samples. Our study points out that pan-CoV surveillance in mammals could be strongly improved in sensitivity and spectrum and propose the application of a new RT-PCR assay, which is able to detect CoVs from all four genera, with an optimal sensitivity for α-, ß-, and γ-.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Deltacoronavirus/genética , Gammacoronavirus/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , COVID-19/veterinária , Quirópteros/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Gado/virologia , Roedores/virologia
2.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696493

RESUMO

In June 2020, a cat from Arezzo (Italy) that died from a neurological disease was diagnosed with West Caucasian Bat Lyssavirus (WCBV). The virus retained high identity across the whole-genome with the reference isolate found in 2002 from a Russian bent-winged bat. We applied control measures recommended by national regulations, investigated a possible interface between cats and bats using visual inspections, bioacoustics analyses and camera trapping and performed active and passive surveillance in bats to trace the source of infection. People that were exposed to the cat received full post-exposure prophylaxis while animals underwent six months of quarantine. One year later, they are all healthy. In a tunnel located near the cat's house, we identified a group of bent-winged bats that showed virus-neutralizing antibodies to WCBV across four sampling occasions, but no virus in salivary swabs. Carcasses from other bat species were all negative. This description of WCBV in a non-flying mammal confirms that this virus can cause clinical rabies in the absence of preventive and therapeutic measures, and highlights the lack of international guidelines against divergent lyssaviruses. We detected bent-winged bats as the most probable source of infection, testifying the encroachment between these bats and pets/human in urban areas and confirming free-ranging cats as potential hazard for public health and conservation.

3.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372562

RESUMO

Many of the world's most pressing issues, such as the emergence of zoonotic diseases, can only be addressed through interdisciplinary research. However, the findings of interdisciplinary research are susceptible to miscommunication among both professional and non-professional audiences due to differences in training, language, experience, and understanding. Such miscommunication contributes to the misunderstanding of key concepts or processes and hinders the development of effective research agendas and public policy. These misunderstandings can also provoke unnecessary fear in the public and have devastating effects for wildlife conservation. For example, inaccurate communication and subsequent misunderstanding of the potential associations between certain bats and zoonoses has led to persecution of diverse bats worldwide and even government calls to cull them. Here, we identify four types of miscommunication driven by the use of terminology regarding bats and the emergence of zoonotic diseases that we have categorized based on their root causes: (1) incorrect or overly broad use of terms; (2) terms that have unstable usage within a discipline, or different usages among disciplines; (3) terms that are used correctly but spark incorrect inferences about biological processes or significance in the audience; (4) incorrect inference drawn from the evidence presented. We illustrate each type of miscommunication with commonly misused or misinterpreted terms, providing a definition, caveats and common misconceptions, and suggest alternatives as appropriate. While we focus on terms specific to bats and disease ecology, we present a more general framework for addressing miscommunication that can be applied to other topics and disciplines to facilitate more effective research, problem-solving, and public policy.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Mal-Entendido Terapêutico/psicologia , Animais , Quirópteros , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Reservatórios de Doenças , Humanos , Idioma , Saúde Pública , Política Pública/tendências , Zoonoses/transmissão
4.
Acta Trop ; 216: 105787, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385361

RESUMO

Despite declaration as a national priority disease, dog rabies remains endemic in Liberia, with surveillance systems and disease control activities still developing. The objective of these initial efforts was to establish animal rabies diagnostics, foster collaboration between all rabies control stakeholders, and develop a short-term action plan with estimated costs for rabies control and elimination in Liberia. Four rabies diagnostic tests, the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test, the direct immunohistochemical test (dRIT), the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and the rapid immunochromatographic diagnostic test (RIDT), were implemented at the Central Veterinary Laboratory (CVL) in Monrovia between July 2017 and February 2018. Seven samples (n=7) out of eight suspected animals were confirmed positive for rabies lyssavirus, and molecular analyses revealed that all isolates belonged to the Africa 2 lineage, subgroup H. During a comprehensive in-country One Health rabies stakeholder meeting in 2018, a practical workplan, a short-term action plan and an accurately costed mass dog vaccination strategy were developed. Liberia is currently at stage 1.5/5 of the Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination (SARE) tool, which corresponds with countries that are scaling up local-level interventions (e.g. dog vaccination campaigns) to the national level. Overall an estimated 5.3 - 8 million USD invested over 13 years is needed to eliminate rabies in Liberia by 2030. Liberia still has a long road to become free from dog-rabies. However, the dialogue between all relevant stakeholders took place, and disease surveillance considerably improved through implementing rabies diagnosis at the CVL. The joint efforts of diverse national and international stakeholders laid important foundations to achieve the goal of zero dog-mediated human rabies deaths by 2030.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/veterinária , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva/diagnóstico , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Animais , DNA Viral , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Libéria/epidemiologia , Masculino , Vacinação em Massa/veterinária , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/veterinária , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Vacinas Antirrábicas/economia , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação
5.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375071

RESUMO

Bats are often claimed to be a major source for future viral epidemics, as they are associated with several viruses with zoonotic potential. Here we describe the presence and biodiversity of bats associated with intensive pig farms devoted to the production of heavy pigs in northern Italy. Since chiropters or signs of their presence were not found within animal shelters in our study area, we suggest that fecal viruses with high environmental resistance have the highest likelihood for spillover through indirect transmission. In turn, we investigated the circulation of mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs), coronaviruses (CoVs) and astroviruses (AstVs) in pigs and bats sharing the same environment. Results of our preliminary study did not show any bat virus in pigs suggesting that spillover from these animals is rare. However, several AstVs, CoVs and MRVs circulated undetected in pigs. Among those, one MRV was a reassortant strain carrying viral genes likely acquired from bats. On the other hand, we found a swine AstV and a MRV strain carrying swine genes in bat guano, indicating that viral exchange at the bat-pig interface might occur more frequently from pigs to bats rather than the other way around. Considering the indoor farming system as the most common system in the European Union (EU), preventive measures should focus on biosecurity rather than displacement of bats, which are protected throughout the EU and provide critical ecosystem services for rural settings.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Suínos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Quirópteros/virologia , Vírus de DNA/classificação , Vírus de DNA/genética , Ecossistema , Filogenia , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Viroses/veterinária
6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 851-854, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403984

RESUMO

A second case of a novel rabies variant described once in a capuchin monkey from Mato Grosso, Brazil, was discovered in a rabid wild kinkajou from the same region, indicating a public health risk following exposure to either of the two animals.


Assuntos
Cebus/virologia , Procyonidae/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Raiva/transmissão , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Genes Virais , Filogenia , Saúde Pública , Vírus da Raiva/genética
7.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456089

RESUMO

Mammalian Orthoreoviruses (MRV) are segmented dsRNA viruses in the family Reoviridae. MRVs infect mammals and cause asymptomatic respiratory, gastro-enteric and, rarely, encephalic infections. MRVs are divided into at least three serotypes: MRV1, MRV2 and MRV3. In Europe, swine MRV (swMRV) was first isolated in Austria in 1998 and subsequently reported more than fifteen years later in Italy. In the present study, we characterized two novel reassortant swMRVs identified in one same Italian farm over two years. The two viruses shared the same genetic backbone but showed evidence of reassortment in the S1, S4, M2 segments and were therefore classified into two serotypes: MRV3 in 2016 and MRV2 in 2018. A genetic relation to pig, bat and human MRVs and other unknown sources was identified. A considerable genetic diversity was observed in the Italian MRV3 and MRV2 compared to other available swMRVs. The S1 protein presented unique amino acid signatures in both swMRVs, with unexpected frequencies for MRV2. The remaining genes formed distinct and novel genetic groups that revealed a geographically related evolution of swMRVs in Italy. This is the first report of the complete molecular characterization of novel reassortant swMRVs in Italy and Europe, which suggests a greater genetic diversity of swMRVs never identified before.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Orthoreovirus de Mamíferos/genética , Infecções por Reoviridae/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Chlorocebus aethiops , Europa (Continente) , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Itália , Mutação , Orthoreovirus de Mamíferos/classificação , Orthoreovirus de Mamíferos/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Sorogrupo , Suínos , Células Vero
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(2): e0008010, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040472

RESUMO

To achieve the goal of eliminating dog-mediated human rabies deaths by 2030, many African countries have agreed to list rabies as a priority zoonotic disease and to undertake both short and long-term control programs. Within this context, reliable local diagnosis is essential for the success of field surveillance systems. However, a harmonized, sustainable and supportive diagnostic offer has yet to be achieved in the continent. We herewith describe the organization and outcome of a proficiency test (PT) for the post-mortem diagnosis of rabies in animals, involving thirteen veterinary laboratories and one public health laboratory in Africa. Participants were invited to assess both the performance of the Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA) test and of a conventional RT-PCR. From the submitted results, while thirteen laboratories proved to be able to test the samples through DFA test, eleven performed the RT-PCR method; ten applied both techniques. Of note, the number of laboratories able to apply rabies RT-PCR had increased from four to ten after the exercise. Importantly, results showed a higher proficiency in applying the molecular test compared to the DFA test (concordance, sensitivity and specificity: 98.2%, 96.97% and 100% for RT-PCR; 87.69%, 89.23% and 86.15% for DFA test), indicating the feasibility of molecular methods to diagnose animal pathogens in Africa. Another positive outcome of this approach was that negative and positive controls were made available for further in-house validation of new techniques; in addition, a detailed questionnaire was provided to collect useful and relevant information on the diagnostic procedures and biosafety measures applied at laboratory level.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Laboratórios/normas , Raiva/veterinária , Medicina Veterinária/normas , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Raiva/diagnóstico , Raiva/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
10.
Virol J ; 15(1): 37, 2018 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29454370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhabdoviridae is one of the most ecologically diverse families of RNA viruses which can infect a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. Bats, among mammals, are pointed to harbor a significantly higher proportion of unknown or emerging viruses with zoonotic potential. Herein, we report the isolation of a novel rhabdovirus, detected in the framework of a virological survey on bats implemented in North Italy. METHODS: Virus isolation and identification were performed on samples of 635 bats by using cell cultures, negative staining electron microscopy and PCRs for different viruses. NGS was commonly performed on cell culture supernatants showing cytopathic effect or in case of samples resulted positive by at least one of the PCRs included in the diagnostic protocol. RESULTS: A rhabdovirus was isolated from different organs of a Pipistrellus kuhlii. Virus identification was obtained by electron microscopy and NGS sequencing. The complete genome size was 11,774 nt comprised 5 genes, encoding the canonical rhabdovirus structural proteins, and an additional transcriptional unit (U1) encoding a hypothetical small protein (157aa) (3'-N-P-M-G-U1-L-5'). The genome organization and phylogenetic analysis suggest that the new virus, named Vaprio virus (VAPV), belongs to the recently established genus Ledantevirus (subgroup B) and it is highly divergent to its closest known relative, Le Dantec virus (LDV) (human, 1965 Senegal). A specific RT-PCR amplifying a 350 bp fragment of the ORF 6 gene, encoding for L protein, was developed and used to test retrospectively a subset of 76 bats coming from the same area and period, revealing two more VAPV positive bats. CONCLUSIONS: VAPV is a novel isolate of chiropteran rhabdovirus. Genome organization and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that VAPV should be considered a novel species within the genus Ledantevirus for which viral ecology and disease associations should be investigated.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/veterinária , Rhabdoviridae/classificação , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Genoma Viral , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Itália , Filogenia , RNA Viral , Rhabdoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Células Vero
11.
Infect Genet Evol ; 58: 279-289, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29355607

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) have been documented in almost every species of bat sampled. Bat CoVs exhibit both extensive genetic diversity and a broad geographic range, indicative of a long-standing host association. Despite this, the respective roles of long-term virus-host co-divergence and cross-species transmission (host-jumping) in the evolution of bat coronaviruses are unclear. Using a phylogenetic approach we provide evidence that CoV diversity in bats is shaped by both species richness and their geographical distribution, and that CoVs exhibit clustering at the level of bat genera, with these genus-specific clusters largely associated with distinct CoV species. Co-phylogenetic analyses revealed that cross-species transmission has been more common than co-divergence across coronavirus evolution as a whole, and that cross-species transmission events were more likely between sympatric bat hosts. Notably, however, an analysis of the CoV RNA polymerase phylogeny suggested that many such host-jumps likely resulted in short-term spill-over infections, with little evidence for sustained onward transmission in new co-roosting host species.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/transmissão , Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/genética , Animais , Coronavirus/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Filogenia , Filogeografia
12.
Virol J ; 13: 139, 2016 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27519739

RESUMO

Mammalian Orthoreoviruses 3 (MRV3) have been described in diarrheic pigs from USA and Asia. We firstly detected MRV3 in Europe (Italy) in piglets showing severe diarrhea associated with Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea. The virus was phylogenetically related to European reoviruses of human and bat origin and to US and Chinese pig MRV3.


Assuntos
Diarreia/veterinária , Orthoreovirus Mamífero 3/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Diarreia/virologia , Europa (Continente) , Orthoreovirus Mamífero 3/classificação , Orthoreovirus Mamífero 3/genética , Filogenia , Infecções por Reoviridae/virologia , Sus scrofa , Suínos
13.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 47(2): 508-13, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27468023

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate a large-core manual biopsy device (Spirotome(®), Medinvents, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium) for liver sampling and histologic diagnosis in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). The study included eight green iguanas, and two ultrasound-guided biopsies were collected for each lizard, for 16 biopsies in total. The procedure was carried out under general anesthesia induced by intravenous injection of propofol (10 mg/kg) maintained with a mixture of 2.0% isoflurane and 0.8-1.2 L/min oxygen after tracheal intubation. Fourteen (87.5%) of the 16 biopsies were considered diagnostic. Liver biopsy quality was assessed according to sample size and tissue preservation. In particular, mean length (16.2 ± 4.5 mm), width (2.2 ± 0.5 mm), area (34.8 ± 6.9 mm(2)), and number of portal areas (9.4 ± 3.9) of each biopsy were recorded for all green iguanas. The total available surface of the sections obtained from the biopsies and their grade of preservation enabled a satisfactory evaluation of the parenchymal architecture. One of the green iguanas in the study died the day after the procedure due to severe hemocoeloma. Risk assessment evaluation suggested that small green iguanas may not be suitable for this biopsy procedure.


Assuntos
Fígado/patologia , Lagartos/cirurgia , Animais , Biópsia/instrumentação , Biópsia/veterinária
14.
Virus Genes ; 52(4): 573-7, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27059240

RESUMO

Straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum), which have been identified as natural hosts for several zoonotic pathogens, such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, and ebolavirus, are associated with human settlements in Nigeria where they are commonly consumed as a delicacy. However, information on the viruses harbored by these bats is scarce. In this study, coronavirus sequences were detected using a nested RT-PCR targeting 440 bp of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) in six of 79 fecal samples collected from an urban colony of E. helvum in Ibadan, Nigeria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all six sequences were monophyletic and clustered in lineage D of Betacoronavirus. The extension of two fragments allowed us to classify our sequences within the RdRp Group Unit defined for Kenyan Betacoronavirus from the same host species. These findings are consistent with the previous suggestion on the existence of a single epidemiological unit of E. helvum across sub-Saharan Africa. This theory, which is supported by the genetic structure of continental E. helvum, could facilitate viral mixing between different colonies across the continent.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/genética , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Quênia , Nigéria , Filogenia , Zoonoses/virologia
15.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 46(3): 592-5, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26352967

RESUMO

The masked palm civet (Paguma larvata) is a small Asian mammal (order Carnivora, family Viverridae) uncommon in Italy. Limited information is available about management and sanitary maintenance in captivity. A 4-mo-old masked palm civet presented with pruritus, itch, scratching, and disorexia. On physical examination, alopecia and crusts were detected on the ventral and lateral trunk, tail, legs, and lips. Skin scrapings and cytology revealed Notoedres spp. and bacterial infection. On histopathology, parasitic dermatitis was observed with the presence of a Sarcoptidae mite and Demodex spp. Selamectin spot-on (15 mg/kg every 2 wk, three applications) and marbofloxacin per os (2.5 mg/kg once daily for 2 wk) were administered, and the animal recovered in 1 mo. With the good response to this therapy, a notoedric mange was thought to be the main problem. This is the first report about the use of selamectin to treat a mite infection in masked palm civet.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Viverridae , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Curr Biol ; 25(6): R217-R219, 2015 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25784035

RESUMO

The investigation of factors underlying the emergence of fungal diseases in wildlife has gained significance as a consequence of drastic declines in amphibians, where the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has caused the greatest disease-driven loss of biodiversity ever documented [1]. Identification of the causative agent and its origin (native versus introduced) is a crucial step in understanding and controlling a disease [2]. Whereas genetic studies on the origin of B. dendrobatidis have illuminated the mechanisms behind the global emergence of amphibian chytridiomycosis [3], the origin of another recently-emerged fungal disease, White-Nose Syndrome (WNS) and its causative agent, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, remains unresolved [2,4]. WNS is decimating multiple North American bat species with an estimated death toll reaching 5-6 million. Here, we present the first informative molecular comparison between isolates from North America and Europe and provide strong evidence for the long-term presence of the fungus in Europe and a recent introduction into North America. Our results further demonstrate great genetic similarity between the North American and some European fungal populations, indicating the likely source population for this introduction from Europe.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Quirópteros/microbiologia , Micoses/veterinária , Animais , Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Europa (Continente) , Genes Fúngicos , Haplótipos , Micoses/microbiologia , América do Norte , Doenças Nasais/microbiologia , Doenças Nasais/veterinária , Filogenia
17.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 45(2): 357-60, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25000698

RESUMO

A loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) was found stranded alive along the Adriatic coast close to Ancona, Italy, displaying obtundation, tachypnea, and increased respiratory effort. It died a few hours after admission, and a postmortem examination was immediately performed. Miliary yellowish nodules were evident in the liver, and a lower number in the heart, stomach, and gut wall. Hundreds of whitish nodules were scattered in the lungs, with the majority of the pulmonary parenchyma being replaced by the lesions. Histologically, all nodular lesions consisted of a small central area of necrosis with acid-fast bacilli surrounded by epithelioid cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Giant cells were found in the spleen and the liver. Kidneys, lungs, liver, spleen, brain, and skin lesions were inoculated aseptically onto general isolation media and selective isolation media for mycobacteria. The isolate showed a restriction pattern identical to Mycobacterium chelonae by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of a disseminated infection caused by a potentially pathogenic mycobacteria in a stranded, free-ranging loggerhead sea turtle. Veterinary staff and biologists who handle sea turtles with suspected mycobacterial disease should protect themselves appropriately.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycobacterium/veterinária , Mycobacterium chelonae/isolamento & purificação , Tartarugas , Animais , Evolução Fatal , Infecções por Mycobacterium/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/patologia
18.
BMC Vet Res ; 10: 112, 2014 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24885935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contrast-enhanced diagnostic imaging techniques are considered useful in veterinary and human medicine to evaluate liver perfusion and focal hepatic lesions. Although hepatic diseases are a common occurrence in reptile medicine, there is no reference to the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) to evaluate the liver in lizards. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of change in echogenicity and attenuation of the liver in green iguanas (Iguana iguana) after administration of specific contrast media. RESULTS: An increase in liver echogenicity and density was evident during CEUS and CECT, respectively. In CEUS, the mean ± SD (median; range) peak enhancement was 19.9% ± 7.5 (18.3; 11.7-34.6). Time to peak enhancement was 134.0 ± 125.1 (68.4; 59.6-364.5) seconds. During CECT, first visualization of the contrast medium was at 3.6 ± 0.5 (4; 3-4) seconds in the aorta, 10.7 ± 2.2 (10.5; 7-14) seconds in the hepatic arteries, and 15 ± 4.5 (14.5; 10-24) seconds in the liver parenchyma. Time to peak was 14.1 ± 3.4 (13; 11-21) and 31 ± 9.6 (29; 23-45) seconds in the aorta and the liver parenchyma, respectively. CONCLUSION: CEUS and dynamic CECT are practical means to determine liver hemodynamics in green iguanas. Distribution of contrast medium in iguana differed from mammals. Specific reference ranges of hepatic perfusion for diagnostic evaluation of the liver in iguanas are necessary since the use of mammalian references may lead the clinician to formulate incorrect diagnostic suspicions.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/farmacologia , Iguanas/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Fígado/fisiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Anestesia Geral/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos
19.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 16(1): 1-30, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23347537

RESUMO

The presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes in reptile blood limits the use of electronic cell-counting devices for leukocytes so that manual counting techniques and evaluation of blood smears are necessary, resulting in time-consuming procedures requiring good training and experience. The evaluation of most hematologic values is complicated by the many physiologic adaptations occurring in reptiles, making references values very difficult to interpret. This article brings together most of the bibliography about hemochrome evaluation in reptiles, with schematic instruction about sample collection, handling, and evaluation. Information about evaluation of both qualitative and quantitative aspects of reptile hematology are also given.


Assuntos
Testes Hematológicos/veterinária , Répteis/sangue , Animais , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/veterinária , Testes Hematológicos/métodos
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