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Food Funct ; 12(20): 9680-9692, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664589


Cocoa is a highly consumed food with beneficial effects on human health. Cocoa roasting has an important influence on its sensory and nutritional characteristics; therefore, roasting could also play a role in cocoa bioactivity. Thus, the aim of this paper is to unravel the effect of cocoa roasting conditions on its antioxidant capacity and modifications of gut microbiota after in vitro digestion-fermentation. HMF and furfural, chemical markers of non-enzymatic browning, were analyzed in unroasted and roasted cocoa powder at different temperatures, as well as different chocolates. The antioxidant capacity decreased with roasting, most probably due to the loss of phenolic compounds during heating. In the case of the evaluated chocolates, the antioxidant capacity was 2-3 times higher in the fermented fraction. On the other hand, HMF and furfural content increased during roasting due to increasing temperatures. Moreover, unroasted and roasted cocoa powder have different effects on gut microbial communities. Roasted cocoa favored butyrate production, whereas unroasted cocoa favored acetate and propionate production in a significant manner. In addition, unroasted and roasted cocoa produced significantly different gut microbial communities in terms of composition. Although many bacteria were affected, Veillonella and Faecalibacterium were some of the most discriminant ones; whereas the former is a propionate producer, the latter is a butyrate producer that has also been linked to positive effects on the inflammatory health of the gut and the immune system. Therefore, unroasted and roasted cocoa (regardless of the roasting temperature) promote different bacteria and a different SCFA production.

Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4728, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354065


Understanding how diet and gut microbiota interact in the context of human health is a key question in personalized nutrition. Genome-scale metabolic networks and constraint-based modeling approaches are promising to systematically address this complex problem. However, when applied to nutritional questions, a major issue in existing reconstructions is the limited information about compounds in the diet that are metabolized by the gut microbiota. Here, we present AGREDA, an extended reconstruction of diet metabolism in the human gut microbiota. AGREDA adds the degradation pathways of 209 compounds present in the human diet, mainly phenolic compounds, a family of metabolites highly relevant for human health and nutrition. We show that AGREDA outperforms existing reconstructions in predicting diet-specific output metabolites from the gut microbiota. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing data of faecal samples from Spanish children representing different clinical conditions, we illustrate the potential of AGREDA to establish relevant metabolic interactions between diet and gut microbiota.

Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Modelos Biológicos , Algoritmos , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Dieta Mediterrânea , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Lens (Planta)/química , Valor Nutritivo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Espanha
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199047


The gut microbiota has a profound effect on human health and is modulated by food and bioactive compounds. To study such interaction, in vitro batch fermentations are performed with fecal material, and some experimental designs may require that such fermentations be performed with previously frozen stools. Although it is known that freezing fecal material does not alter the composition of the microbial community in 16S rRNA gene amplicon and metagenomic sequencing studies, it is not known whether the microbial community in frozen samples could still be used for in vitro fermentations. To explore this, we undertook a pilot study in which in vitro fermentations were performed with fecal material from celiac, cow's milk allergic, obese, or lean children that was frozen (or not) with 20% glycerol. Before fermentation, the fecal material was incubated in a nutritious medium for 6 days, with the aim of giving the microbial community time to recover from the effects of freezing. An aliquot was taken daily from the stabilization vessel and used for the in vitro batch fermentation of lentils. The microbial community structure was significantly different between fresh and frozen samples, but the variation introduced by freezing a sample was always smaller than the variation among individuals, both before and after fermentation. Moreover, the potential functionality (as determined in silico by a genome-scaled metabolic reconstruction) did not differ significantly, possibly due to functional redundancy. The most affected genus was Bacteroides, a fiber degrader. In conclusion, if frozen fecal material is to be used for in vitro fermentation purposes, our preliminary analyses indicate that the functionality of microbial communities can be preserved after stabilization.

Fermentação , Congelamento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Fezes/microbiologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Leite , Projetos Piloto , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
Front Microbiol ; 12: 625782, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796085


Food and food bioactive components are major drivers of modulation of the human gut microbiota. Tannin extracts consist of a mix of bioactive compounds, which are already exploited in the food industry for their chemical and sensorial properties. The aim of our study was to explore the viability of associations between tannin wood extracts of different origin and food as gut microbiota modulators. 16S rRNA amplicon next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to test the effects on the gut microbiota of tannin extracts from quebracho, chestnut, and tara associated with commercial food products with different composition in macronutrients. The different tannin-enriched and non-enriched foods were submitted to in vitro digestion and fermentation by the gut microbiota of healthy subjects. The profile of the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by the microbiota was also investigated. The presence of tannin extracts in food promoted an increase of the relative abundance of the genus Akkermansia, recognized as a marker of a healthy gut, and of various members of the Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae families, involved in SCFA production. The enrichment of foods with tannin extracts had a booster effect on the production of SCFAs, without altering the profile given by the foods alone. These preliminary results suggest a positive modulation of the gut microbiota with potential benefits for human health through the enrichment of foods with tannin extracts.