Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 34
Filtrar
1.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 170, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of a decision aid in clinical settings has been beneficial. It informs and educates patients about the available treatment options that can help them reduce decision-making conflicts related to feeling uninformed compared with routine care. There is a scarcity of published data about using a decision aid during family planning counseling with postpartum women focusing on long-acting reversible contraception in Tanzania. Therefore, we developed a "postpartum Green Star family planning decision aid" and assessed its feasibility. The study outcomes were practicality, usefulness, and acceptability perceived by pregnant adolescents and nurses/midwives. METHODS: We used an exploratory qualitative in-depth interview involving six nurses/midwives with three or more years of experience in family planning services and 12 pregnant adolescents aged 15-19 years. Purposive sampling was used to select the participants, and selection relied on the saturation principle of data collection. We used a semi-structured interview guide translated into the Kiswahili language. Data were transcribed and analyzed following inductive content analysis. RESULTS: The amount of information presented was just right, with the time of reading the data ranging from 20 min to 1 h. The study participants perceived the flow of information to be good, with small significant changes suggested. Kiswahili language was used and reported to be appropriate and well elaborated. However, a few words were told to be rephrased to reduce ambiguity. The nurses/midwives said that the decision aid included most of the vital information the participants wanted to know during their family planning counseling. Pregnant adolescents stated that the decision aid improved their knowledge and provided new details on the long-acting reversible contraception methods (intrauterine copper devices and implants) offered immediately after childbirth. The participants stated that the decision aid addressed long-acting reversible contraception methods' benefits and side effects and dispelled myths and misconceptions. The study participants considered the decision aid helpful in complementing the family planning counseling offered and improving pregnant adolescents' knowledge. CONCLUSION: The postpartum Green Star family planning decision aid was practical, useful, and acceptable in enhancing the objectivity of counseling about long-acting reversible contraception methods. It improved the knowledge of pregnant adolescents in Tanzania about the available contraception methods (i.e., the use of intrauterine copper devices and implants), which can be immediately used postpartum. Further research is needed to assess the effects of the decision aid on long-acting reversible contraception postpartum uptake among pregnant adolescents in Tanzania.


Assuntos
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Período Pós-Parto , Adolescente , Anticoncepção , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Tanzânia
2.
J Sex Med ; 18(10): 1690-1697, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Across Africa, there are strong cultural taboos against masturbation. AIM: As part of a broader study investigating sexual health training needs of the health providers, researchers conducted a study to investigate how masturbation is addressed as a clinical issue in clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: An exploratory qualitative study design conducted in June 2019 involving 18 focus groups among health care providers and students in the health professions (midwives, nurses, medical doctors). A total of 61 health care students and 58 health providers were interviewed. The study participants were purposively selected and the design was purposively stratified to examine findings across the 3 main health care providers and by experience (clinicians vs students). A semistructured interview guide in Kiswahili language was used. The study participants were presented a case scenario of a 14-year-old boy who was found masturbating in his room by his father, and asked how this case would be handled in a clinical setting. Data were transcribed in Kiswahili and Translated to English. OUTCOMES: Inductive-deductive thematic analysis was performed. Major themes and subthemes were identified. RESULTS: Two main themes emerged: (i) knowledge about the management of masturbation and (ii) views about the effects of masturbation. Clinical interventions providers would try to include normalization of masturbation as a pubescent behavior combined with advice to stop the adolescent from masturbating, a recommendation to watch for negative effects immediately postmasturbation, and referral to a psychologist for treatment. Across providers and students, masturbation in adolescence was seen as clinically problematic, potentially leading to multiple issues in adulthood including sexual dissatisfaction with a spouse, psychological dependency, and erectile dysfunction, loss of sexual sensitivity in intercourse, premature ejaculation, and penis size reduction. Several participants mentioned they received no training about masturbation to guide their clinical practice. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: These findings affirm the need for comprehensive sexual health training in Tanzanian universities. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: Use of stratified design by profession and experience allowed to explore if there appear to be differences between students and experienced providers. The findings cannot be generalizable to all health professional students and providers across Tanzania. CONCLUSION: When designing sexual health curricula for Tanzania, it is important to include accurate information about masturbation as a normal and healthy sexual practice to address widely held myths about its effects on health, and to train providers in how to counsel when concerns and inaccurate information are brought to the clinical encounter. Mushy SE, Rosser BRS, Ross MW, et al. The Management of Masturbation as a Sexual Health Issue in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: A Qualitative Study of Health Professionals' and Medical Students' Perspectives. J Sex Med 2021;18:1690-1697.

3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083246

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Midwifery associations are organisations that represent midwives and the profession of midwifery. They support midwives to reduce maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity by promoting the overall integration of midwifery in health systems. Our objective was to generate a framework for evidence-informed midwifery association strengthening. METHODS: A critical interpretive synthesis complemented by key informant interviews, focus groups, observations, and document review was used to inform the development of concepts and theory. Three electronic bibliographical databases (CINAHL, EMBASE and MEDLINE) were searched through to 2 September 2020. A coding structure was created to guide the synthesis across the five sources of evidence. RESULTS: A total of 1634 records were retrieved through electronic searches and 57 documents were included in the critical interpretive synthesis. Thirty-one (31) key informant interviews and five focus groups were completed including observations (255 pages) and audio recordings. Twenty-four (24) programme documents were reviewed. The resulting theoretical framework outlines the key factors by context, describes the system drivers that impact the sustainability of midwifery associations and identifies the key-enabling elements involved in designing programmes that strengthen midwifery associations. CONCLUSION: Midwifery associations act as the web that holds the profession together and are key to the integration of the profession in health systems, supporting enabling environments and improving gender inequities. Our findings highlight that in order to strengthen midwifery (education, regulation and services), we have to lead with association strengthening. Building strong associations is the foundation necessary to create formal quality midwifery education systems and to support midwifery regulation and accreditation mechanisms.


Assuntos
Tocologia , Feminino , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 676, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health care providers across sub-Saharan Africa continue to face challenges while delivering sexual health care services. We explored the experiences, views and challenges of health care professionals and health students across different disciplines in Tanzania, towards delivery of sexual health services to men who have sex with men. METHODS: Utilizing a qualitative approach, we recruited 121 health care professionals (providers) and students from the fields of midwifery, nursing and medicine in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We conducted 18 focus groups discussions, stratified by profession and experience, to investigate clinical management and challenges while addressing a case of an adult male presenting with rectal gonorrhea. RESULTS: Findings indicated this case as extremely sensitive, clinical management involved establishing rapport and consent, medical care from history taking to treatment, and referral to other specialties. However, the illegal status of homosexuality in Tanzania was a primary concern to participants, this triggered the clinical care of this case scenario as challenging. There were uncertainties whether or not that such a case should be reported to the authorities. CONCLUSION: Findings from this study revealed a need for training health students in Tanzania to address sexual health issues including accurate information on homosexuality, reporting requirements and clinical management in the legal and socio-cultural context of the African continent.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Saúde Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Pessoal de Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes , Tanzânia
5.
Trauma Violence Abuse ; : 1524838021995951, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a well-known public health problem occurring worldwide. With a multisectoral approach being emphasized in addressing IPV, the health sector has a key role to play due to many IPV victims who appear in health facilities without their needs being met. A well-designed and implemented IPV curriculum is necessary for effectively training health care professionals to provide quality IPV care and related services. This integrative review was conducted to establish evidence for existing curricular limitations and recommendations for training health care providers to respond to IPV. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted for studies published from 2000 to 2020 in five databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Google, and Scholar). As a criterion, studies that reported curricular limitations in training health care providers/professionals to address IPV were included. A total of 198 studies were identified for screening, with 16 studies meeting the inclusion criteria and included in the review. FINDINGS: Curricular limitations for IPV response training for health care providers were reported in the following areas (themes): time allocated for the training, amount of content in the existing curricula, institutional endorsement for the content, IPV response teachers/facilitators, teaching and learning strategies, and funding to support curricular implementation. Various recommendations to improving IPV response training were provided including guaranteeing the training in all courses, increasing academic capability to teach the content, allocation of funding to improve infrastructure for curriculum development and implementation, comprehensive approaches to teaching, and continuing education for health care providers.

6.
Health Soc Care Community ; 29(4): 947-956, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794241

RESUMO

Although intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in Tanzania, the country's system to provide IPV-related mental healthcare is not sufficiently prepared to respond to IPV care needs. This study aimed to assess nurses' and midwives' awareness of IPV-related mental healthcare and associated factors to encourage care provision. A cross-sectional, anonymous, self-administered survey was conducted among nurses and midwives in health facilities in the Mbeya region, from December 2018 to January 2019. The questions gauged awareness of IPV-related mental disorders, availability of screening tools, confidence in providing IPV-related mental healthcare and the presence of a mental health focal/resource person, in addition to socio-demographic and institutional characteristics. Of 1,321 nurses and midwives in the region, 662 (50.1%) participated in the study, and the analysis included 568 (85.8%) responses without missing values. The median awareness score was 5 (range: 0-6), and 34.0% of the participants were aware of all six examined IPV-related mental health disorders. Separate logistic regression analyses were conducted for those working in hospitals and those working in health centres (HCs), assessing potential factors associated with nurses' and midwives' awareness of IPV-related mental disorders. Among nurses and midwives in hospitals, high professional education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.207; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.787, 1.852; p = .045) and long work experience (AOR: 1.479; 95% CI: 1.009, 2.169; p = .007) were associated with high awareness of IPV-related mental disorders. For those in HCs, government ownership (AOR: 3.526; 95% CI: 1.082, 11.489; p = .037) and having a mental health focal/resource person (AOR: 3.251; 95% CI: 1.184, 8.932; p = .036) were associated with high awareness of IPV-related mental disorders. Appropriate distribution of mental health focal/resource persons is required for improving awareness of IPV-related mental healthcare provision among nurses and midwives in remote areas of Tanzania.

7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 584, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Facility-based childbirth has increased globally. Unfortunately, there have also been reports of women experiencing disrespect and abuse by healthcare providers during childbirth. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of self-reported disrespect and abuse (D&A) by healthcare providers of women during childbirth in health facilities in Tanzania, and to clarify the factors related to D&A. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in public health facilities of three regions in Tanzania from September 2016 to October 2016. Nurses and midwives who had ever conducted deliveries completed a 22-item section about D&A and three sections about working conditions and environment. A model for predicting D&A based on several factors such as their characteristics, working conditions, and working environment was developed by conducting multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: Thirty public health facilities in three regions within Tanzania were selected to reflect different levels of hospitals. Among 456 participants (nurses, midwives, and nursing assistants), 439 were included in the analysis. Average number of self-reported D&A out of 22 items was five, and nearly all participants (96.1%) reported enacting one form of D&A at the least and two forms of D&A at the most. About 25-44% of D&A items were in the forms related to women's experiences with childbirth psychologically. Moreover, at least 10-30% of the participants enacted some form of D&A which could directly affect the well-being of mothers and babies. D&A scores increased with an increase in 'working hours per week' and 'taking a break during evening shifts'. D&A scores decreased with an increase in the scores of the 'two components of the Index of Working Satisfaction (professional status and interaction between nurses)', and 'any type of supervision for new nurse-midwives'. CONCLUSION: Most studies about D&A of healthcare providers previously focused on the reports of women. To our knowledge, this is the first report that focused on D&A reported by healthcare providers. Working conditions and systems including personal relationships with colleagues were both positively and negatively related to D&A of healthcare providers rather than the provider's individual and facility structural characteristics.


Assuntos
Tocologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Violência no Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Parto Obstétrico/psicologia , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Gravidez , Respeito , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Violência no Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Rural Med ; 15(4): 155-163, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033535

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the awareness of contraceptive methods, understanding of HIV/AIDS prevention and the perception of HIV/AIDS risks among secondary school students in Tanzania. Methods: An anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among secondary school students in Tanzania. The questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics, awareness of contraceptive methods, an understanding of HIV/AIDS prevention, and the perception of HIV/AIDS risks. Three secondary schools were selected by considering the gender balance and location, which included the urban and surrounding areas. The research objectives, methods, and ethical considerations were explained, and the students voluntarily completed the questionnaire. Results: A total of 233 responses were collected, and 204 responses were considered valid for the analysis. The mean and standard deviation of age were 18.5 ± 1.0. Regardless of the gender, age, religion, and major course of study, the maternal educational status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.129; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.324, 7.398; P=0.009) and the number of information sources (AOR: 7.023, 95% CI: 3.166, 15.579, P<0.001) demonstrated associations with the awareness of contraceptive methods. Respondents who lived outside a dormitory (AOR: 3.782; 95% CI: 1.650, 8.671; P=0.002) and who currently had a partner (AOR: 3.616; 95% CI: 1.486, 8.800; P=0.005) were associated with a high level of understanding of HIV/AIDS prevention regardless of gender, age, religion, and major course of study. Respondents with few information sources were associated with a high level of perception of HIV/AIDS risks (AOR: 0.293; 95% CI: 0.115, 0.747; P=0.010), regardless of gender, age, religion, and major course of study. Conclusion: Factors associated with the awareness of contraceptive methods, the understanding of HIV/AIDS prevention, and perception of HIV/AIDS risks were not consistent. To ensure the improvement of these factors among secondary school students, sexual health education should be integrated into educational programs and provided holistically.

9.
Hum Resour Health ; 18(1): 56, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With increasing recognition of intimate partner violence (IPV) as a public health challenge, nurses and midwives are recognized for their crucial role in providing front-line healthcare services for IPV. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge, attitude, and preparedness related to IPV care provision in health facilities among nurses and midwives in Tanzania. METHODS: A self-administered anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted among nurses and midwives working in health facilities in the Mbeya region between December 2018 and January 2019. The questionnaire consisted of questions on their perceived and actual knowledge, attitudes, and preparedness to provide care in relation to IPV. RESULTS: A total of 662 (50.1%) of 1321 nurses and midwives who worked in hospitals and/or health centers in the Mbeya region participated in this study, and 461 (69.6%) completed questionnaires were included in the analysis. The proportion of nurses and midwives with high scores in IPV perceived knowledge, actual knowledge, attitude, and preparedness to provide care was 59.9%, 53.1%, 54.2%, and 54.0%, respectively. Regardless of the type of facility, gender, educational level, and work experience, the use of IPV guidelines was significantly associated with high scores in IPV perceived knowledge (P < 0.001), actual knowledge (P = 0.004), and preparedness to provide care (P < 0.001), but not attitude, which was negatively associated (P = 0.048). Regardless of the type of facility, gender, educational level, and work experience, receiving preservice IPV training was associated with high scores in IPV perceived knowledge (P < 0.001), actual knowledge (P = 0.049), and preparedness to provide care (P = 0.002), but not attitude (P = 0.192). Regardless of the type of facility, gender, educational level, and work experience, in-service IPV training was associated with high scores in IPV perceived knowledge (P < 0.001), actual knowledge (P = 0.043), and preparedness to provide care (P = 0.001), but not attitude (P = 0.063). CONCLUSIONS: Although guidelines and training could improve nurses' and midwives' knowledge and preparedness to provide care regarding IPV, attitudes against IPV care are a challenge. To improve attitudes regarding IPV among front-line nurses and midwives, it is necessary to address concepts of IPV care and sympathy with potential and actual victims of IPV in pre- and in-service training in addition to providing recall-level knowledge.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Competência Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Humanos , Enfermeiras Obstétricas/psicologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Fatores Sexuais , Tanzânia
10.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 107, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Tanzania, the information on Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness is insufficiently provided to pregnant women and their families. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maternal and infant outcomes of a family-oriented antenatal group education program that promotes Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness in rural Tanzania. METHODS: Pregnant women and families were enrolled in a program about nutrition and exercise, danger signs, and birth preparedness. The cross sectional survey was conducted one year later to evaluate if the participants of the program (intervention group) were different from those who did not participate (control group) with respect to birth-preparedness and maternal and infant outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 194 participants (intervention group, 50; control group, 144) were analyzed. For Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness, the intervention group participants knew a health facility in case of emergency (OR: 3.11, 95% CI: 1.39-6.97); arranged accompaniment to go to a health facility for birth (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.17-5.60); decided the birthplace with or by the pregnant women (OR: 3.11, 95% CI: 1.44-6.70); and attended antenatal clinic more than four times (OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.20-4.78). For birth outcomes, the intervention group had less bleeding or seizure during labour and birth (OR: 0.28, 95%CI: 0.13-0.58); fewer Caesarean sections (OR: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.07-0.36); and less neonatal complications (OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.13-0.60). CONCLUSIONS: The four variables were significantly better in the intervention group, i.e., identifying a health facility for emergencies, family accompaniment for facility birth, antenatal visits, and involvement of women in decision-making, which may be key factors for improving birth outcome variables. Having identified these key factors, male involvement and healthy pregnant lives should be emphasized in antenatal education to reduce pregnancy and childbirth complications. TRIAL REGISTRATION: No.2013-273-NA-2013-101 . Registered 12 August 2013.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Gestantes/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Educação Pré-Natal/organização & administração , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia
11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(2): e001214, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997164

RESUMO

Background: Training health providers is an important strategy to improve health. We conducted a cluster-randomised two-arm trial in Tanzania to assess the effect of a 1-day competency-based training 'Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding after Birth (HMS BAB)' followed by eight weekly drills on postpartum haemorrhage (PPH)-related morbidity and mortality. Methods: Twenty districts in four purposefully selected regions in Tanzania included 61 facilities. The districts were randomly allocated using matched pairs to ensure similarity in terms of district health services in intervention and comparison districts. In the 10 intervention districts 331 health providers received the HMS BAB training. The other half continued with standard practices. We used the WHO's near miss tool to collect information on severe morbidity (near misses) of all women admitted to study facilities. We performed interrupted time series analysis to estimate differences in the change of near miss per delivery rate and case fatality rates. We also assessed implementation of evidence-based preventive and basic management practices for PPH as secondary outcomes. Results: We included 120 533 facility deliveries, 6503 near misses and 202 maternal deaths in study districts during study period (November 2014 to January 2017). A significant reduction of PPH near misses was found among women who suffered PPH in the intervention district compared with comparison districts (difference-in-differences of slopes -5.3, 95% CI -7.8 to -2.7, p<0.001) from a baseline PPH-related near miss rate of 71% (95% CI 60% to 80%). There was a significant decrease in the long-term PPH near miss case fatality (difference-in-differences of slopes -4 to 0) (95% CI -6.5 to -1.5, p<0.01) in intervention compared with the comparison districts. The intervention had a positive effect on the proportion of PPH cases treated with intravenous oxytocin (difference-in-differences of slopes 5.2, 95% CI 1.4 to 8.9) (p <0.01). Conclusion: The positive effect of the training intervention on PPH morbidity and case fatality suggests that the training addresses important deficits in knowledge and skills. Trial registration number: PACTR201604001582128.

12.
Global Health ; 14(1): 123, 2018 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545394

RESUMO

This article describes a twinning relationship between the Canadian Association of Midwives (CAM) and the Tanzania Midwives Association (TAMA). It argues that the twinning relationship strengthened both associations. The article briefly reviews the existing literature on professional associations and association strengthening to demonstrate that professional associations are a vital tool for improving the performance of healthcare workers and increasing their capacity to contribute to national and international policy-making. It then suggests that midwifery associations are particularly significant given the frequent professional marginalization of midwives. The article then describes in depth the relationship between CAM and TAMA, highlighting the accomplishments of the twinned partners, and analyzing the factors that contributed to the success of the relationship. The findings demonstrate that twinning can successfully strengthen associations, increasing their ability to support their membership, care for the public, and shape national policy-making. The article therefore proposes twinning as a successful and cost-effective model for encouraging the growth of the midwifery profession.


Assuntos
Cooperação Internacional , Tocologia/organização & administração , Sociedades de Enfermagem/organização & administração , Canadá , Fortalecimento Institucional , Humanos , Tanzânia
13.
Reprod Health ; 15(1): 117, 2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29954398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To increase births attended by skilled birth attendants in Tanzania, studies have identified the need for involvement of the whole family in pregnancy and childbirth education. This study aimed to develop, implement, and evaluate a family-oriented antenatal group educational program to promote healthy pregnancy and family involvement in rural Tanzania. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental 1 group pre-test/post-test study with antenatal education provided to pregnant women and their families in rural Tanzania. Before and after the educational program, the pre-test/post-test study was conducted using a 34-item Birth Preparedness Questionnaire. Acceptability of the educational program was qualitatively assessed. RESULTS: One-hundred and thirty-eight participants (42 pregnant women, 96 family members) attended the educational program, answered the questionnaire, and participated in the feasibility inquiry. The mean knowledge scores significantly increased between the pre-test and the post-test, 7.92 and 8.33, respectively (p = 0.001). For both pregnant women and family members, the educational program improved Family Support (p = 0.001 and p = 0.000) and Preparation of Money and Food (p = 0.000 and p = 0.000). For family members, the scores for Birth Preparedness (p = 0.006) and Avoidance of Medical Intervention (reversed item) (p = 0.002) significantly increased. Despite the educational program, the score for Home-based Value (reversed item) (p = 0.022) and References of SBA (p = 0.049) decreased in pregnant women. Through group discussions, favorable comments about the program and materials were received. The comments of the husbands reflected their better understanding and appreciation of their role in supporting their wives during the antenatal period. CONCLUSIONS: The family-oriented antenatal group educational program has potential to increase knowledge, birth preparedness, and awareness of the need for family support among pregnant women and their families in rural Tanzania. As the contents of the program can be taught easily by reading the picture drama, lay personnel, such as community health workers or traditional birth attendants, can use it in villages. Further development of the Birth Preparedness Questionnaire is necessary to strengthen the involved factors. A larger scale study with a more robust Birth Preparedness Questionnaire and documentation of skilled care use is needed for the next step. TRIAL REGISTRATION: No.2013-273-NA-2013-101 . Registered 12 August 2013.


Assuntos
Família , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Gestantes/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , População Rural , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Tocologia , Gravidez , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Tanzânia
14.
Reprod Health ; 15(1): 8, 2018 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29321051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades, facility-based childbirths in Tanzania have only minimally increased by 10% partly because of healthcare providers' disrespect and abuse (D&A) of women during childbirth. Although numerous studies have substantiated women's experience of D&A during childbirth by healthcare providers, few have focused on how D&A occurred during the midwives' actual care. This study aimed to describe from actual observations the respectful and disrespectful care received by women from midwives during their labor period in two hospitals in urban Tanzania. METHODS: This descriptive qualitative study involved naturalistic observation of two health facilities in urban Tanzania. Fourteen midwives were purposively recruited for the one-on-one shadowing of their care of 24 women in labor from admission to the fourth stage of labor. Observations of their midwifery care were analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: All the 14 midwives showed both respectful and disrespectful care and some practices that have not been explicated in previous reports of women's experiences. For respectful care, five categories were identified: 1) positive interactions between midwives and women, 2) respect for women's privacy, 3) provision of safe and timely midwifery care for delivery, 4) active engagement in women's labor process, and 5) encouragement of the mother-baby relationship. For disrespectful care, five categories were recognized: 1) physical abuse, 2) psychological abuse, 3) non-confidential care, 4) non-consented care, and 5) abandonment of care. Two additional categories emerged from the unprioritized and disorganized nursing and midwifery management: 1) lack of accountability and 2) unethical clinical practices. CONCLUSIONS: Both respectful care and disrespectful care of midwives were observed in the two health facilities in urban Tanzania. Several types of physical and psychological abuse that have not been reported were observed. Weak nursing and midwifery management was found to be a contributor to the D&A of women. To promote respectful care of women, pre-service and in-service trainings, improvement of working conditions and environment, empowering pregnant women, and strengthening health policies are crucial.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Parto Obstétrico/enfermagem , Tocologia , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Parto , Má Conduta Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico/psicologia , Parto Obstétrico/normas , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Tocologia/normas , Parto/psicologia , Abuso Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Recursos Humanos , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 17(Suppl 2): 336, 2017 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29143624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The links between empowerment and a number of health-related outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa have been documented, but empowerment related to pregnancy is under-investigated. Antenatal care (ANC) is the entry point into the healthcare system for most women, so it is important to understand how ANC affects aspects of women's sense of control over their pregnancy. We compare pregnancy-related empowerment for women randomly assigned to the standard of care versus CenteringPregnancy-based group ANC (intervention) in two sub-Saharan countries, Malawi and Tanzania. METHODS: Pregnant women in Malawi (n = 112) and Tanzania (n = 110) were recruited into a pilot study and randomized to individual ANC or group ANC. Retention at late pregnancy was 81% in Malawi and 95% in Tanzania. In both countries, individual ANC, termed focused antenatal care (FANC), is the standard of care. FANC recommends four ANC visits plus a 6-week post-birth visit and is implemented following the country's standard of care. In group ANC, each contact included self- and midwife-assessments in group space and 90 minutes of interactive health promotion. The number of contacts was the same for both study conditions. We measured pregnancy-related empowerment in late pregnancy using the Pregnancy-Related Empowerment Scale (PRES). Independent samples t-tests and multiple linear regressions were employed to assess whether group ANC led to higher PRES scores than individual ANC and to investigate other sociodemographic factors related to pregnancy-related empowerment. RESULTS: In Malawi, women in group ANC had higher PRES scores than those in individual ANC. Type of care was a significant predictor of PRES and explained 67% of the variation. This was not so in Tanzania; PRES scores were similar for both types of care. Predictive models including sociodemographic variables showed religion as a potential moderator of treatment effect in Tanzania. Muslim women in group ANC had a higher mean PRES score than those in individual ANC; a difference not observed among Christian women. CONCLUSIONS: Group ANC empowers pregnant women in some contexts. More research is needed to identify the ways that models of ANC can affect pregnancy-related empowerment in addition to perinatal outcomes globally.


Assuntos
Processos Grupais , Poder Psicológico , Gestantes/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Cristianismo/psicologia , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Islamismo/psicologia , Malaui , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Fatores Sociológicos , Tanzânia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 139(3): 290-296, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28905377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify implementation challenges associated with conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of group prenatal care (PNC) and report outcomes of the pilot. METHODS: A multi-site randomized pilot was conducted in Malawi and Tanzania between July 31, 2014, and June 30, 2015. Women aged at least 16 years with a pregnancy of 20-24 weeks were randomly assigned using sealed envelopes (1:1) to individual or group PNC. Structured interviews were conducted at baseline, in the third trimester and 6-8 weeks after delivery. The primary outcomes were attendance at four PNC visits and attendance at the 6-week postnatal visit. RESULTS: The pilot showed that an RCT with individual randomization can be conducted in these two low-resource settings. Significantly more women in group PNC than in individual PNC completed at least four PNC visits (96/102 [94.1%] vs 53/91 [58.2%]) and attended the postnatal visit (76/102 [74.5%] vs 45/90 [50.0%]; both P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Group PNC was feasible and associated with an increase in healthcare utilization and improved outcomes in Malawi and Tanzania. Lessons learned should be considered when designing large RCTs to determine efficacy. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02999334.


Assuntos
Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Malaui , Projetos Piloto , Cuidado Pós-Natal/métodos , Gravidez , Tanzânia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Trials ; 18(1): 307, 2017 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28683806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum haemorrhage complicates approximately 10% of all deliveries and contributes to at least a quarter of all maternal deaths worldwide. The competency-based Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding after Birth (HMS BAB) training was developed to support evidence-based management of postpartum haemorrhage. This one-day training includes low-cost MamaNatalie® birthing simulators and addresses both prevention and first-line treatment of haemorrhage. While evidence is accumulating that the training improves health provider's knowledge, skills and confidence, evidence is missing as to whether this translates into improved practices and reduced maternal morbidity and mortality. This cluster-randomised trial aims to assess whether this training package - involving a one-day competency-based HMS BAB in-facility training provided by certified trainers followed by 8 weeks of in-service peer-based practice - has an effect on the occurrence of haemorrhage-related morbidity and mortality. METHODS/DESIGN: In Tanzania and Uganda we randomise 20 and 18 districts (clusters) respectively, with half receiving the training intervention. We use unblinded matched-pair randomisation to balance district health system characteristics and the main outcome, which is in-facility severe morbidity due to haemorrhage defined by the World Health Organizationation-promoted disease and management-based near-miss criteria. Data are collected continuously in the intervention and comparison districts throughout the 6-month baseline and the 9-month intervention phase, which commences after the training intervention. Trained facility midwives or clinicians review severe maternal complications to identify near misses on a daily basis. They abstract the case information from case notes and enter it onto programmed tablets where it is uploaded. Intention-to-treat analysis will be used, taking the matched design into consideration using paired t test statistics to compare the outcomes between the intervention and comparison districts. We also assess the impact pathway from the effects of the training on the health provider's skills, care and interventions and health system readiness. DISCUSSION: This trial aims to generate evidence on the effect and limitations of this well-designed training package supported by birthing simulations. While the lack of blinding of participants and data collectors provides an inevitable limitation of this trial, the additional evaluation along the pathway of implementation will provide solid evidence on the effects of this HMS BAB training package. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan African Clinical Trials Registry, PACTR201604001582128 . Registered on 12 April 2016.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Capacitação em Serviço/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Obstetrícia/educação , Parto , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/terapia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Competência Clínica , Protocolos Clínicos , Currículo , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Mortalidade Materna , Tocologia/educação , Near Miss , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/mortalidade , Gravidez , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda
18.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 25: e2840, 2017 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28146180

RESUMO

Objective:: women are more likely to give birth at a health facility when their families agree with the birthplace. However, in rural areas of Tanzania, women are often marginalized from decision-making. This study predicted birthplace intention and identified factors to reduce perceptional gaps among pregnant women, husbands and family members. Method:: explanatory cross-sectional survey was conducted in three villages in North Eastern Tanzania. Participants were 138 pregnant women and their families who answered the Birth Intention Questionnaire (BIQ), measuring knowledge, attitude, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms and intention for birthplace. Descriptive analysis, ANOVA, Chi-square, and multiple linear regression was used to analyze the data. Results:: the regression model showed that knowledge, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms predicted intention for birthplace (R2 = .28). While 81% of pregnant women thought their husbands were decision-makers for their birth, only 38% of husbands and 37% of family members agreed. Pregnant women had significantly lower scores on the item "I will prepare for childbirth with my family" compared with husbands (p < .01) and other family members (p < .001). Conclusion:: providing evidence-based birth preparation and reducing the identified perceptual gaps may enhance women's intention to deliver at health facilities. Objetivo:: as mulheres são mais propensas a dar à luz em um centro de saúde quando suas famílias estão de acordo com o local de nascimento. No entanto, nas áreas rurais da Tanzânia, as mulheres são muitas vezes marginalizadas do processo de decisão. Este estudo fez previsoes de intenção para o local do parto e fatores para reduzir as lacunas de percepção entre as mulheres grávidas, seus maridos e familiares identificados. Método:: estudo transversal explicativo realizado em três aldeias no nordeste da Tanzânia. Os participantes foram 138 mulheres grávidas e suas famílias que responderam ao Questionário de Intenção sobre Parto (BIQ), medindo o conhecimento, atitude, percepcão de controle comportamental, normas subjetivas e intenção para lugar de parto. Análise descritivas, ANOVA, Qui-quadrado e regressão linear múltipla foram utilizados para analisar os dados. Resultados:: o modelo de regressão mostrou que o conhecimento, percepcão de controle comportamental e normas subjetivas previram intenção de lugar de parto (R2 = 0,28). Enquanto 81% das mulheres grávidas pensavam que seus maridos eram os decisores para seu parto, apenas 38% dos maridos e 37% dos membros da família concordaram. As mulheres grávidas tiveram escores significativamente mais baixos sobre o item "Vou me preparar para o parto com a minha família", em comparação com os maridos (p < 0,01) e outros membros da família (p < 0,001). Conclusão:: Proporcionar preparação para o parto baseada em evidencias e a redução das lacunas de percepção identificadas podem melhorar a intenção das mulheres para dar à luz em unidades de saúde. Objetivo:: las mujeres son más propensas a dar a luz en un centro de salud cuando sus familias están de acuerdo con el lugar de parto. Sin embargo, en las zonas rurales de Tanzania, las mujeres son a menudo marginadas de la toma de decisiones. Este estudio predijo la intención del lugar de parto y los factores identificados para reducir la brecha de percepción entre las mujeres embarazadas, esposos y miembros de la familia. Método:: encuesta transversal explicativa llevada a cabo en tres aldeas en el noreste de Tanzania. Los participantes fueron 138 mujeres embarazadas y sus familias, que respondieron al Cuestionario sobre Intención del Parto (BIQ), que mide el conocimiento, la actitud, percepción de control del comportamiento, las normas subjetivas y la intención de lugar de parto. Se utilizaron análisis descriptivo, ANOVA, Chi-cuadrado y regresión lineal múltiple para analizar los datos. Resultados:: el modelo de regresión mostró que el conocimiento, la percepción de control del comportamiento, y las normas subjetivas predijeron la intencion del lugar de parto (R2 = 0,28). Mientras que el 81% de las mujeres embarazadas pensaba que sus maridos estaban encargados de tomar decisiones para el nacimiento, sólo el 38% de los esposos y el 37% de los miembros de la familia estuvieron de acuerdo. Las mujeres embarazadas tenían puntuaciones significativamente más bajas en el tema "Me prepararé para el parto con mi familia", en comparación con los maridos (p < 0,01) y otros miembros de la familia (p < 0,001). Conclusión:: proporcionar la preparación al parto basada en la evidencia y reducir las brechas de percepción identificadas pueden mejorar intención de las mujeres a dar a luz en centros de salud.


Assuntos
Atitude , Parto Obstétrico , Família/psicologia , Intenção , Tocologia , Mulheres/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Cônjuges/psicologia , Tanzânia
19.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 25: e2840, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-845296

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: women are more likely to give birth at a health facility when their families agree with the birthplace. However, in rural areas of Tanzania, women are often marginalized from decision-making. This study predicted birthplace intention and identified factors to reduce perceptional gaps among pregnant women, husbands and family members. Method: explanatory cross-sectional survey was conducted in three villages in North Eastern Tanzania. Participants were 138 pregnant women and their families who answered the Birth Intention Questionnaire (BIQ), measuring knowledge, attitude, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms and intention for birthplace. Descriptive analysis, ANOVA, Chi-square, and multiple linear regression was used to analyze the data. Results: the regression model showed that knowledge, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms predicted intention for birthplace (R2 = .28). While 81% of pregnant women thought their husbands were decision-makers for their birth, only 38% of husbands and 37% of family members agreed. Pregnant women had significantly lower scores on the item “I will prepare for childbirth with my family” compared with husbands (p < .01) and other family members (p < .001). Conclusion: providing evidence-based birth preparation and reducing the identified perceptual gaps may enhance women’s intention to deliver at health facilities.


RESUME Objetivo: as mulheres são mais propensas a dar à luz em um centro de saúde quando suas famílias estão de acordo com o local de nascimento. No entanto, nas áreas rurais da Tanzânia, as mulheres são muitas vezes marginalizadas do processo de decisão. Este estudo fez previsoes de intenção para o local do parto e fatores para reduzir as lacunas de percepção entre as mulheres grávidas, seus maridos e familiares identificados. Método: estudo transversal explicativo realizado em três aldeias no nordeste da Tanzânia. Os participantes foram 138 mulheres grávidas e suas famílias que responderam ao Questionário de Intenção sobre Parto (BIQ), medindo o conhecimento, atitude, percepcão de controle comportamental, normas subjetivas e intenção para lugar de parto. Análise descritivas, ANOVA, Qui-quadrado e regressão linear múltipla foram utilizados para analisar os dados. Resultados: o modelo de regressão mostrou que o conhecimento, percepcão de controle comportamental e normas subjetivas previram intenção de lugar de parto (R2 = 0,28). Enquanto 81% das mulheres grávidas pensavam que seus maridos eram os decisores para seu parto, apenas 38% dos maridos e 37% dos membros da família concordaram. As mulheres grávidas tiveram escores significativamente mais baixos sobre o item “Vou me preparar para o parto com a minha família”, em comparação com os maridos (p < 0,01) e outros membros da família (p < 0,001). Conclusão: Proporcionar preparação para o parto baseada em evidencias e a redução das lacunas de percepção identificadas podem melhorar a intenção das mulheres para dar à luz em unidades de saúde.


RESUMEN Objetivo: las mujeres son más propensas a dar a luz en un centro de salud cuando sus familias están de acuerdo con el lugar de parto. Sin embargo, en las zonas rurales de Tanzania, las mujeres son a menudo marginadas de la toma de decisiones. Este estudio predijo la intención del lugar de parto y los factores identificados para reducir la brecha de percepción entre las mujeres embarazadas, esposos y miembros de la familia. Método: encuesta transversal explicativa llevada a cabo en tres aldeas en el noreste de Tanzania. Los participantes fueron 138 mujeres embarazadas y sus familias, que respondieron al Cuestionario sobre Intención del Parto (BIQ), que mide el conocimiento, la actitud, percepción de control del comportamiento, las normas subjetivas y la intención de lugar de parto. Se utilizaron análisis descriptivo, ANOVA, Chi-cuadrado y regresión lineal múltiple para analizar los datos. Resultados: el modelo de regresión mostró que el conocimiento, la percepción de control del comportamiento, y las normas subjetivas predijeron la intencion del lugar de parto (R2 = 0,28). Mientras que el 81% de las mujeres embarazadas pensaba que sus maridos estaban encargados de tomar decisiones para el nacimiento, sólo el 38% de los esposos y el 37% de los miembros de la familia estuvieron de acuerdo. Las mujeres embarazadas tenían puntuaciones significativamente más bajas en el tema “Me prepararé para el parto con mi familia”, en comparación con los maridos (p < 0,01) y otros miembros de la familia (p < 0,001). Conclusión: proporcionar la preparación al parto basada en la evidencia y reducir las brechas de percepción identificadas pueden mejorar intención de las mujeres a dar a luz en centros de salud.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Mulheres/psicologia , Atitude , Família/psicologia , Parto Obstétrico , Intenção , Tocologia , Tanzânia , Estudos Transversais , Cônjuges/psicologia
20.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 135(3): 268-271, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27569024

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate healthcare providers' knowledge and practices associated with prevention and management of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) to improve care in urban settings and reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. METHODS: As part of a cross-sectional, survey-based study, providers from 14 government health facilities providing maternal delivery services in the Ilala Municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were surveyed about PPH-related practices and knowledge in April 2015. The data were analyzed descriptively, and χ2 tests of independence were used to examine relationships between experience, facility type, and knowledge. RESULTS: Among 115 respondents, 7 (6.1%) answered all PPH knowledge questions correctly. The mean knowledge score was 63.9%±21.1%. Non-calibrated methods for estimating postpartum blood loss were common; only 62 (53.9%) respondents reported direct collection. Referral of patients for PPH-related transfer was reported by 49 (42.6%) respondents; transportation and finances were barriers to transfer. Respondents requested continued training and additional supplies to address emergencies. CONCLUSION: Healthcare providers had suboptimal knowledge of PPH risk factors, diagnosis, and causes. Strategies that provide ongoing education and equip lower-level facilities with adequate supplies might minimize PPH-related transfers. Providing prenatal women with basic delivery items (e.g. a blood collection device) and misoprostol is a viable option to ensure that essential PPH-prevention tools are available at delivery.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Materna , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tocologia/educação , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico , Ocitócicos/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...