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2.
J Occup Environ Med ; 59(8): 716-720, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28692008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the pilot program was to evaluate the utility of the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) in aiding clinicians in making fitness for work determinations. METHODS: A 10-minute PVT was incorporated into fitness for work examinations by occupational health staff at two integrated refining/petrochemical plants. Based on all evidence from the clinical examination, including PVT results, clinicians made their fitness for work determination. RESULTS: Employees who were determined to be fit for work had significantly fewer PVT errors than did employees determined to be unfit for work or fit for work with limitations, with t(98) = -14.71, P < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The pilot assessed a new application of the PVT as an adjunct to occupational health evaluations focused on determining fitness for work. Results demonstrated that the PVT can be a valuable tool for this purpose.


Assuntos
Indústria de Petróleo e Gás , Desempenho Psicomotor , Segurança , Adaptação Fisiológica , Atenção , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Projetos Piloto , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Privação do Sono/etiologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado
3.
Surgery ; 161(2): 312-319, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26922367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated provider and regional variation in payments made to surgeons by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) by indexing payments to unique beneficiaries treated and examined the proportion of charges that resulted in payments. Understanding variation in care within CMS may prove actionable by identifying modifiable, and potentially unwarranted, variations. METHODS: We analyzed the Medicare Part B Provider Utilization and Payment Data released by CMS for 2012. We included Medicare B participants in the fee-for-service program. We calculated for each provider the ratio of number of services provided to individual beneficiaries, and the ratio of total submitted charges to total Medicare payments. We also categorized each provider into deciles of total Medicare payments, and calculated the means per decile of total Medicare payment for surgeons and urologists. To determine any associations with ratio of services to beneficiaries, we conducted multivariate linear regressions. RESULTS: The 20th, 40th, 60th, and 80th percentiles for the services-per-beneficiary ratios are 1.6, 2.2, 3.1, and 5.0, respectively (n = 83,376). Greater-earning surgeons offered more services per beneficiary, with a precipitous increase from the lowest decile to the highest. Charges were consistently greater than payments by a factor of 3. In our multivariate analysis of services per beneficiary ratio, female providers had lower ratios (P < .01), and we noted significant regional variation in the ratio of services per unique beneficiary (P < .001 for each of the 10 Standard Federal Regions). CONCLUSION: We found significant variation in patterns of payments for surgical care in CMS.


Assuntos
/economia , Gastos em Saúde , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid/economia , Medicare/economia , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/economia , Estados Unidos
4.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; 33(8): 748-54, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26261373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Web-based modules provide a convenient and low-cost education platform, yet should be carefully designed to ensure that learners are actively engaged. In order to improve attitudes and knowledge in end-of-life (EOL) care, we developed a web-based educational module that employed hyperlinks to allow users access to auxiliary resources: clinical guidelines and seminal research papers. METHODS: Participants took pre-test evaluations of attitudes and knowledge regarding EOL care prior to accessing the educational module, and a post-test evaluation following the module intervention. We recorded the type of hyperlinks (guideline or paper) accessed by learners, and stratified participants into groups based on link type accessed (none, either, or both). We used demographic and educational data to develop a multivariate mixed-effects regression analysis to develop adjusted predictions of attitudes and knowledge. RESULTS: 114 individuals participated. The majority had some professional exposure to EOL care (prior instruction 62%; EOL referral 53%; EOL discussion 56%), though most had no family (68%) or personal experience (51%). On bivariate analysis, non-partnered (p = .04), medical student training level (p = .03), prior palliative care referral (p = .02), having a family member (p = .02) and personal experience of EOL care (p < .01) were all associated with linking to auxiliary resources via hyperlinks. When adjusting for confounders, ß coefficient estimates and least squares estimation demonstrated that participants clicking on both hyperlink types were more likely to score higher on all knowledge and attitude items, and demonstrate increased score improvements. CONCLUSION: Auxiliary resources accessible by hyperlink are an effective adjunct to web-based learning in end-of-life care.


Assuntos
Instrução por Computador/métodos , Educação Médica/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Cuidados Paliativos , Assistência Terminal , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Médicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes de Medicina
5.
J Palliat Med ; 18(5): 415-20, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25748832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We built a web-based, interactive, self-directed learning module about end-of-life care. OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to develop an online module about end-of-life care targeted at surgeons, and to assess the effect of the module on attitudes towards and knowledge about end-of-life care. METHODS: Informed by a panel of experts in supportive care and educational assessment, we developed an instrument that required approximately 15 minutes to complete. The module targets surgeons, but is applicable to other practitioners as well. We recruited general surgeons, surgical subspecialists, and medical practitioners and subspecialists from UCLA and the GLA-VA (N=114). We compared pre- and post-intervention scores for attitude and knowledge, then used ANOVA to compare the pre- and postmodule means for each level of the covariate. We performed bivariable analyses to assess the association of subject characteristic and change in score over time. We ran separate analyses to assess baseline and change scores based on the covariates we had selected a priori. RESULTS: Subjects improved meaningfully in all five domains of attitude and in each of the six knowledge items. Individuals younger than 30 years of age had the greatest change in attitudes about addressing pain, addressing end-of-life goals, and being actively involved as death approached; they also had the most marked improvement in total knowledge score. Having a family member die of cancer within the last five years or a personal experience with palliative care or hospice were associated with higher change scores. CONCLUSIONS: A web-based education module improved surgical and medical provider attitudes and knowledge about end-of-life care.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Cuidados Paliativos/normas , Médicos/psicologia , Assistência Terminal/normas , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Instrução por Computador/métodos , Educação Médica Continuada/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Internato e Residência/métodos , Masculino , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Assistência Terminal/métodos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Urology ; 82(6): 1277-82, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24103564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether ereferral is associated with decreased time to completion of hematuria workup. METHODS: We included 100 individuals referred to Olive View-UCLA Medical Center for urologic consultation for hematuria. Half were referred before implementation of ereferral, and half were referred after the system was implemented. We performed bivariate analysis to assess correlations of baseline subject sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with ereferral status. We also created a multivariate linear regression model for log days to completion of hematuria workup, with ereferral as the main predictor and subject sociodemographic and clinical characteristics as covariates. RESULTS: Excluding cases with an infectious cause, the mean number of days from urinalysis documenting hematuria to completed hematuria workup was 404 days before ereferral and 192 days after implementation of ereferral (median 239 vs 170; 2-sample median P = .0013). Upper tract imaging was obtained at a median of 76 days after initial positive urinalysis in the absence of infection, 122 days before ereferral, and 41 days after implementation of ereferral (2-sample median P = .1114). In all cases, lower tract evaluation was completed after upper tract imaging. Our multivariable model evaluating factors associated with time to hematuria workup demonstrated that ereferral use was independently associated with shorter time to hematuria workup (P = .006). CONCLUSION: Electronic consultations can significantly shorten the time to work-up of hematuria in the safety net.


Assuntos
Hematúria/diagnóstico , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/organização & administração , Encaminhamento e Consulta/organização & administração , Idoso , Cistoscopia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Informática Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Provedores de Redes de Segurança
8.
Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol ; 86(6): 418-28, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20025038

RESUMO

Assessment of potential developmental and reproductive toxicity of human pharmaceuticals is currently guided by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) S5(R2) document (available at http://www.ich.org). The studies that assess developmental hazard are generally conducted in rodents and rabbits. Based on the authors' collective experience, adequate designs (including range-finding studies) and the presentation of data for these studies are described in detail. In addition, the suggested initiation and then total duration of these studies in relation to clinical studies that enroll women of childbearing potential are described. Optional parameters that may be included in the studies are discussed, as are study designs that combine assessments of fertility and developmental toxicity. New methods that may replace or enhance current procedures are outlined. The details described herein will assist all laboratories performing these studies, individuals who need to plan for the studies, and regulatory agencies that ultimately review these studies.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Animais , Animais Endogâmicos , Feminino , Agências Internacionais , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Camundongos , Coelhos , Ratos , Projetos de Pesquisa
9.
Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol ; 86(6): 429-36, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20025039

RESUMO

Assessment of potential developmental and reproductive toxicity of human pharmaceuticals is currently guided by the ICH S5(R2) document, "Detection of Toxicity to Reproduction for Medicinal Products and Toxicity to Male Fertility." Studies that assess a candidate drug's effect on fertility are generally conducted in rats. The evolution of, and ultimate harmonization of, fertility study designs are reviewed, and specific elements of an acceptable design, as well as the recommendations for presentation of data, are described in detail. Additionally, the timing of nonclinical fertility studies in relation to clinical studies that enroll men and women of reproductive potential is reviewed. Possible strategies for combining fertility assessment with other study designs are also presented. This article provides testing laboratories, sponsors, and regulatory agencies with a comparison of current methods and designs, with the aim of providing a common understanding of the critical design features.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Animais , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Agências Internacionais , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Ratos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
10.
J Urol ; 182(3): 1158-62, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19625052

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Voiding cystourethrography is a routine component in evaluating children awaiting renal transplantation. We examined whether this assessment is necessary in children with renal failure due to dysplasia/aplasia/hypoplasia syndrome and unknown etiology, which account for up to 25% of those with renal failure requiring renal replacement therapies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed an institutional review board approved, retrospective review of 191 children undergoing transplantation between 2002 and 2007. We reviewed clinical factors associated with positive findings on voiding cystourethrogram. We also reviewed cystography results in children with chronic kidney disease due to renal dysplasia and unknown etiology. RESULTS: We identified 113 boys and 78 girls who underwent renal transplantation during the study period. Pre-transplant voiding cystourethrography was documented in 108 children (57%). Predictors of positive pre-transplant results included history of hydronephrosis, urinary tract infections and renal failure due to urological causes. No pre-transplant cystogram was positive in children with renal failure due to dysplasia or unknown etiology. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend selective use of voiding cystourethrography to evaluate children awaiting renal transplantation. We continue to support performing this test in children with renal failure due to urological causes and those with a history of urinary tract infection, hydronephrosis or voiding dysfunction. In the absence of these findings children with renal failure due to renal dysplasia/aplasia/hypoplasia syndrome or unknown etiology need not undergo pre-transplant voiding cystourethrography.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Transplante de Rim , Urografia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/anormalidades , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Masculino , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Estudos Retrospectivos , Urodinâmica
11.
Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol ; 83(4): 397-406, 2008 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18702118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The antimalarial, artesunate, is teratogenic and embryolethal in rats, with peak sensitivity on Days 10 and 11 postcoitum (pc). METHODS: We compared the developmental toxicity of structurally related artemisinins, dihdyroartemisinin (DHA), artemether (ARTM), and arteether (ARTE) to that of artesunate after oral administration to rats on Day 10 pc. In separate studies, embryolethality was characterized after single intravenous (IV) administration of artesunate on Day 11 pc, and toxicokinetic parameters following oral and IV administration were compared. Lastly, to determine whether maternal hematologic effects occurred at doses that affect embryonic erythroblasts, artesunate was orally administered on Day 11 pc at a dose that caused 100% embryolethality. RESULTS: All artemisinins caused the same pattern of embryolethality and fetal cardiovascular and skeletal abnormalities as previously shown for artesunate. In the IV study, marked postimplantation loss occurred at 1.5 and 3 mg/kg artesunate, but not at 0.75 mg/kg. Among the toxicokinetic parameters evaluated, only the DHA AUC(0-t) was similar at embryolethal oral and IV doses of artesunate. An embryolethal dose of artesunate caused a 15% decrease in maternal reticulocyte counts and no other hematologic effects. CONCLUSIONS: Several structurally related artemisinins cause similar developmental toxicity, suggesting an artemisinin class effect. Equally embryotoxic oral and IV treatments of one artemisinin compound (artesunate) produced similar systemic exposure to the artesunate metabolite, DHA, suggesting that DHA may be the proximate developmental toxicant. Embryolethal doses of artesunate only caused minor changes in maternal reticulocyte counts indicating that adult hematology parameters are not as sensitive as embryonic erythroblasts.


Assuntos
Artemisininas/farmacocinética , Artemisininas/toxicidade , Embrião de Mamíferos/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Reticulócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Artemeter , Artemisininas/administração & dosagem , Artemisininas/sangue , Artesunato , Cesárea , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Perda do Embrião/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Injeções Intravenosas , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Ratos , Contagem de Reticulócitos , Reticulócitos/citologia
12.
J Endourol ; 21(8): 883-5, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17867946

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We report three cases of laparoscopic heminephrectomy in infants using a 3-mm laparoscope and instruments. To our knowledge, this is the first pediatric heminephrectomy series reported in the literature that utilized these small instruments. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three pediatric patients underwent laparoscopic heminephrectomy for an upper-pole moiety in a duplicated collecting system with 3-mm laparoscopic ports and a 3-mm Storz 30 degrees laparoscope. RESULTS: All three cases were completed laparoscopically with total times of 120, 135, and 160 minutes. There were no intraoperative complications, and there was minimal blood loss. The optics of the laparoscope provided visibility and illumination similar to those available with larger-diameter laparoscopes. Two patients were discharged approximately 1 day postoperatively. The third patient required intravenous antibiotics to treat a urinary-tract infection and was discharged home 4 days postoperatively. All three patients had recovered fully by 2 weeks. CONCLUSION: The 3-mm laparoscope provides excellent visibility and illumination for performing heminephrectomy in the pediatric population. In addition, the 3-mm instruments provide excellent tissue handling, similar to that of the 5-mm tools.


Assuntos
Laparoscópios , Laparoscopia/métodos , Nefrectomia/instrumentação , Nefrectomia/métodos , Obstrução Ureteral/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Rim/anormalidades , Masculino
13.
J Urol ; 177(3): 1138-42, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17296433

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed the accessibility, readability and quality of myelomeningocele information on the Internet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We entered the term "spina bifida" into the Google, Yahoo! and Microsoft Network search engines, and stored the first 100 links from each Web site. A total of 164 unique Web sites remained for analysis, of which 159 were classified as relevant. Relevant Web sites were considered to have relevant content if more than 50% of the text was directly relevant to the disease, and to have relevant educational content if more than 50% of the text was aimed at relaying educational information. Readability was assessed using the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level scale. The quality of the 159 Web sites with relevant content was assessed using American Public Health Association Criteria for Assessing Health Information on the Internet. Six criteria were assessed, namely credibility, content, links, design, interactivity and caveats. Web sites were analyzed by 2 separate medical doctors, with each reviewer blinded to the findings of the other. A weighted kappa statistic was used to calculate interrater reliability. RESULTS: Of 159 relevant sites 146 (91.8%) had relevant content and 122 (76.7%) had relevant educational content. The average Flesch-Kincaid reading level was 10.9 (range 6 to 12). Quality was assessed on a 3-point scale, with 1 denoting poor quality, 2 fair and 3 good. Average scores were 1.92 for credibility, 1.88 for content, 2.29 for links, 2.53 for design, 1.99 for interactivity and 2.90 for caveats. The weighted kappa statistic for interrater reliability was 0.83. CONCLUSIONS: Myelomeningocele information on the Internet is relatively accessible, requires a high reading level for comprehension and is of variable quality.


Assuntos
Disseminação de Informação , Internet , Meningomielocele , Acesso à Informação , Compreensão , Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Controle de Qualidade
14.
J Pediatr Urol ; 2(6): 528-33, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18947675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent reports of outcomes of bladder neck closure for neurogenic urinary incontinence reveal poor initial continence and high vesicourethral fistula rates. We evaluated a large series of patients who underwent complete transection and closure of the bladder neck with modified abdominal stoma creation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of 52 consecutive patients (23 males and 29 females) undergoing bladder neck closure by a single surgeon between July 1996 and January 2003 were reviewed. Mean follow up was 20 months (range 2-68 months) and mean age was 13.9 years (range 1.5-58 years). Forty-two patients (81%) underwent concomitant bladder augmentation. Catheterizable stomas included 46 appendicovesicostomies (88%) and six Monti tubes (12%). Of the 52 patients, 22 were confined to wheelchairs (42%), and the majority of patients had spinal cord pathology (40/52, 77%). Mean preoperative vesical leak point pressure was 25 cm/H(2)O (range 4-69 cm/H(2)O). RESULTS: Complete postoperative urinary continence was achieved in 44 patients (88%) after one procedure. Of the six patients who were incontinent (12%), one had a vesicourethral fistula (2%) and five had incontinence at the urinary diversion stoma (10%). Twelve of 50 patients had urinary stomal stenosis (24%), with six requiring urgent evaluation (12%) and six requiring surgical revision (12%). Postoperative urinary continence was unknown in two patients due to inadequate follow-up data. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that bladder neck closure is a safe and effective method of achieving urinary continence in children with neurogenic voiding dysfunction. While there are risks of stomal stenosis and fistula formation, modifications in surgical technique may reduce them to acceptable levels.

15.
BJU Int ; 94(6): 895-7, 2004 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15476530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To: (i) calculate traditional compliance (CTrad) for a normal bladder by DeltaV/DeltaPdet, where DeltaV is the mean volumetric capacity and DeltaPdet is the detrusor pressure rise; (ii) assess its usefulness; (iii) identify the variables that are necessary for correctly assessing bladder compliance; and (iv) using these variables, report a method that, because it includes the effect of patient age, sex and size, correctly assesses compliance for management strategies. METHODS: We obtained the mean volumetric capacity of a normal bladder (V(cap,NL)) and the mean detrusor pressure rise (P(cap,NL)) on filling a normal bladder to its volumetric capacity from our and other published work; (ii) calculated CTrad for a normal bladder; (ii) showed that the variables necessary for assessing compliance correctly are DeltaV, DeltaPdet, V(cap,NL), and P(cap,NL); and (iii) showed that the relationship among these is the dimensionless number, NWahl(-1), calculated as (DeltaV/V(cap,NL))/(DeltaPdet/P(cap,NL)). This value for individuals with a normal bladder was calculated, tabulated and graphed. RESULTS: Because a normal individual's bladder capacity increases with age while the detrusor pressure increase does not, CTrad increases with age and therefore cannot be used for assessing compliance. Published data substantiate our result that CTrad for an individual with a normal bladder varies from 6.3 at 0.5 years old to 90 mL/cmH2O at 18 years old. NWahl(-1) correctly assesses bladder compliance because it is the same for all normal cases; consequently NWahl(-1) is more practical for clinical use. CONCLUSIONS: Bladder compliance is standardized using DeltaV, DeltaPdet, V(cap,NL), and P(cap,NL) to give NWahl(-1), and bladder compliance is usefully reported using this value.


Assuntos
Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Complacência (Medida de Distensibilidade) , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pressão , Valores de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Urodinâmica
16.
BJU Int ; 94(6): 898-900, 2004 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15476531

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To devise a new, practical and more accurate method for measuring bladder compliance, and to show that traditional estimates of compliance are impractical. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Childhood bladder capacity varies greatly with age while detrusor pressure in a normal bladder does not. Consequently, traditional bladder compliance (DeltaV/DeltaP) increases with age, i.e. maturation. Therefore we devised a standard method that includes normal values of pressures and volumes to calculate and report bladder compliance in children, and that also applies to adults. A dimensionless number (NWahl(-1)) was computed for standardizing bladder compliance, comparing the normalized capacity to normalized pressure by the ratio (DeltaV/V(cap,NL))/(DeltaP/P(cap,NL)), where DeltaP is the pressure at bladder capacity, DeltaV the volume at bladder capacity, V(cap,NL) the volume at mean expected bladder capacity and P(cap,NL) the pressure at mean expected bladder capacity. V(cap,NL) is obtained from nomograms of published data. RESULTS: The bladder compliance of patients undergoing urodynamic testing was calculated using NWahl(-1) and the traditional equation (DeltaV/DeltaP). NWahl(-1) provided a more accurate diagnosis and therefore was of more practical use. CONCLUSIONS: Bladder compliance depends on patient age, sex and size; the new estimate used to standardize bladder compliance is based on these factors and is a dimensionless number. This may help when comparing patients and assessing outcomes.


Assuntos
Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia , Urodinâmica/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Complacência (Medida de Distensibilidade) , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pressão , Valores de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Urology ; 59(1): 123-6; discussion 126, 2002 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11796295

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To report the largest series of pelvic fracture and lower genitourinary tract injury in the pediatric population to further define its incidence. The association between pelvic fractures and lower genitourinary tract injury has been well recognized in the adult population. The incidence of bladder or urethral injury is approximately 10% to 15%. Previous limited pediatric reviews placed its incidence at slightly lower levels. METHODS: A retrospective review of 8021 trauma patients presenting between July 1992 and March 1999 to a pediatric trauma center included 212 consecutive patients with pelvic fractures. These records were reviewed to determine the incidence of genitourinary injury in children with pelvic fractures. Thirty-six patients were identified with a genitourinary injury, and their records were analyzed.Results. Thirty-six patients (17%) were identified to have sustained a genitourinary injury out of the study cohort of 212 patients with pelvic fractures when patients with isolated hematuria were included. Hematuria was noted in 30 patients (14.2%). Fourteen (6.6%) had gross hematuria. Only 2 (0.9%) of the 212 patients had a significant lower urinary tract injury (one extraperitoneal bladder rupture and one posterior urethral disruption); both had gross hematuria. Genital injuries were seen in 4 other patients (1.9%). Lower genitourinary injury occurred in a total of 6 (2.8%) of the 212 patients with pelvic fractures. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of significant lower genitourinary injury in pediatric patients with pelvic fractures is lower than that reported in previous adult and pediatric reviews. Significant lower genitourinary injuries were not found in stable patients without gross hematuria or multiple associated injuries and with a normal genitourinary examination.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/complicações , Ossos Pélvicos/lesões , Sistema Urogenital/lesões , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hematúria/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uretra/lesões , Bexiga Urinária/lesões
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