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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(10): e1912902, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617922

RESUMO

Importance: Air pollutants interact with estrogen nuclear receptors, but their effect on thyroid signaling is less clear. Thyroid function is of particular importance for pregnant women because of the thyroid's role in fetal brain development. Objective: To determine the short-term association of exposure to air pollution in the first trimester with thyroid function throughout pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, 9931 pregnant women from 4 European cohorts (the Amsterdam Born Children and Their Development Study, the Generation R Study, Infancia y Medio Ambiente, and Rhea) and 1 US cohort (Project Viva) with data on air pollution exposure and thyroid function during pregnancy were included. The recruitment period for the Amsterdam Born Children and Their Development Study was January 2003 to March 2004; for Generation R, April 2002 to January 2006; for Infancia y Medio Ambiente, November 2003 to January 2008; for Rhea, February 2007 to February 2008; and for Project Viva, April 1999 to November 2002. Statistical analyses were conducted from January 2018 to April 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Residential air pollution concentrations (ie, nitrogen oxide and particulate matter [PM]) during the first trimester of pregnancy were estimated using land-use regression and satellite-derived aerosol optical depth models. Free thyroxine, thyrotropin, and thyroid peroxidase antibody levels were measured across gestation. Hypothyroxinemia was defined as free thyroxine below the fifth percentile of the cohort distribution with normal thyrotropin levels, following the American Thyroid Association guidelines. Results: Among 9931 participants, the mean (SD) age was 31.2 (4.8) years, 4853 (48.9%) had more than secondary educational levels, 5616 (56.6%) were nulliparous, 404 (4.2%) had hypothyroxinemia, and 506 (6.7%) tested positive for thyroid peroxidase antibodies. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) were lower and had less variation in women in the US cohort than those in European cohorts. No associations of nitrogen oxide with thyroid function were found. Higher exposures to PM2.5 were associated with higher odds of hypothyroxinemia in pregnant women (odds ratio per 5-µg/m3 change, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00-1.47). Although exposure to PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less was not significantly associated with hypothyroxinemia, the coefficient was similar to that for the association of PM2.5 with hypothyroxinemia (odds ratio per 10-µg/m3 change, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.93-1.48). Absorbances of PM2.5 and PM with aerodynamic diameter from 2.5 to 10 µg and were not associated with hypothyroxinemia. There was substantial heterogeneity among cohorts with respect to thyroid peroxidase antibodies (P for heterogeneity, <.001), showing associations of nitrogen oxide and PM with thyroid autoimmunity only in the women in the Generation R Study. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that first-trimester exposures to PM2.5 were associated with mild thyroid dysfunction throughout pregnancy. The association of PM2.5 exposure with thyroid function during pregnancy is of global health importance because air pollution exposure is widespread and hypothyroxinemia may adversely influence the brain development of offspring.

2.
Environ Res ; 174: 114-121, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollutants including particulate matter (<2.5 µm of diameter,PM2.5)and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has been identified as a potential risk factor for neuropsychological developmental and mental health disorders. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the associations between prenatal PM2.5 and NO2 exposure and cognitive functions in children at 4-6 years of age, including sex differences, and the modification effect of the duration predominant breastfeeding these associations. DESIGN: This study was conducted as part of the INMA project, a population-based birth cohort study in Spain (n = 1119). Each of the pregnant mothers was assigned a prenatal exposure to PM2.5 and NO2 for their whole pregnancy based on their place of residence. At the 4-6 year-old follow-up, infants' neuropsychological development was assessed using McCarthy scales: Verbal, Perceptive-Manipulative, Numeric, General Cognitive, Memory and Motor (gross and fine). Between 6 and 14 months of age, information concerning breastfeeding was gathered with a questionnaire. Regression analyses were performed to estimate the associations between exposure and outcomes, accounting for potential confounders. The analyses were stratified by child sex and breastfeeding duration. RESULTS: The majority of coefficients for the different cognitive domains were negative either for PM2.5 and NO2, though none was statistically significant. After stratifying by sex, the associations become even more negative for boys, with some of the associations becoming statistically significant (memory both for PM2.5 and NO2), and global cognition and verbal for NO2. Duration of predominant breastfeeding was not found to have a modifying effect. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a sex-dependent effects on neuropsychological development at 4-6 years of age, with a greater vulnerability in boys, specifically in domains related to memory, verbal and general cognition. No modifying effect was observed for duration of predominant breastfeeding.

3.
Musculoskelet Sci Pract ; 42: 90-97, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: sympathoexcitation observed with passive cervical mobilisations may imply activation of an endogenous pain inhibition system resulting in hypoalgesia. However, research is mostly in asymptomatic participants and there is very limited evidence of a relationship between sympathoexcitation and symptomatic improvement in people with clinical pain. OBJECTIVE: to investigate the effects of cervical mobilisations on the sympathetic nervous system in participants with neck pain, and to explore the relationship between symptomatic improvement and sympathoexcitation. DESIGN: double-blind randomised controlled trial. METHOD: 40 participants with neck pain (aged 20-69 years, 25 female) were randomly allocated to either cervical mobilisations or motionless placebo. Skin conductance was measured before, during, and after intervention. After interventions were completed, their credibility was assessed. Participants were classified as responders or non-responders according to global symptom change. RESULTS: participants receiving mobilisations were more likely to be classified as responders (odds ratio: 4.33, p = 0.03) and demonstrated greater change in most outcome measures of sympathoexcitation from baseline to during the intervention but not from during to after the intervention. There was no association between sympathoexcitation and symptomatic improvement. Mobilisations and placebo were equally credible. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest sympathoexcitatory changes may be caused by an orienting response unrelated to the activation of an endogenous pain inhibition system Alternatively, the observed lack of an association may be explained by the existence of various mechanisms for pain relief. This study used single outcome measures of sympathoexcitation and symptomatic improvement and other measures may reveal different things. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV NUMBER: M10/2016/095.

4.
J Pediatr ; 209: 204-211.e4, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929929

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether higher omega-6:omega-3 (n-6:n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in cord plasma is associated with more symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at 4 and 7 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: This study was based on a population-based birth cohort in Spain. N-6 arachidonic acid and n-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were measured in cord plasma. At 4 years old, ADHD symptoms were reported by teachers through the ADHD Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed checklist (n = 580). At 7 years old, ADHD symptoms were reported by parents through the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised (short form; n = 642). The ADHD variable was treated as continuous (score) and as dichotomous (symptom diagnostic criteria). Child and family general characteristics were prospectively collected through questionnaires. We applied pooled zero-inflated negative binomial and logistic regressions adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: A higher omega-6:omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in cord plasma was associated with a higher ADHD index (incidence rate ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03, 1.23) at 7 years old. The association was not observed at 4 years old (incidence rate ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.92-1.18). No associations were found using ADHD symptom diagnostic criteria. CONCLUSIONS: High prenatal omega-6:omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio preceded the appearance of subclinical ADHD symptoms during mid-childhood. Our findings suggest that maternal diet during pregnancy may modulate the risk to develop long-term ADHD symptoms in the offspring.

5.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(7): 1270-1280, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995291

RESUMO

Results from studies evaluating potential effects of prenatal exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields from cell phones on birth outcomes have been inconsistent. Using data on 55,507 pregnant women and their children from Denmark (1996-2002), the Netherlands (2003-2004), Spain (2003-2008), and South Korea (2006-2011), we explored whether maternal cell-phone use was associated with pregnancy duration and fetal growth. On the basis of self-reported number of cell-phone calls per day, exposure was grouped as none, low (referent), intermediate, or high. We examined pregnancy duration (gestational age at birth, preterm/postterm birth), fetal growth (birth weight ratio, small/large size for gestational age), and birth weight variables (birth weight, low/high birth weight) and meta-analyzed cohort-specific estimates. The intermediate exposure group had a higher risk of giving birth at a lower gestational age (hazard ratio = 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.07), and exposure-response relationships were found for shorter pregnancy duration (P < 0.001) and preterm birth (P = 0.003). We observed no association with fetal growth or birth weight. Maternal cell-phone use during pregnancy may be associated with shorter pregnancy duration and increased risk of preterm birth, but these results should be interpreted with caution, since they may reflect stress during pregnancy or other residual confounding rather than a direct effect of cell-phone exposure.

6.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(3): 468-478, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of placental levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), and chromium (Cr) with birth outcomes (birth weight, length, and head circumference, low birth weight [LBW], gestational age, preterm delivery, and small for gestational age [SGA]) in mother-child pairs from the Environment and Childhood (INMA) Project in Spain. METHODS: Metal concentrations were measured in placenta tissue samples randomly selected from five INMA cohorts. Data on birth outcomes were obtained from medical records. Associations were assessed in a sub-sample of 327 mother-infant pairs by regression models adjusted for confounding factors and for all metals simultaneously. Effect modification by sex was also evaluated. RESULTS: Elevated placental Cd levels (>5.79 vs. <3.30 ng/g) were associated with reduced birth weight (-111.8 g, 95%CI = -215.6; -8.06, p-trend = 0.01) and length (-0.62 cm, 95%CI = -1.20; -0.04, p-trend = 0.02), while a 10% increase in Cd was associated with 1.21-fold increased odds (95%CI = 1.01; 1.43) of LBW in the global sample but with 14% lower odds (95%CI = 0.78; 0.96) of preterm delivery in males (Pinteraction = 0.10). Detected (vs. undetected) Hg was associated with reduced head circumference (-0.49 cm, 95%CI = -1.00; 0.03) in females (Pinteraction = 0.03). A 10% increase in placental Mn was associated with slight increases in gestational age (0.04 weeks, 95%CI = 0.01; 0.07) in the global sample and in head circumference (0.05 cm, 95%CI = -0.01; 0.10) in females (Pinteraction = 0.03). Elevated Cr levels (>99.6 vs. <56.1 ng/g) were associated with reduced birth length (-0.68 cm, 95%CI = -1.33; -0.04, p-trend = 0.02) and slightly increased gestational age (0.35 weeks, 95%CI = -0.07; 0.77, p-trend = 0.08) in the global sample. As and Pb were detected in few placentas (27% and 13%, respectively) and were not associated with any studied birth outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Data suggest that in utero exposure to Cd, Hg, and Cr could adversely affect fetal growth, whereas Mn and Cr appear to have a positive effect on gestational age. Given the relatively small number of subjects, sex-specific associations should be interpreted with caution.

7.
Musculoskelet Sci Pract ; 38: 83-90, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neck pain is prevalent, costly and disabling. Cervical mobilisations are frequently used to treat it but their effectiveness has been questioned by several systematic reviews. Evidence suggests that better outcomes are achieved with mobilisations when they are applied to specific patient subgroups. A criteria for patients suitable for neck mobilisations has been proposed, but the effectiveness on this patient subgroup has not been tested. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of cervical mobilisations applied to a subgroup of patients with neck pain who fulfil specific criteria. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. METHOD: 40 patients with neck pain attending a Physiotherapy clinic were recruited and randomised to a single session of either cervical mobilisations or motionless manual contact placebo. The immediate effects on global perceived effect, range of movement (ROM), movement velocity and movement associated pain were assessed. RESULTS: mobilisation participants reported significantly better global perceived effect (p˂0.001) and improvements in movement associated pain (p = 0.041). Mobilisations produced a significant increase in ROM in side flexion (p = 0.006) and rotation (p = 0.044) when compared with placebo, but only in patients with pre-intervention ROM restriction. 29-47% of all movement associated pains were resolved following mobilisations and 11-27% following placebo. Patients in both groups showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in movement velocity, but only in those who had a velocity restriction pre-intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Cervical mobilisations are effective in improving movement-associated pain, increasing ROM and velocity, and patient perceived improvement when applied to patients with neck pain that fulfil a criteria. Their use should be advocated.

8.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 922018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30106066

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Published studies are not conclusive on the impact of certain occupational exposures in pregnancy, stressing the need to consider the double role, professional and family, of women. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of employment and domestic load on the duration of pregnancy and fetal development. METHODS: Using Univariate and Multivariate regression models, we studied the association of preterm deliveries (PPT) (<37 weeks), full term newborns with low weight (BPT) (<2500g) and small for their gestational age (PEG) (<10th percentile) in weight, length and head circumference according to work situation (employment/non-employment) and domestic load (low/ medium/ high) in 2506 women. The analyses were carried out using SPSS and R. RESULTS: Women with medium domestic load have lower risk of PPT (OR=0.41, 95%CI:0.21-0.81), PEG in weight (OR=0.47, 95%CI:0.32-0.69), length (OR=0.57, 95%CI:0.39-0.83) and head circumference (OR=0.58, 95% CI:0.40-0.83) and with high load PEG in weight (OR=0.72,95%CI:0.54-0.98) and head circumference (OR = 0.73, 95% CI:0.54-0.99). When analyzing employment situation and domestic load, women with medium domestic load have less risk of PPT (OR=0.29, 95%CI:0.14-0.58) than the absence of load or high domestic load. CONCLUSIONS: The results show a protective effect of the medium and high domestic load, reducing the probability of preterm birth and small for gestational age babies.


Assuntos
Emprego , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Serviço de Limpeza , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30027417

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to understand the association between prenatal, newborn and postnatal head circumference (HC) and preschool neurodevelopment in a large population-based birth cohort. The INMA project followed 1795 children from 12 weeks of pregnancy to preschool years. HC measurements were carried out prospectively, and following a standardized protocol during pregnancy (12, 20 and 34 weeks), birth, and child ages of 1-1.5 and 4 years old; and z-scores were further estimated. Prenatal head growth was assessed using conditional z-scores between weeks 12-20 and 20-34. Several neuropsychological tests [MSCA (cognition), CPT (attention)] and behavioral rating scales [DSM-IV-ADHD, CAST (autism), CPSCS (social competence)] were carried out during the last follow-up (5 years old). Multivariable models adjusted for family and child characteristics were applied to analyze associations between HC and neurodevelopment. In fully adjusted models, prenatal HC and head growth showed little or no associations with the neurodevelopment outcomes. Independent associations were observed between HC z-scores at birth, 1-1.5 years and 4 years and MSCA global cognitive scores and DSM-IV inattention symptoms. Specifically, z-score at birth was positively associated with general cognitive scores [ß 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59, 1.85], and we observed a protective association with ADHD-DSM-IV total symptoms, mean ratio (MR) 0.85 (0.75, 0.96). Prenatal HC and head growth measurements gave little information about child cognitive abilities and behavior at preschool years. However, HC at birth and early childhood was positively associated with a range of neuropsychological outcomes, including protective associations with ADHD symptoms.

10.
Epidemiology ; 29(5): 618-626, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy may increase attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children, but findings have been inconsistent. We aimed to study this association in a collaborative study of eight European population-based birth/child cohorts, including 29,127 mother-child pairs. METHODS: Air pollution concentrations (nitrogen dioxide [NO2] and particulate matter [PM]) were estimated at the birth address by land-use regression models based on monitoring campaigns performed between 2008 and 2011. We extrapolated concentrations back in time to exact pregnancy periods. Teachers or parents assessed ADHD symptoms at 3-10 years of age. We classified children as having ADHD symptoms within the borderline/clinical range and within the clinical range using validated cutoffs. We combined all adjusted area-specific effect estimates using random-effects meta-analysis and multiple imputations and applied inverse probability-weighting methods to correct for loss to follow-up. RESULTS: We classified a total of 2,801 children as having ADHD symptoms within the borderline/clinical range, and 1,590 within the clinical range. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy was not associated with a higher odds of ADHD symptoms within the borderline/clinical range (e.g., adjusted odds ratio [OR] for ADHD symptoms of 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.89, 1.01 per 10 µg/m increase in NO2 and 0.98, 95% CI = 0.80, 1.19 per 5 µg/m increase in PM2.5). We observed similar associations for ADHD within the clinical range. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence for an increase in risk of ADHD symptoms with increasing prenatal air pollution levels in children aged 3-10 years. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B379.

11.
Environ Int ; 115: 267-278, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is evidence that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have developmental effects at environmental concentrations. We investigated whether some EDCs are associated with the adverse birth outcome Small for Gestational Age (SGA). METHODS: We used PCB 153, p,p'-DDE, HCB, PFOS and PFOA measured in maternal, cord blood or breast milk samples of 5446 mother-child pairs (subset of 693 for the perfluorinated compounds) from seven European birth cohorts (1997-2012). SGA infants were those with birth weight below the 10th percentile for the norms defined by gestational age, country and infant's sex. We modelled the association between measured or estimated cord serum EDC concentrations and SGA using multiple logistic regression analyses. We explored effect modification by child's sex and maternal smoking during pregnancy. RESULTS: Among the 5446 newborns, 570 (10.5%) were SGA. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in PCB 153 was associated with a modestly increased risk of SGA (odds ratio (OR) of 1.05 [95% CI: 1.04-1.07]) that was stronger in girls (OR of 1.09 [95% CI: 1.04-1.14]) than in boys (OR of 1.03 [95% CI: 1.03-1.04]) (p-interaction = 0.025). For HCB, we found a modestly increased odds of SGA in girls (OR of 1.04 [95% CI: 1.01-1.07] per IQR increase), and an inverse association in boys (OR of 0.90 [95% CI: 0.85-0.95]) (p-interaction = 0.0003). Assessment of the HCB-sex-smoking interaction suggested that the increased odds of SGA associated with HCB exposure was only in girls of smoking mothers (OR of 1.18 [95% CI: 1.11-1.25]) (p-interaction = 0.055). Higher concentrations of PFOA were associated with greater risk of SGA (OR of 1.64 [95% CI: 0.97-2.76]). Elevated PFOS levels were associated with increased odds of SGA in newborns of mothers who smoked during pregnancy (OR of 1.63 [95% CI: 1.02-2.59]), while an inverse association was found in those of non-smoking mothers (OR of 0.66 [95% CI: 0.61-0.72]) (p-interaction = 0.0004). No significant associations were found for p,p'-DDE. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal environmental exposure to organochlorine and perfluorinated compounds with endocrine disrupting properties may contribute to the prevalence of SGA. We found indication of effect modification by child's sex and smoking during pregnancy. The direction of the associations differed by chemical and these effect modifiers, suggesting diverse mechanisms of action and biological pathways.

12.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 26(3): 588-596, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29399981

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between maternal metabolic parameters and early childhood BMI trajectories. METHODS: Two thousand two hundred fifty-one children born in Spain between 2004 and 2008 were analyzed. Five BMI z score trajectories from birth to age 4 years were identified by using latent class growth analysis. Multinomial regression assessed the associations between maternal metabolic parameters and offspring's BMI trajectories. RESULTS: Children in the reference BMI trajectory had average size at birth followed by a slower BMI gain. Maternal prepregnancy obesity was associated with trajectories of accelerated BMI gain departing from either higher (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.07-2.91) or lower size at birth (RRR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.17-3.12). Gestational weight gain (GWG) above clinical guidelines was associated with a trajectory of higher birth size followed by accelerated BMI gain (RRR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.53-2.97). Maternal serum triglycerides were negatively associated with BMI trajectories departing from lower birth sizes. Gestational diabetes, maternal serum cholesterol, and C-reactive protein were unrelated to children's BMI trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal prepregnancy obesity, GWG, and serum triglycerides are associated with longitudinal BMI trajectories in early childhood that may increase disease risk in later life. Health initiatives should promote healthy weight status before and during pregnancy to improve maternal and child health.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
13.
Environ Res ; 161: 276-283, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29172161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We integratively assessed the effect of different indoor and outdoor environmental exposures early in life on respiratory and allergic health conditions among children from (sub-) urban areas. METHODS: This study included children participating in four ongoing European birth cohorts located in three different geographical regions: INMA (Spain), LISAplus (Germany), GINIplus (Germany) and BAMSE (Sweden). Wheezing, bronchitis, asthma and allergic rhinitis throughout childhood were assessed using parental-completed questionnaires. We designed "environmental scores" corresponding to different indoor, green- and grey-related exposures (main analysis, a-priori-approach). Cohort-specific associations between these environmental scores and the respiratory health outcomes were assessed using random-effects meta-analyses. In addition, a factor analysis was performed based on the same exposure information used to develop the environmental scores (confirmatory analysis, data-driven-approach). RESULTS: A higher early exposure to the indoor environmental score increased the risk for wheezing and bronchitis within the first year of life (combined adjusted odds ratio: 1.20 [95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.27] and 1.28 [1.18-1.39], respectively). In contrast, there was an inverse association with allergic rhinitis between 6 and 8 years (0.85 [0.79-0.92]). There were no statistically significant associations for the outdoor related environmental scores in relation to any of the health outcomes tested. The factor analysis conducted confirmed these trends. CONCLUSION: Although a higher exposure to indoor related exposure through occupants was associated with an increased risk for wheezing and bronchitis within the 1st year, it might serve as a preventive mechanism against later childhood allergic respiratory outcomes in urbanized environments through enhanced shared contact with microbial agents.

14.
Environ Res ; 160: 97-106, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28968527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal mercury exposure has been related to reductions in anthropometry at birth. Levels of mercury have been reported as being relatively elevated in the Spanish population. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between prenatal exposure to mercury and fetal growth. METHODS: Study subjects were pregnant women and their newborns (n:1867) participating in a population-based birth cohort study set up in four Spanish regions from the INMA Project. Biparietal diameter (BPD), femur length (FL), abdominal circumference (AC), and estimated fetal weight (EFW) were measured by ultrasounds at 12, 20, and 34 weeks of gestation. Size at and growth between these points were assessed by standard deviation (SD) scores adjusted for constitutional characteristics. Total mercury (T-Hg) was determined in cord blood. Associations were investigated by linear regression models, adjusted by sociodemographic, environmental, nutritional - including four seafood groups - and lifestyle-related variables in each sub-cohort. Final estimates were obtained using meta-analysis. Effect modification by sex, seafood intake and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 153 concentration was assessed. RESULTS: Geometric mean of cord blood T-Hg was 8.2µg/L. All the estimates of the association between prenatal Hg and growth from 0 to 12 weeks showed reductions in SD-scores, which were only statistically significant for BPD. A doubling of cord blood T-Hg was associated with a 0.58% reduction in size of BPD at week 12 (95% confidence interval -CI-: - 1.10, - 0.07). Size at week 34 showed estimates suggestive of a small reduction in EFW, i.e., a doubling of T-Hg levels was associated with a reduction of 0.38% (95% CI: - 0.91, 0.15). An interaction between PCB153 and T-Hg was found, with statistically significant negative associations of T-Hg with AC and EFW in late pregnancy among participants with PCB153 below the median. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to mercury during pregnancy was associated with early reductions in BPD. Moreover, an antagonism with PCB 153 was observed with noteworthy reductions late in pregnancy in AC and EFW in the group with lower PCB153.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 92: 0-0, 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177559

RESUMO

Fundamentos: Los estudios publicados no son concluyentes sobre el impacto de determinadas exposiciones ocupacionales en el embarazo, evidenciando la necesidad de considerar el doble rol, profesional y familiar, de las mujeres. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la situación laboral y de la carga doméstica de trabajo en la duración de la gestación y en el desarrollo fetal. Métodos: Mediante modelos de regresión univariante y multivariante, se estudió la asociación entre partos pretérmino (PPT) (<37 semanas), recién nacidos con bajo peso a término (BPT) (<2500g) y pequeños para su edad gestacional (PEG) (

Background: Published studies are not conclusive on the impact of certain occupational exposures in pregnancy, stressing the need to consider the double role, professional and family, of women. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of employment and domestic load on the duration of pregnancy and fetal development. Methods: Using Univariate and Multivariate regression models, we studied the association of preterm deliveries (PPT) (<37 weeks), full term newborns with low weight (BPT) (<2500g) and small for their gestational age (PEG) (<10th percentile) in weight, length and head circumference according to work situation (employment/non-employment) and domestic load (low/ medium/high) in 2506 women. The analyses were carried out using SPSS and R. Results: Women with medium domestic load have lower risk of PPT (OR=0.41, 95%CI:0.21-0.81), PEG in weight (OR=0.47, 95%CI:0.32-0.69), length (OR=0.57, 95%CI:0.39-0.83) and head circumference (OR=0.58, 95% CI:0.40-0.83) and with high load PEG in weight (OR=0.72, 95%CI:0.54-0.98) and head circumference (OR = 0.73, 95% CI:0.54-0.99). When analyzing employment situation and domestic load, women with medium domestic load have less risk of PPT (OR=0.29, 95%CI:0.14-0.58) than the absence of load or high domestic load. Conclusions: The results show a protective effect of the medium and high domestic load, reducing the probability of preterm birth and small for gestational age babies


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso
16.
Eur J Nutr ; 2017 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29181588

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the association between maternal use of folic acid (FA) during pregnancy and child anthropometric measures at birth. METHODS: We included 2302 mother-child pairs from a population-based birth cohort in Spain (INMA Project). FA dosages at first and third trimester of pregnancy were assessed using a specific battery questionnaire and were categorized in non-user, < 1000, 1000-4999, and ≥ 5000 µg/day. Anthropometric measures at birth (weight in grams, length and head circumference in centimetres) were obtained from medical records. Small for gestational age according to weight (SGA-w), length (SGA-l) and head circumference (SGA-hc) were defined using the 10th percentile based on Spanish standardized growth reference charts. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between FA dosages in different stages of pregnancy and child anthropometric measures at birth. RESULTS: In the multiple linear regression analysis, we found a tendency for a negative association between the use of high dosages of FA (≥ 5000 µg/day) in the periconceptional period of pregnancy and weight at birth compared to mothers who were non-users of FA (ß = - 73.83; 95% CI - 151.71, 4.06). In the multiple logistic regression, a greater risk of SGA-w was also evident among children whose mothers took FA dosages of 1000-4999 (OR = 2.21; 95% CI 1.17, 4.19) and of ≥ 5000 µg/day (OR = 2.32; 95% CI 1.06, 5.08) compared to mothers non-users of FA in the periconceptional period of pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that a high dosage of FA (≥ 1000 µg/day) may be associated with an increased risk of SGA-w at birth.

17.
Environ Int ; 106: 170-177, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28689118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution has been linked to cognitive impairment in children, but very few studies have assessed its association with attentional function. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and attentional function in children at 4-5years of age. METHODS: We used data from four regions of the Spanish INMA-Environment and Childhood-Project, a population-based birth cohort. Using land-use regression models (LUR), we estimated prenatal and postnatal NO2 levels in all of these regions at the participants' residential addresses. We assessed attentional function using the Kiddie-Conners Continuous Performance Test (K-CPT). We combined the region-specific adjusted effect estimates using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: We included 1298 children with complete data. Prenatal exposure to NO2 was associated with an impaired standard error of the hit reaction time (HRT(SE)) (increase of 1.12ms [95% CI; 0.22 a 2.02] per 10µg/m3 increase in prenatal NO2) and increased omission errors (6% [95% CI; 1.01 to 1.11] per 10µg/m3 increase in prenatal NO2). Postnatal exposure to NO2 resulted in a similar but borderline significant increase of omission errors (5% [95% CI; =0.99 to 1.11] per 10µg/m3 increase in postnatal NO2). These associations did not vary markedly between regions, and were mainly observed in girls. Commission errors and lower detectability were associated with prenatal and postnatal exposure to NO2 only in some regions. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that higher exposure to ambient NO2, mainly during pregnancy and to a lesser extent postnatally, is associated with impaired attentional function in children at 4-5years of age.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/induzido quimicamente , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Espanha/epidemiologia
18.
Environ Res ; 156: 738-746, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28482295

RESUMO

There is a great concern in the Basque Country regarding emissions from waste incineration, in particular that of organochlorines (OCs), including dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and their potential effect on human health. In 2005, a municipal solid waste plant (MSWP) started to operate in Bilbao, representing an opportunity to assess the exposure to the aforementioned pollutants among people living at various distances from the plant. In 2006 and 2008, we carried out two cross-sectional studies to quantify and assess changes in levels of these pollutants. The objective of this study was to describe the levels of OCs in the blood serum in 2013 of 127 adults of this prospective cohort, in four centres of population, near to and further away from the MSWP, and to study trends over time since it started to operate. This study shows the levels of OCs have decreased significantly, from 37.2% to 80.1%. Further, levels of OCs in areas near to the MSWP were not found to be higher than those in areas further afield.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/sangue , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/sangue , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Incineração , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
19.
Environ Res ; 157: 96-102, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28535425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between prenatal air pollution exposure and postnatal growth has hardly been explored. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), as a marker of oxidative stress, and growth at birth can play an intermediate role in this association. OBJECTIVE: In a subset of the Spanish birth cohort INMA we assessed first whether prenatal nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure is associated with infant growth. Secondly, we evaluated whether growth at birth (length and weight) could play a mediating role in this association. Finally, the mediation role of placental mitochondrial DNA content in this association was assessed. METHODS: In 336 INMA children, relative placental mtDNA content was measured. Land-use regression models were used to estimate prenatal NO2 exposure. Infant growth (height and weight) was assessed at birth, at 6 months of age, and at 1 year of age. We used multiple linear regression models and performed mediation analyses. The proportion of mediation was calculated as the ratio of indirect effect to total effect. RESULTS: Prenatal NO2 exposure was inversely associated with all infant growth parameters. A 10µg/m³ increment in prenatal NO2 exposure during trimester 1 of pregnancy was significantly inversely associated with height at 6 months of age (-6.6%; 95%CI: -11.4, -1.9) and weight at 1 year of age (-4.2%; 95%CI: -8.3, -0.1). These associations were mediated by birth length (31.7%; 95%CI: 34.5, 14.3) and weight (53.7%; 95%CI: 65.3, -0.3), respectively. Furthermore, 5.5% (95%CI: 10.0, -0.2) of the association between trimester 1 NO2 exposure and length at 6 months of age could be mediated by placental mtDNA content. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that impaired fetal growth caused by prenatal air pollution exposure can lead to impaired infant growth during the first year of life. Furthermore, molecular adaptations in placental mtDNA are associated with postnatal consequences of air pollution induced alterations in growth.


Assuntos
Estatura/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Placenta/química , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Espanha
20.
Am J Epidemiol ; 185(4): 247-258, 2017 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28087514

RESUMO

Atmospheric pollutants and meteorological conditions are suspected to be causes of preterm birth. We aimed to characterize their possible association with the risk of preterm birth (defined as birth occurring before 37 completed gestational weeks). We pooled individual data from 13 birth cohorts in 11 European countries (71,493 births from the period 1994-2011, European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)). City-specific meteorological data from routine monitors were averaged over time windows spanning from 1 week to the whole pregnancy. Atmospheric pollution measurements (nitrogen oxides and particulate matter) were combined with data from permanent monitors and land-use data into seasonally adjusted land-use regression models. Preterm birth risks associated with air pollution and meteorological factors were estimated using adjusted discrete-time Cox models. The frequency of preterm birth was 5.0%. Preterm birth risk tended to increase with first-trimester average atmospheric pressure (odds ratio per 5-mbar increase = 1.06, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.11), which could not be distinguished from altitude. There was also some evidence of an increase in preterm birth risk with first-trimester average temperature in the -5°C to 15°C range, with a plateau afterwards (spline coding, P = 0.08). No evidence of adverse association with atmospheric pollutants was observed. Our study lends support for an increase in preterm birth risk with atmospheric pressure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Pressão Atmosférica , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Saúde da População Urbana
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