Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 19 de 19
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Water Res ; 204: 117614, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492363

RESUMO

Fluorescence spectroscopy has become a fundamental tool for the qualitative and quantitative fingerprinting of dissolved organic matter. Due to the inherent sensitivity of the technique, a strict sampling protocol should be followed to ensure sample integrity. A literature survey conducted as part of this research determined that 27% of fluorescence sampling has been conducted in polymeric containers, while 52% did not report. Given the potential for fluorescence leachates to arise from plastics commonly used in sampling bottles, a systematic laboratory investigation was undertaken to assess the likelihood of leachate contamination and consequent interferences. It was observed that characteristic fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) leachates from standard polypropylene sampling containers were produced at environmentally relevant peaks, Peak T (λEx/λEm: 250/349 nm) and B (λEx/λEm: 250/306 nm), commonly attributed to tryptophan-like and tyrosine-like molecular origins. Leachate fluorescence and concentration generally increased with elevated storage temperatures (>4 °C), sample acidification, container steam sterilisation and in new containers, with variability across different manufactured batches. For example, at ambient storage temperatures, the highest observed leachate intensity could contribute an error equivalent to as much as 98% (Peak T) and 2062% (Peak B) for highly treated water or 28% (Peak T) and 398% (Peak B) for surface water. For leachates formed under typical conditions, i.e., 3-day fridge storage, this reduced to 9% (Peak T) and 15% (Peak B) or 3% (Peak T/B) for the same water samples. In addition, PP was found to be typically unsuitable for DOC measurements, except under strict conditions (well-aged containers in short term cold storage). Consequently, we demonstrate the need for container material reporting, refrigerated storage, steam sterilisation avoidance, and the importance of glass usage for low FDOM samples. Future research should investigate the potential for polymer-based pollution as a potential origin of environmentally sampled FDOM.


Assuntos
Polímeros , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Corantes , Plásticos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Water Res ; 203: 117520, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392040

RESUMO

Surface modification of nanofiltration (NF) membranes has great potential to improve the removal of organic micropollutants (OMs) by NF membranes. This study used polydopamine (PDA) as a model coating to comprehensively link the changes in membrane properties with the changes in transmission of 34 OMs. The membrane characterization demonstrated that a thicker, denser, and more hydrophilic PDA coating can be achieved by increasing the PDA deposition time from 0.5 to 4 hours. Overall, the transmissions of target OMs were reduced by PDA-coated NF membranes compared to unmodified NF membranes. The neutral hydrophobic compounds showed lower transmissions for longer PDA coating (PDA4), while the neutral hydrophilic compounds tended to show lower transmissions for shorter PDA coating (PDA0.5). To explain this, competing effects provided by the PDA coatings are proposed including sealing defects, inducing cake-enhanced concentration polarization in the coating layer for neutral hydrophilic compounds, and weakened hydrophobic adsorption for neutral hydrophobic compounds. For charged compounds, PDA4 with the greatest negative charge among the PDA-coated membranes showed the lowest transmission. Depending on the molecular size and hydrophilicity of the compounds, the transmission of OMs by the PDA4 coating could be reduced by 70% with only a 26.4% decline in water permeance. The correlations and mechanistic insights provided by this work are highly useful for designing membranes with specific surface properties via surface modification to improve the removal of OMs without compromising water production.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Membranas Artificiais , Propriedades de Superfície
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208310

RESUMO

The connection between indigenous peoples and Country (a multidimensional concept including land and water) enabled communities to thrive and survive over millennia. This has been eroded by colonisation, dispossession and increasing food and water insecurity due to climate change and supply constraints. Globally, indigenous peoples experience a disproportionate burden of chronic disease and poor nutrition is a major risk factor. Indigenous leaders have been advocating for community-led solutions. The primary aim of this systematic review is to determine what community-led programs have been undertaken to address food and/or water security globally. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed literature will be performed in EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, LILACs, Informit and Business Source Premier. The grey literature search will include grey literature databases, customised Google search engines, targeted websites, and consultation with experts. The search strategy will consist of four concepts, combined as follows: (1) indigenous peoples AND (2) community program AND (3) food security OR (4) water security. Covidence will be used for study screening and data extraction by two authors. A deductive thematic analysis using indigenous-informed methodologies will be used to synthesise data. This review seeks to provide insight on models and mechanisms to encourage action and metrics for quantifying success of indigenous community-led programs to improve food and water security.


Assuntos
Grupos Populacionais , Água , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Povos Indígenas , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Abastecimento de Água
4.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652896

RESUMO

Forward osmosis (FO) modules currently suffer from performance efficiency limitations due to concentration polarisation (CP), as well as pressure drops during operation. There are incentives to further reduce CP effects, as well as optimise spacer design for pressure drop improvements and mechanical support. In this study, the effects of applying transmembrane pressure (TMP) on FO membrane deformation and the subsequent impact on module performance was investigated by comparing experimental data to 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for three commercial FO modules. At a TMP of 1.5 bar the occlusion of the draw-channel induced by longitudinal pressure hydraulic drop was comparable for the Toray (16%) and HTI modules (12%); however, the hydraulic perimeter of the Profiera module was reduced by 46%. CFD simulation of the occluded channels indicated that a change in hydraulic perimeter due to a 62% increase in shear strain resulted in a 31% increase in the Reynolds number. This reduction in channel dimensions enhanced osmotic efficiency by reducing CP via improved draw-channel hydrodynamics, which significantly disrupted the external concentration polarization (ECP) layer. Furthermore, simulations indicated that the Reynolds number experienced only modest increases with applied TMP and that shear strain at the membrane surface was found to be the most important factor when predicting flux performance enhancement, which varied between the different modules. This work suggests that a numerical approach to assess the effects of draw-spacers on pressure drop and CP can optimize and reduce investment in the design and validation of FO module designs.

5.
Water Res ; 193: 116854, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550171

RESUMO

An Australian water utility has developed a Legionella High Level Risk Assessment (LHLRA) which provides a semi-qualitative assessment of the risk of Legionella proliferation and human exposure in engineered water systems using a combination of empirical observation and expert knowledge. Expanding on this LHLRA, we propose two iterative Bayesian network (BN) models to reduce uncertainty and allow for a probabilistic representation of the mechanistic interaction of the variables, built using data from 25 groundwater treatment plants. The risk of Legionella exposure in groundwater aeration units was quantified as a function of five critical areas including hydraulic conditions, nutrient availability and growth, water quality, system design (and maintenance), and location and access. First, the mechanistic relationship of the variables was conceptually mapped into a fishbone diagram, parameterised deterministically using an expert elicited weighted scoring system and translated into BN. The "sensitivity to findings" analysis of the BN indicated that system design was the most influential variable while elemental accumulation thresholds were the least influential variable for Legionella exposure. The diagnostic inference was used in high and low-risk scenarios to demonstrate the capabilities of the BNs to examine probable causes for diverse conditions. Subsequently, the causal relationship of Legionella growth and human exposure were improved through a conceptual bowtie representation. Finally, an improved model developed the predictors of Legionella growth and the risk of human exposure through the interaction of operational, water quality monitoring, operational parameters, and asset conditions. The use of BNs modelling based on risk estimation and improved functional decision outputs offer a complementary and more transparent alternative approach to quantitative analysis of uncertainties than the current LHLRA.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Legionella , Austrália , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Microbiologia da Água , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
6.
Membranes (Basel) ; 10(5)2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466224

RESUMO

In an effort to improve performances of forward osmosis (FO) systems, several innovative draw spacers have been proposed. However, the small pressure generally applied on the feed side of the process is expected to result in the membrane bending towards the draw side, and in the gradual occlusion of the channel. This phenomenon potentially presents detrimental effects on process performance, including pressure drop and external concentration polarization (ECP) in the draw channel. A flat sheet FO system with a dot-spacer draw channel geometry was characterized to determine the degree of draw channel occlusion resulting from feed pressurization, and the resulting implications on flow performance. First, tensile testing was performed on the FO membrane to derive a Young's modulus, used to assess the membrane stretching, and the resulting draw channel characteristics under a range of moderate feed pressures. Membrane apex reached up to 67% of the membrane channel height when transmembrane pressure (TMP) of 1.4 bar was applied. The new FO channels considerations were then processed by computational fluid dynamics model (computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by ANSYS Fluent v19.1) and validated against previously obtained experimental data. Further simulations were conducted to better assess velocity profiles, Reynolds number and shear rate. Reynolds number on the membrane surface (draw side) increased by 20% and shear rate increased by 90% when occlusion changed from 0 to 70%, impacting concentration polarisation (CP) on the membrane surface and therefore FO performance. This paper shows that FO draw channel occlusion is expected to have a significant impact on fluid hydrodynamics when the membrane is not appropriately supported in the draw side.

7.
Chemosphere ; 241: 124975, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610460

RESUMO

A decline in the availability of fossil fuel resources coupled with deleterious environmental concerns has prompted further research into biofuels. Conventional bioethanol production via a first-generation approach may soon become superseded through integration with lignocellulosic feedstocks. However, the underlying concerns pertaining to the disposal of high-strength liquid waste (i.e. spentwash) remain both unchanged and constitute a substantial cost to bioethanol manufacturers. Therefore this review details current efforts in the literature to elucidate various approaches for spentwash treatment and investigate the potential for resource recovery. Insight into the composition of distillery wastewater is given in the lead-up to a thorough discussion encompassing the origin, transformation and characterisation of the highly problematic melanoidin compounds entrained within this effluent. Close examination of advanced organic characterisation methods used by researches yields further insight into the nature of spentwash dissolved organic matter (DOM). Employment of both biological and physio-chemical treatment schemes to alleviate the environmental footprint of such high-strength wastewater are also reviewed. Opportunities to dramatically improve the economic viability of biofuel production by exploiting the potential for resource recovery in the form of energy, organic/inorganic constituents and effluent reuse are discussed. Overall, the review culminates by highlighting recommendations for future work to accelerate the onset of an environmentally benign bio-refinery.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Águas Residuárias/química , Etanol , Polímeros/isolamento & purificação , Reciclagem/métodos
8.
Chemosphere ; 234: 630-639, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229724

RESUMO

Advanced organic characterisation methods were used to investigate the suitability of lab-based model compounds as surrogates to mimic the dissolved organic matter (DOM) of both first and second generation fermentation industry effluents. Comparisons to both humic acid and synthetic melanoidin revealed the limitations of using these model organic compounds in treatment studies of biorefinery effluent. Rapid resin fractionation (RRF) of effluent from yeast cultivated on molasses suggests that 64% of the dissolved organic matter is present in the form of very hydrophobic acid (VHPhoA) compounds. Molecular weight distribution by size exclusion chromatography (LC-OCND) and fluorophore specific intensity by fluorescence excitation and emission matrix (FEEM) of the yeast effluent was comparable to signatures from humic acid. This indicates that humic acid would be a suitable model compound for oxidation, adsorption and filtration studies. Differences among the fermentation industry effluents were found to be inherently dependent on both the biochemistry of yeast and processes used. RRF and FEEM spectra of effluent from bioethanol production on cellulosic feed highlighted a preponderance of neutral compounds with fluorophore specific intensity characteristic of non-humic compounds with a higher fraction of neutral compounds (41%) relative to VHPhoA (38%), SHPhoA (16%) and HPhi (5%) moieties. Findings were not consistent with commercial humics, synthetic melanoidins or other cellulosic and lignocellulosic based effluents from Kraft and Thermomechanical pulp mills since the actual pollutants are heavily dependent on the pre-treatment process. This suggests further work is required to develop a model compound for treatment studies of effluent from second generation bio-refineries.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Substâncias Húmicas , Modelos Teóricos , Compostos Orgânicos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Adsorção , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Filtração , Substâncias Húmicas/análise
9.
Water Res ; 160: 60-69, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132563

RESUMO

A three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed to study shear stress induced by spherical cap bubbles in hollow fibre (HF) membrane modules configured with a packing density of 38 m2/m3, to predict the shear profile in a commercial hollow fibre membrane module of 265 m2/m3. The CFD model's computational effort was minimised by simulating the formation of bubble structures and their rising velocities in modules with packing densities of 1.8 and 38 m2/m3 and validated with experimental calibration of shear profiles via electro-diffusion methods (EDM). Pulse bubbles (300 mL) generated from a single sparger at 0.5 Hz produced more satellite bubbles in the wake zone of the leading bubble in high packing density (38 m2/m3) than in low packing density modules (1.8 m2/m3). The bubble rise velocity was approximately 8% lower in the 38 m2/m3 than in the 1.8 m2/m3 module. Increasing packing density reduced the shear profile from a single sparger and the dispersion of the satellite bubbles in the horizontal plane, especially in the upper part of the membrane module. For systems with multiple spargers, the interaction between pulses generated more shear than the pulses from a single sparger, and produced a more uniform shear profile in the module through asynchronous bubble release from adjacent spargers than synchronous release. A 33% increase in the "Zone of Influence", the flow region where the upward velocity >0.2 m/s, was achieved by moving from a synchronous to an asynchronous form of aeration.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Hidrodinâmica , Estresse Mecânico
10.
Water Res ; 75: 131-45, 2015 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25768986

RESUMO

A CFD model, incorporating an empirically determined rheology model and a porous media model, was developed to simulate bubble induced surface shear in membrane bioreactors configured with hollow fibre membranes with outer diameters ranging from 1.3 to 2.4 mm, arranged in vertically orientated modules with packing density from 200 to 560 m(2)/m(3). The rheology model was developed for mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations of 3 to 16 gL(-1) in the presence and absence of coagulant (generated by addition of a ferrous salt) for shear rates ranging from 0 to 500 s(-1). Experimentally determined particle relaxation times for the biological flocs in the mixed liquor, both in the absence and presence of iron, were negligible, consistent with an environment where positive buoyancy forces were greater than negative settling forces thereby allowing the sludge mixture to be modelled as a single continuous phase. The non-Newtonian behaviour of the mixed liquor was incorporated into the CFD simulations using an Ostwald-de Waele rheology model. Interactions between mixed liquor and hollow fibre membranes of different fibre size and packing density were described using a porous media model that was calibrated by empirical measurement of inertial loss coefficients over a range of viscosities (0.8 × 10(-3) to 2.1 × 10(-3) Pa.s) and velocities (0 to 0.35 m/s) typically encountered in full scale MBRs. Experimental results indicated that addition of iron salts resulted in an increase in MLSS and sludge viscosity. Shear stress is affected by both velocity and viscosity. The increase in sludge viscosity resulted in an increase in resistance to flow through the hollow fibre membrane bundles and, as a result, decreased the liquid flow velocities. CFD simulations provided insight on the effects of point of coagulant addition and MLSS concentration on bubble-induced shear over a range of industrially relevant conditions. A 12% increase in shear stress was observed when ferrous salts were added to the membrane filtration zone compared to addition to the primary anoxic zone. The presence of iron salts also improved the distribution of shear stress especially at the lower zone of the membrane module. The CFD models developed here were validated using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) with the average difference between simulated liquid velocities and PIV measured velocities found to be 5.5%.


Assuntos
Hidrodinâmica , Esgotos/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Reatores Biológicos , Ferro/análise , Modelos Teóricos , New South Wales , Reologia , Sais/análise , Estresse Mecânico , Viscosidade
11.
Environ Health Insights ; 9(Suppl 3): 11-8, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27053920

RESUMO

Potable reuse is implemented in several countries around the world to augment strained water supplies. This article presents a public health perspective on potable reuse by comparing the critical infrastructure and institutional capacity characteristics of two well-established potable reuse schemes with conventional drinking water schemes in developed nations that have experienced waterborne outbreaks. Analysis of failure events in conventional water systems between 2003 and 2013 showed that despite advances in water treatment technologies, drinking water outbreaks caused by microbial contamination were still frequent in developed countries and can be attributed to failures in infrastructure or institutional practices. Numerous institutional failures linked to ineffective treatment protocols, poor operational practices, and negligence were detected. In contrast, potable reuse schemes that use multiple barriers, online instrumentation, and operational measures were found to address the events that have resulted in waterborne outbreaks in conventional systems in the past decade. Syndromic surveillance has emerged as a tool in outbreak detection and was useful in detecting some outbreaks; increases in emergency department visits and GP consultations being the most common data source, suggesting potential for an increasing role in public health surveillance of waterborne outbreaks. These results highlight desirable characteristics of potable reuse schemes from a public health perspective with potential for guiding policy on surveillance activities.

12.
Water Res ; 69: 210-222, 2015 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25482913

RESUMO

The effect of continuously dosing membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with ferric chloride (Fe(III)) and ferrous sulphate (Fe(II)) on phosphorus (P) removal and membrane fouling is investigated here. Influent phosphorus concentrations of 10 mg/L were consistently reduced to effluent concentrations of less than 0.02 mg/L and 0.03-0.04 mg/L when an Fe(III)/P molar ratio of 4.0 and Fe/P molar ratio (for both Fe(II) and Fe(III)) of 2.0 were used, respectively. In comparison, effluent concentrations did not decrease below 1.35 mg/L in a control reactor to which iron was not added. The concentrations of supernatant organic compounds, particularly polysaccharides, were reduced significantly by iron addition. The sub-critical fouling time (tcrit) after which fouling becomes much more severe was substantially shorter with Fe(III) dosing (672 h) than with Fe(II) dosing (1200-1260 h) at Fe/P molar ratios of 2.0 while the control reactor (no iron dosing) exhibited a tcrit of 960 h. Not surprisingly, membrane fouling was substantially more severe at Fe/P ratios of 4. Fe(II) doses yielding Fe/P molar ratios of 2 or less with dosing to the aerobic chamber were found to be optimal in terms of P removal and fouling mitigation performance. In long term operation, however, the use of iron for maintaining appropriately low effluent P concentrations results in more severe irreversible fouling necessitating the application of an effective membrane cleaning regime.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Reatores Biológicos , Ferro/química , Membranas Artificiais , Fósforo/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/análise , Carbono/análise , Impedância Elétrica , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Pressão , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/química , Qualidade da Água
13.
Water Res ; 57: 140-50, 2014 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24709534

RESUMO

A pilot scale membrane bioreactor (3.7 m(3)/day capacity), configured for alternate point ferrous sulphate addition, was evaluated in a fourteen month trial to comply with an effluent discharge requirement of less than 0.15 mg-P/L at the 50(th) percentile and less than 0.30 mg-P/L at the 90th percentile. Ferrous sulphate was added at a molar ratio (Fe(II):PO4) of 2.99 in the filtration chamber for 85 days and 2.60 in the primary anoxic zone for 111 days. Addition of ferrous salts to the anoxic zone achieved a final effluent phosphorous concentration (mg-P/L) of <0.05 (29%), <0.15 (77%) and <0.30 (95%), while addition of ferrous salts in the filtration zone achieved <0.05 (18%), <0.15 (63%) and <0.30 (95%). Analysis of the concentration of iron(II) in the supernatant indicated that phosphorus was mainly removed via adsorption to amorphous iron oxyhydroxides particles in both dosing scenarios. However, analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) data of the reactor indicated that severe short-circuiting from the dosing point to the membrane outlet could occur when the ferrous salts were added to the membrane zone while the reactor behaved close to a completely mixed reactor when dosing to the primary anoxic zone, resulting in improved phosphorus removal. The addition of ferrous salt was also found to delay the onset of severe increase in trans-membrane pressure as a result of the removal of macro-molecules. However, detailed analysis of the form and concentration of iron species in the supernatant and permeate indicated that the presence of fine iron particles resulted in a higher fouling rate when Fe(II) was added to the membrane zone rather than the primary anoxic zone and could cause more severe irreversible fouling in long-term operation.


Assuntos
Compostos Ferrosos/química , Fósforo/metabolismo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Reatores Biológicos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Projetos Piloto
14.
Chemosphere ; 92(11): 1513-9, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23668963

RESUMO

This paper investigates the effect of using recycled fiber (RCF) in newsprint production on the effluent quality and its treatability using membrane operations for internal and external recycling and reuse. Increased chemical usage in RCF for deinking had significant impact on the silica and sodium content of the effluent which in turn limits the membrane's operation. Increasing the RCF content from 0% to 50% is estimated to increase the silica content from 4 to 119mgL(-1) and sodium content from 135 to 500mgL(-1). A process model was developed to calculate the impact of these excess chemicals on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and brine disposal for an integrated membrane plant design producing 4MLday(-1) of recycled water. As the ratio of RCF increased from 0% to 50% in the mill process, the operating pressure increased for nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Additionally, organics presence in the feed increased the NF operating pressure above the simulated value and reduced the silica removal efficiency by 15%. Incorporation of lime coagulation pretreatment was found to be essential to operate RO at high recoveries with relatively GHG emissions. Without pretreatment, as RCF content increased from 0% to 50%, RO recovery decreased from 80% to 22% and the expended GHG increased from 0.9 to 3.5kgCO2m(-3). Although the excess sodium concentration limits the brine disposal for irrigation purposes, a partial blending of the treated wastewater with other process streams resulted in the reduction of sodium absorption ratio by 20%.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais , Papel , Impressão , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Compostos de Cálcio/química , Magnésio/química , Membranas Artificiais , Óxidos/química , Pressão , Águas Residuárias/química
15.
Chemosphere ; 90(4): 1461-9, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23116827

RESUMO

In this study, the efficiency of six ion exchange resins to reduce the dissolved organic matter (DOM) from a biologically treated newsprint mill effluent was evaluated and the dominant removal mechanism of residual organics was established using advanced organic characterisations techniques. Among the resins screened, TAN1 possessed favourable Freundlich parameters, high resin capacity and solute affinity, closely followed by Marathon MSA and Marathon WBA. The removal efficiency of colour and lignin residuals was generally good for the anion exchange resins, greater than 50% and 75% respectively. In terms of the DOM fractions removal measured through liquid chromatography-organic carbon and nitrogen detector (LC-OCND), the resins mainly targeted the removal of humic and fulvic acids of molecular weight ranging between 500 and 1000 g mol(-1), the portion expected to contribute the most to the aromaticity of the effluent. For the anion exchange resins, physical adsorption operated along with ion exchange mechanism assisting to remove neutral and transphilic acid fractions of DOM. The column studies confirmed TAN1 being the best of those screened, exhibited the longest mass transfer zone and maximum treatable volume of effluent. The treatable effluent volume with 50% reduction in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was 4.8 L for TAN1 followed by Marathon MSA - 3.6L, Marathon 11 - 2.0 L, 21K-XLT - 1.5 L and Marathon WBA - 1.2 L. The cation exchange resin G26 was not effective in DOM removal as the maximum DOC removal obtained was only 27%. The resin capacity could not be completely restored for any of the resins; however, a maximum restoration up to 74% and 93% was achieved for TAN1 and Marathon WBA resins. While this feasibility study indicates the potential option of using ion exchange resins for the reclamation of paper mill effluent, the need for improving the regeneration protocols to restore the resin efficiency is also identified. Similarly, care should be taken while employing LC-OCND for characterising resin-treated effluents, as the resin degradation is expected to contribute some organic carbon moieties misleading the actual performance of resin.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos/química , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Resinas de Troca Iônica/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Adsorção , Benzopiranos/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Papel , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Chemosphere ; 86(8): 829-36, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22209320

RESUMO

Granular activated carbon (GAC) exhaustion rates on pulp and paper effluent from South East Australia were found to be a factor of three higher (3.62cf. 1.47kgm(-3)) on Kraft mills compared to mills using Thermomechanical pulping supplemented by Recycled Fibre (TMP/RCF). Biological waste treatment at both mills resulted in a final effluent COD of 240mgL(-1). The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was only 1.2 times higher in the Kraft effluent (70 vs. 58mgL(-1)), however, GAC treatment of Kraft and TMP/RCF effluent was largely different on the DOC persisted after biological treatment. The molecular mass (636 vs. 534gmol(-1)) and aromaticity (5.35 vs. 4.67Lmg(-1)m(-1)) of humic substances (HS) were slightly higher in the Kraft effluent. The HS aromaticity was decreased by a factor of 1.0Lmg(-1)m(-1) in both Kraft and TMP/RCF effluent. The molecular mass of the Kraft effluent increased by 50gmol(-1) while the molecular mass of the TMP/RCF effluent was essentially unchanged after GAC treatment; the DOC removal efficiency of the GAC on Kraft effluent was biased towards the low molecular weight humic compounds. The rapid adsorption of this fraction, coupled with the slightly higher aromaticity of the humic components resulted in early breakthrough on the Kraft effluent. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix analysis of the each GAC treated effluent indicated that the refractory components were higher molecular weight humics on the Kraft effluent and protein-like compounds on the TMP/RCF effluent. Although the GAC exhaustion rates are too high for an effective DOC removal option for biologically treated pulp and paper mill effluents, the study indicates that advanced organic characterisation techniques can be used to diagnose GAC performance on complex effluents with comparable bulk DOC and COD loads.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Poluentes Ambientais/isolamento & purificação , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos/isolamento & purificação , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Adsorção , Carbono/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida , Nitrogênio/isolamento & purificação , Austrália do Sul , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
17.
Water Res ; 45(14): 4227-37, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21703657

RESUMO

The interaction of organic micropollutants with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) can influence their transport, degradation and bioavailability. While this has been well established for natural organic carbon, very little is known regarding the influence of DOC on the fate of micropollutants during wastewater treatment and water recycling. Dissolved organic carbon-water partition coefficients (K(DOC)) for wastewater derived and reference DOC were measured for a range of micropollutants using a depletion method with polydimethylsiloxane disks. For micropollutants with an octanol-water partition coefficient (log K(OW)) greater than 4 there was a significant difference in K(DOC) between reference and wastewater derived DOC, with partitioning to wastewater derived DOC over 1000 times lower for the most hydrophobic micropollutants. The interaction of nonylphenol with wastewater derived DOC from different stages of a wastewater and advanced water treatment train was studied, but little difference in K(DOC) was observed. Organic carbon characterisation revealed that reference and wastewater derived DOC had very different properties due to their different origins. Consequently, the reduced sorption capacity of wastewater derived DOC may be related to their microbial origin which led to reduced aromaticity and lower molecular weight. This study suggests that for hydrophobic micropollutants (log K(OW) > 4) a higher concentration of freely dissolved and thus bioavailable micropollutants is expected in the presence of wastewater derived DOC than predicted using K(DOC) values quantified using reference DOC. The implication is that naturally derived DOC may not be an appropriate surrogate for wastewater derived DOC as a matrix for assessing the fate of micropollutants in engineered systems.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Carbono/química , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cinética , Fenóis/química , Queensland , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/instrumentação , Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/instrumentação
18.
Chemosphere ; 81(1): 86-91, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20630562

RESUMO

Recycling paper mill effluent by conventional water treatment is difficult due to the persistence of salt and recalcitrant organics. Elimination of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from paper mill effluent was studied using three treatment options, ion exchange resin (IER), granular activated carbon (GAC) and nanofiltration (NF). The removal efficiency was analysed based on hydrophobicity, molecular weight and fluorogenic origin of the DOM fractions. For IER, GAC and NF treatments, overall removal of dissolved organic carbon was 72%, 76% and 91%, respectively. Based on the hydrophobicity, all the three treatment methods majorly removed hydrophobic acid fractions (HPhoA). Further, IER acted on all fractions, 57% of HPhoA, 44% of transphilic acid and 18% of hydrophilics, substantiating that the removal is by both ion exchange and adsorption. Based on the molecular weight, IER and GAC treatments acted majorly on the high molecular weight fractions, whereas NF eliminated all molecular weight fractions. After GAC adsorption, some amount of humic hydrolysates and low molecular weight neutrals persisted in the effluent. After IER treatment, amount of low molecular weight compounds increased due to resin leaching. Qualitative analysis of fluorescence excitation emission matrices showed that the fulvic acid-like fluorophores were more recalcitrant among the various DOM fractions, considerable amount persisted after all the three treatment methods. Three treatment methods considerably differed in terms of removing different DOM fractions; however, a broad-spectrum process like NF would be needed to achieve the maximum elimination.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais/análise , Papel , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes da Água/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Fracionamento Químico , Cromatografia Líquida , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Filtração , Fluorescência , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Resinas de Troca Iônica/química , Poluentes da Água/química
19.
Chemosphere ; 72(2): 243-9, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18328536

RESUMO

Membrane based treatment processes are very effective in removing salt from wastewater, but are hindered by calcium scale deposit formation. This study investigates the feasibility of removing calcium from treated sewage wastewater using accelerated seeded precipitation. The rate of calcium removal was measured during bench scale batch mode seeded precipitation experiments at pH 9.5 using various quantities of calcium carbonate as seed material. The results indicate that accelerated seeded precipitation may be a feasible option for the decrease of calcium in reverse osmosis concentrate streams during the desalination of treated sewage wastewater for irrigation purposes, promising decreased incidence of scaling and the option to control the sodium adsorption ratio and nutritional properties of the desalted water. It was found that accelerated seeded precipitation of calcium from treated sewage wastewater was largely ineffective if carried out without pre-treatment of the wastewater. Evidence was presented that suggests that phosphate may be a major interfering substance for the seeded precipitation of calcium from this type of wastewater. A pH adjustment to 9.5 followed by a 1-h equilibration period was found to be an effective pre-treatment for the removal of interferences. Calcium carbonate seed addition at 10 g l(-1) to wastewater that had been pre-treated in this way was found to result in calcium precipitation from supersaturated level at 60 mg l(-1) to saturated level at 5 mg l(-1). Approximately 90% reduction of the calcium level occurred 5 min after seed addition. A further 10% reduction was achieved 30 min after seed addition.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Purificação da Água/métodos , Cálcio/química , Precipitação Química , Cidades , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fosfatos/química
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...