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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802230

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in KCNA2, encoding for the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.2, have been identified as the cause for an evolving spectrum of neurological disorders. Affected individuals show early-onset developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, intellectual disability, and movement disorders resulting from cerebellar dysfunction. In addition, individuals with a milder course of epilepsy, complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia, and episodic ataxia have been reported. By analyzing phenotypic, functional, and genetic data from published reports and novel cases, we refine and further delineate phenotypic as well as functional subgroups of KCNA2-associated disorders. Carriers of variants, leading to complex and mixed channel dysfunction that are associated with a gain- and loss-of-potassium conductance, more often show early developmental abnormalities and an earlier onset of epilepsy compared to individuals with variants resulting in loss- or gain-of-function. We describe seven additional individuals harboring three known and the novel KCNA2 variants p.(Pro407Ala) and p.(Tyr417Cys). The location of variants reported here highlights the importance of the proline(405)-valine(406)-proline(407) (PVP) motif in transmembrane domain S6 as a mutational hotspot. A novel case of self-limited infantile seizures suggests a continuous clinical spectrum of KCNA2-related disorders. Our study provides further insights into the clinical spectrum, genotype-phenotype correlation, variability, and predicted functional impact of KCNA2 variants.

2.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic KCNQ2 variants are a frequent cause of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy. METHODS: We recruited 13 adults (between 18 years and 45 years of age) with KCNQ2 encephalopathy and reviewed their clinical, EEG, neuroimaging and treatment history. RESULTS: While most patients had daily seizures at seizure onset, seizure frequency declined or remitted during childhood and adulthood. The most common seizure type was tonic seizures (early) infancy, and tonic-clonic and focal impaired awareness seizures later in life. Ten individuals (77%) were seizure-free at last follow-up. In 38% of the individuals, earlier periods of seizure freedom lasting a minimum of 2 years followed by seizure recurrence had occurred. Of the 10 seizure-free patients, 4 were receiving a single antiseizure medication (ASM, carbamazepine, lamotrigine or levetiracetam), and 2 had stopped taking ASM. Intellectual disability (ID) ranged from mild to profound, with the majority (54%) of individuals in the severe category. At last contact, six individuals (46%) remained unable to walk independently, six (46%) had limb spasticity and four (31%) tetraparesis/tetraplegia. Six (46%) remained non-verbal, 10 (77%) had autistic features/autism, 4 (31%) exhibited aggressive behaviour and 4 (31%) destructive behaviour with self-injury. Four patients had visual problems, thought to be related to prematurity in one. Sleep problems were seen in six (46%) individuals. CONCLUSION: Seizure frequency declines over the years and most patients are seizure-free in adulthood. Longer seizure-free periods followed by seizure recurrence are common during childhood and adolescence. Most adult patients have severe ID. Motor, language and behavioural problems are an issue of continuous concern.

3.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811134

RESUMO

De novo missense variants in KCNH1 encoding Kv10.1 are responsible for two clinically recognisable phenotypes: Temple-Baraitser syndrome (TBS) and Zimmermann-Laband syndrome (ZLS). The clinical overlap between these two syndromes suggests that they belong to a spectrum of KCNH1-related encephalopathies. Affected patients have severe intellectual disability (ID) with or without epilepsy, hypertrichosis and distinctive features such as gingival hyperplasia and nail hypoplasia/aplasia (present in 20/23 reported cases).We report a series of seven patients with ID and de novo pathogenic KCNH1 variants identified by whole-exome sequencing or an epilepsy gene panel in whom the diagnosis of TBS/ZLS had not been first considered. Four of these variants, p.(Thr294Met), p.(Ala492Asp), p.(Thr493Asn) and p.(Gly496Arg), were located in the transmembrane domains S3 and S6 of Kv10.1 and one, p.(Arg693Gln), in its C-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding homology domain (CNBHD). Clinical reappraisal by the referring clinical geneticists confirmed the absence of the distinctive gingival and nail features of TBS/ZLS.Our study expands the phenotypical spectrum of KCNH1-related encephalopathies to individuals with an attenuated extraneurological phenotype preventing a clinical diagnosis of TBS or ZLS. This subtype may be related to recurrent substitutions of the Gly496, suggesting a genotype-phenotype correlation and, possibly, to variants in the CNBHD domain.

4.
Genet Med ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658631

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We describe a novel neurobehavioral phenotype of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability, and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) associated with de novo or inherited deleterious variants in members of the RFX family of genes. RFX genes are evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that act as master regulators of central nervous system development and ciliogenesis. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of 38 individuals (from 33 unrelated families) with de novo variants in RFX3, RFX4, and RFX7. We describe their common clinical phenotypes and present bioinformatic analyses of expression patterns and downstream targets of these genes as they relate to other neurodevelopmental risk genes. RESULTS: These individuals share neurobehavioral features including ASD, intellectual disability, and/or ADHD; other frequent features include hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli and sleep problems. RFX3, RFX4, and RFX7 are strongly expressed in developing and adult human brain, and X-box binding motifs as well as RFX ChIP-seq peaks are enriched in the cis-regulatory regions of known ASD risk genes. CONCLUSION: These results establish a likely role of deleterious variation in RFX3, RFX4, and RFX7 in cases of monogenic intellectual disability, ADHD and ASD, and position these genes as potentially critical transcriptional regulators of neurobiological pathways associated with neurodevelopmental disease pathogenesis.

5.
Epilepsia ; 62(2): 325-334, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Asparagine-linked glycosylation 13 (ALG13) deficiencies have been repeatedly described in the literature with the clinical phenotype of a developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). Most cases were females carrying the recurrent ALG13 de novo variant, p.(Asn107Ser), with normal transferrin electrophoresis. METHODS: We delineate the phenotypic spectrum of 38 individuals, 37 girls and one boy, 16 of them novel and 22 published, with the most common pathogenic ALG13 variant p.(Asn107Ser) and additionally report the phenotype of three individuals carrying other likely pathogenic ALG13 variants. RESULTS: The phenotypic spectrum often comprised pharmacoresistant epilepsy with epileptic spasms, mostly with onset within the first 6 months of life and with spasm persistence in one-half of the cases. Tonic seizures were the most prevalent additional seizure type. Electroencephalography showed hypsarrhythmia and at a later stage of the disease in one-third of all cases paroxysms of fast activity with electrodecrement. ALG13-related DEE was usually associated with severe to profound developmental delay; ambulation was acquired by one-third of the cases, whereas purposeful hand use was sparse or completely absent. Hand stereotypies and dyskinetic movements including dystonia or choreoathetosis were relatively frequent. Verbal communication skills were absent or poor, and eye contact and pursuit were often impaired. SIGNIFICANCE: X-linked ALG13-related DEE usually manifests as West syndrome with severe to profound developmental delay. It is predominantly caused by the recurrent de novo missense variant p.(Asn107Ser). Comprehensive functional studies will be able to prove or disprove an association with congenital disorder of glycosylation.

6.
NPJ Genom Med ; 5(1): 53, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298948

RESUMO

USP9X is an X-chromosome gene that escapes X-inactivation. Loss or compromised function of USP9X leads to neurodevelopmental disorders in males and females. While males are impacted primarily by hemizygous partial loss-of-function missense variants, in females de novo heterozygous complete loss-of-function mutations predominate, and give rise to the clinically recognisable USP9X-female syndrome. Here we provide evidence of the contribution of USP9X missense and small in-frame deletion variants in USP9X-female syndrome also. We scrutinise the pathogenicity of eleven such variants, ten of which were novel. Combined application of variant prediction algorithms, protein structure modelling, and assessment under clinically relevant guidelines universally support their pathogenicity. The core phenotype of this cohort overlapped with previous descriptions of USP9X-female syndrome, but exposed heightened variability. Aggregate phenotypic information of 35 currently known females with predicted pathogenic variation in USP9X reaffirms the clinically recognisable USP9X-female syndrome, and highlights major differences when compared to USP9X-male associated neurodevelopmental disorders.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(6): 1096-1112, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232675

RESUMO

SWI/SNF-related intellectual disability disorders (SSRIDDs) are rare neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by developmental disability, coarse facial features, and fifth digit/nail hypoplasia that are caused by pathogenic variants in genes that encode for members of the SWI/SNF (or BAF) family of chromatin remodeling complexes. We have identified 12 individuals with rare variants (10 loss-of-function, 2 missense) in the BICRA (BRD4 interacting chromatin remodeling complex-associated protein) gene, also known as GLTSCR1, which encodes a subunit of the non-canonical BAF (ncBAF) complex. These individuals exhibited neurodevelopmental phenotypes that include developmental delay, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and behavioral abnormalities as well as dysmorphic features. Notably, the majority of individuals lack the fifth digit/nail hypoplasia phenotype, a hallmark of most SSRIDDs. To confirm the role of BICRA in the development of these phenotypes, we performed functional characterization of the zebrafish and Drosophila orthologs of BICRA. In zebrafish, a mutation of bicra that mimics one of the loss-of-function variants leads to craniofacial defects possibly akin to the dysmorphic facial features seen in individuals harboring putatively pathogenic BICRA variants. We further show that Bicra physically binds to other non-canonical ncBAF complex members, including the BRD9/7 ortholog, CG7154, and is the defining member of the ncBAF complex in flies. Like other SWI/SNF complex members, loss of Bicra function in flies acts as a dominant enhancer of position effect variegation but in a more context-specific manner. We conclude that haploinsufficiency of BICRA leads to a unique SSRIDD in humans whose phenotypes overlap with those previously reported.

8.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic variants of GNB5 encoding the ß5 subunit of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein cause IDDCA syndrome, an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with cognitive disability and cardiac arrhythmia, particularly severe bradycardia. METHODS: We used echocardiography and telemetric ECG recordings to investigate consequences of Gnb5 loss in mouse. RESULTS: We delineated a key role of Gnb5 in heart sinus conduction and showed that Gnb5-inhibitory signalling is essential for parasympathetic control of heart rate (HR) and maintenance of the sympathovagal balance. Gnb5-/- mice were smaller and had a smaller heart than Gnb5+/+ and Gnb5+/- , but exhibited better cardiac function. Lower autonomic nervous system modulation through diminished parasympathetic control and greater sympathetic regulation resulted in a higher baseline HR in Gnb5-/- mice. In contrast, Gnb5-/- mice exhibited profound bradycardia on treatment with carbachol, while sympathetic modulation of the cardiac stimulation was not altered. Concordantly, transcriptome study pinpointed altered expression of genes involved in cardiac muscle contractility in atria and ventricles of knocked-out mice. Homozygous Gnb5 loss resulted in significantly higher frequencies of sinus arrhythmias. Moreover, we described 13 affected individuals, increasing the IDDCA cohort to 44 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that loss of negative regulation of the inhibitory G-protein signalling causes HR perturbations in Gnb5- /- mice, an effect mainly driven by impaired parasympathetic activity. We anticipate that unravelling the mechanism of Gnb5 signalling in the autonomic control of the heart will pave the way for future drug screening.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(5): 963-976, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157009

RESUMO

NCKAP1/NAP1 regulates neuronal cytoskeletal dynamics and is essential for neuronal differentiation in the developing brain. Deleterious variants in NCKAP1 have been identified in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability; however, its clinical significance remains unclear. To determine its significance, we assemble genotype and phenotype data for 21 affected individuals from 20 unrelated families with predicted deleterious variants in NCKAP1. This includes 16 individuals with de novo (n = 8), transmitted (n = 6), or inheritance unknown (n = 2) truncating variants, two individuals with structural variants, and three with potentially disruptive de novo missense variants. We report a de novo and ultra-rare deleterious variant burden of NCKAP1 in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders which needs further replication. ASD or autistic features, language and motor delay, and variable expression of intellectual or learning disability are common clinical features. Among inherited cases, there is evidence of deleterious variants segregating with neuropsychiatric disorders. Based on available human brain transcriptomic data, we show that NCKAP1 is broadly and highly expressed in both prenatal and postnatal periods and demostrate enriched expression in excitatory neurons and radial glias but depleted expression in inhibitory neurons. Mouse in utero electroporation experiments reveal that Nckap1 loss of function promotes neuronal migration during early cortical development. Combined, these data support a role for disruptive NCKAP1 variants in neurodevelopmental delay/autism, possibly by interfering with neuronal migration early in cortical development.

10.
Genet Med ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144681

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in the X-linked gene NEXMIF (previously KIAA2022) are associated with intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorder, and epilepsy. We aimed to delineate the female and male phenotypic spectrum of NEXMIF encephalopathy. METHODS: Through an international collaboration, we analyzed the phenotypes and genotypes of 87 patients with NEXMIF encephalopathy. RESULTS: Sixty-three females and 24 males (46 new patients) with NEXMIF encephalopathy were studied, with 30 novel variants. Phenotypic features included developmental delay/ID in 86/87 (99%), seizures in 71/86 (83%) and multiple comorbidities. Generalized seizures predominated including myoclonic seizures and absence seizures (both 46/70, 66%), absence with eyelid myoclonia (17/70, 24%), and atonic seizures (30/70, 43%). Males had more severe developmental impairment; females had epilepsy more frequently, and varied from unaffected to severely affected. All NEXMIF pathogenic variants led to a premature stop codon or were deleterious structural variants. Most arose de novo, although X-linked segregation occurred for both sexes. Somatic mosaicism occurred in two males and a family with suspected parental mosaicism. CONCLUSION: NEXMIF encephalopathy is an X-linked, generalized developmental and epileptic encephalopathy characterized by myoclonic-atonic epilepsy overlapping with eyelid myoclonia with absence. Some patients have developmental encephalopathy without epilepsy. Males have more severe developmental impairment. NEXMIF encephalopathy arises due to loss-of-function variants.

11.
Genet Med ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149277

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A few de novo missense variants in the cytoplasmic FMRP-interacting protein 2 (CYFIP2) gene have recently been described as a novel cause of severe intellectual disability, seizures, and hypotonia in 18 individuals, with p.Arg87 substitutions in the majority. METHODS: We assembled data from 19 newly identified and all 18 previously published individuals with CYFIP2 variants. By structural modeling and investigation of WAVE-regulatory complex (WRC)-mediated actin polymerization in six patient fibroblast lines we assessed the impact of CYFIP2 variants on the WRC. RESULTS: Sixteen of 19 individuals harbor two previously described and 11 novel (likely) disease-associated missense variants. We report p.Asp724 as second mutational hotspot (4/19 cases). Genotype-phenotype correlation confirms a consistently severe phenotype in p.Arg87 patients but a more variable phenotype in p.Asp724 and other substitutions. Three individuals with milder phenotypes carry putative loss-of-function variants, which remain of unclear pathogenicity. Structural modeling predicted missense variants to disturb interactions within the WRC or impair CYFIP2 stability. Consistent with its role in WRC-mediated actin polymerization we substantiate aberrant regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in patient fibroblasts. CONCLUSION: Our study expands the clinical and molecular spectrum of CYFIP2-related neurodevelopmental disorder and provides evidence for aberrant WRC-mediated actin dynamics as contributing cellular pathomechanism.

12.
Epilepsia ; 61(11): 2474-2485, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Autosomal recessive pathogenic variants of the SLC13A5 gene are associated with severe neonatal epilepsy, developmental delay, and tooth hypoplasia/hypodontia. We report on 14 additional patients and compare their phenotypic features to previously published patients to identify the clinical hallmarks of this disorder. METHODS: We collected clinical features of 14 patients carrying biallelic variants in SLC13A5 and performed a PubMed search to identify previously published patients. RESULTS: All patients presented clonic or tonic seizures in the first days of life, evolving into status epilepticus in 57%. Analysis of seizure frequency and developmental milestones divided into five epochs showed an evolutionary trajectory of both items. In the first 3 years of life, 72% of patients had weekly/monthly seizures, often triggered by fever; 14% were seizure-free. Between the ages of 3 and 12 years, 60% become seizure-free; in the following years, up to age 18 years, 57% were seizure-free. After the age of 18 years, all three patients reaching this age were seizure-free. Similarly, 86% of patients at onset presented mild to moderate developmental impairment and diffuse hypotonia. In late childhood, all had developmental delay that was severe in most. Benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and carbamazepine were the most effective drugs. Eight probands carried heterozygous compound variants, and homozygous pathogenic variants occurred in six. Literature review identified 45 patients carrying SLC13A5 gene pathogenic variants whose clinical features overlapped with our cohort. A peculiar and distinguishing sign is the presence of tooth hypoplasia and/or hypodontia in most patients. SIGNIFICANCE: Autosomal recessive pathogenic variants in SLC13A5 are associated with a distinct neonatal epileptic encephalopathy evolving into severe cognitive and motor impairment, yet with seizures that settle down in late childhood. Tooth hypoplasia or hypodontia remains the peculiar feature. The SLC13A5 gene should be screened in neonatal epileptic encephalopathies; its recessive inheritance has relevance for genetic counseling.

13.
Ann Neurol ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085104

RESUMO

Exome sequencing was performed in 2 unrelated families with progressive myoclonus epilepsy. Affected individuals from both families shared a rare, homozygous c.191A > G variant affecting a splice site in SLC7A6OS. Analysis of cDNA from lymphoblastoid cells demonstrated partial splice site abolition and the creation of an abnormal isoform. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot showed a marked reduction of protein expression. Haplotype analysis identified a ~0.85cM shared genomic region on chromosome 16q encompassing the c.191A > G variant, consistent with a distant ancestor common to both families. Our results suggest that biallelic loss-of-function variants in SLC7A6OS are a novel genetic cause of progressive myoclonus epilepsy. ANN NEUROL 2020.

14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5341, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087723

RESUMO

Autoimmunity can occur when a checkpoint of self-tolerance fails. The study of familial autoimmune diseases can reveal pathophysiological mechanisms involved in more common autoimmune diseases. Here, by whole-exome/genome sequencing we identify heterozygous, autosomal-dominant, germline loss-of-function mutations in the SOCS1 gene in ten patients from five unrelated families with early onset autoimmune manifestations. The intracellular protein SOCS1 is known to downregulate cytokine signaling by inhibiting the JAK-STAT pathway. Accordingly, patient-derived lymphocytes exhibit increased STAT activation in vitro in response to interferon-γ, IL-2 and IL-4 that is reverted by the JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib. This effect is associated with a series of in vitro and in vivo immune abnormalities consistent with lymphocyte hyperactivity. Hence, SOCS1 haploinsufficiency causes a dominantly inherited predisposition to early onset autoimmune diseases related to cytokine hypersensitivity of immune cells.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Autoimunidade/genética , Proteína 1 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocina/deficiência , Proteína 1 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocina/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Haploinsuficiência , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Linhagem , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína 1 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocina/química , Linfócitos T/imunologia
15.
Epilepsia ; 61(11): 2461-2473, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954514

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to delineate the phenotypic spectrum and long-term outcome of individuals with KCNB1 encephalopathy. METHODS: We collected genetic, clinical, electroencephalographic, and imaging data of individuals with KCNB1 pathogenic variants recruited through an international collaboration, with the support of the family association "KCNB1 France." Patients were classified as having developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) or developmental encephalopathy (DE). In addition, we reviewed published cases and provided the long-term outcome in patients older than 12 years from our series and from literature. RESULTS: Our series included 36 patients (21 males, median age = 10 years, range = 1.6 months-34 years). Twenty patients (56%) had DEE with infantile onset seizures (seizure onset = 10 months, range = 10 days-3.5 years), whereas 16 (33%) had DE with late onset epilepsy in 10 (seizure onset = 5 years, range = 18 months-25 years) and without epilepsy in six. Cognitive impairment was more severe in individuals with DEE compared to those with DE. Analysis of 73 individuals with KCNB1 pathogenic variants (36 from our series and 37 published individuals in nine reports) showed developmental delay in all with severe to profound intellectual disability in 67% (n = 41/61) and autistic features in 56% (n = 32/57). Long-term outcome in 22 individuals older than 12 years (14 in our series and eight published individuals) showed poor cognitive, psychiatric, and behavioral outcome. Epilepsy course was variable. Missense variants were associated with more frequent and more severe epilepsy compared to truncating variants. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study describes the phenotypic spectrum of KCNB1 encephalopathy, which varies from severe DEE to DE with or without epilepsy. Although cognitive impairment is worse in patients with DEE, long-term outcome is poor for most and missense variants are associated with more severe epilepsy outcome. Further understanding of disease mechanisms should facilitate the development of targeted therapies, much needed to improve the neurodevelopmental prognosis.

16.
Pharmacol Res ; 160: 105200, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942014

RESUMO

De novo variants in KCNQ2 encoding for Kv7.2 voltage-dependent neuronal potassium (K+) channel subunits are associated with developmental epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). We herein describe the clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) features of a child with early-onset DEE caused by the novel KCNQ2 p.G310S variant. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the mutation induces loss-of-function effects on the currents produced by channels incorporating mutant subunits; these effects were counteracted by the selective Kv7 opener retigabine and by gabapentin, a recently described Kv7 activator. Given these data, the patient started treatment with gabapentin, showing a rapid and sustained clinical and EEG improvement over the following months. Overall, these results suggest that gabapentin can be regarded as a precision therapy for DEEs due to KCNQ2 loss-of-function mutations.

17.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 254, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple telangiectases and caused by germline disease-causing variants in the ENG (HHT1), ACVRL1 (HHT2) and, to a lesser extent MADH4 and GDF2, which encode proteins involved in the TGF-ß/BMP9 signaling pathway. Common visceral complications of HHT are caused by pulmonary, cerebral, or hepatic arteriovenous malformations (HAVMs). There is large intrafamilial variability in the severity of visceral involvement, suggesting a role for modifier genes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential role of ENG, ACVRL1, and of other candidate genes belonging to the same biological pathway in the development of HAVMs. METHODS: We selected 354 patients from the French HHT patient database who had one disease causing variant in either ENG or ACVRL1 and who underwent hepatic exploration. We first compared the distribution of the different types of variants with the occurrence of HAVMs. Then, we genotyped 51 Tag-SNPs from the Hap Map database located in 8 genes that encode proteins belonging to the TGF-ß/BMP9 pathway (ACVRL1, ENG, GDF2, MADH4, SMAD1, SMAD5, TGFB1, TGFBR1), as well as in two additional candidate genes (PTPN14 and ADAM17). We addressed the question of a possible genetic association with the occurrence of HAVMs. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with germline ACVRL1 variants and the proportion of women were significantly higher in HHT patients with HAVMs. In the HHT2 group, HAVMs were more frequent in patients with truncating variants. Six SNPs (3 in ACVRL1, 1 in ENG, 1 in SMAD5, and 1 in ADAM17) were significantly associated with HAVMs. After correction for multiple testing, only one remained significantly associated (rs2277383). CONCLUSIONS: In this large association study, we confirmed the strong relationship between ACVRL1 and the development of HAVMs. Common polymorphisms of ACVRL1 may also play a role in the development of HAVMs, as a modifying factor, independently of the disease-causing variants.

18.
Hum Genomics ; 14(1): 32, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to be able to provide accurate genetic counseling to patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), it is crucial to identify correlations between heterogeneous phenotypes and genetic alterations. Among the hundreds of de novo pathogenic variants reported in ASD, single-nucleotide variations and small insertions/deletions were reported in TBR1. This gene encodes a transcription factor that plays a key role in brain development. Pathogenic variants in TBR1 are often associated with severe forms of ASD, including intellectual disability and language impairment. METHODS: Adults diagnosed with ASD but without intellectual disability (diagnosis of Asperger syndrome, according to the DSM-IV) took part in a genetic consultation encompassing metabolic assessments, a molecular karyotype and the screening of a panel of 268 genes involved in intellectual disability, ASD and epilepsy. In addition, the patient reported here went through a neuropsychological assessment, structural magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements. RESULTS: Here, we report the case of a young adult male who presents with a typical form of ASD. Importantly, this patient presents with no intellectual disability or language impairment, despite a de novo heterozygous frameshift pathogenic variant in TBR1, leading to an early premature termination codon (c.26del, p.(Pro9Leufs*12)). CONCLUSION: Based on this case report, we discuss the role of TBR1 in general brain development, language development, intellectual disability and other symptoms of ASD. Providing a detailed clinical description of the individuals with such pathogenic variants should help to understand the genotype-phenotype relationships in ASD.

19.
Eur J Med Genet ; 63(11): 104044, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861809

RESUMO

Mosaic Variegated Aneuploidy Syndrome (MVA) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by mosaic aneuploidies involving multiple chromosomes and tissues. Affected individuals typically present with severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, developmental delay and predisposition to cancer and epilepsy. Three genes, BUB1B, CEP57 and TRIP13, are involved in this syndrome. Only 7 patients carrying pathogenic variants in CEP57 are reported to date. Here we report two adult brothers born to Moroccan related parents, who presented with intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, learning disabilities, skeletal anomalies with thumb hypoplasia and dental abnormalities. Both brothers have mosaic variegated aneuploidies on blood karyotype. A previously reported homozygous 11 bp duplication was identified in CEP57 in the two brothers. We propose that a FoSTeS (Fork Stalling and Template Switching) mechanism could be involved in the occurrence of this duplication. This report expands the phenotypical spectrum associated with CEP57 and highlights the interest of blood karyotype in patients presenting with short stature and microcephaly.

20.
Epilepsia ; 61(7): e71-e78, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645220

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth-factor homologous factor (FHF1) gene variants have recently been associated with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). FHF1 encodes a cytosolic protein that modulates neuronal sodium channel gating. We aim to refine the electroclinical phenotypic spectrum of patients with pathogenic FHF1 variants. We retrospectively collected clinical, genetic, neurophysiologic, and neuroimaging data of 17 patients with FHF1-DEE. Sixteen patients had recurrent heterozygous FHF1 missense variants: 14 had the recurrent p.Arg114His variant and two had a novel likely pathogenic variant p.Gly112Ser. The p.Arg114His variant is associated with an earlier onset and more severe phenotype. One patient carried a chromosomal microduplication involving FHF1. Twelve patients carried a de novo variant, five (29.5%) inherited from parents with gonadic or somatic mosaicism. Seizure onset was between 1 day and 41 months; in 76.5% it was within 30 days. Tonic seizures were the most frequent seizure type. Twelve patients (70.6%) had drug-resistant epilepsy, 14 (82.3%) intellectual disability, and 11 (64.7%) behavioral disturbances. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed mild cerebral and/or cerebellar atrophy in nine patients (52.9%). Overall, our findings expand and refine the clinical, EEG, and imaging phenotype of patients with FHF1-DEE, which is characterized by early onset epilepsy with tonic seizures, associated with moderate to severe ID and psychiatric features.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsia/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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