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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current work explores the effects of racial miscategorization (incongruence between other people's racial categorization of an individual and that individual's racial self-identification) and subjective well-being of multiracial individuals in Hawai'i versus California. We set out to examine how multiracial individuals experience racial miscategorization in more or less ethnically diverse environments and how this experience shapes the extent to which they feel a sense of belonging and inclusion. METHOD: The study consisted of interviews with 55 multiracial undergraduate and graduate students conducted in Hawai'i (20 self-identified women and 9 self-identified men, with ages ranging from 18 to 47 years; M = 22.93, SD = 6.40) and California (16 self-identified women, 9 self-identified men, and 1 self-identified gender nonbinary person, with ages ranging from 18 to 31 years; M = 20.96, SD = 2.76). RESULTS: Thematic analysis identified two central themes relevant to subjective well-being: (a) racial miscategorization and its consequences and (b) contextual differences in the experiences of miscategorization. Results suggest that racial miscategorization is a pervasive experience among multiracial people and is associated with negative psychological well-being. We also found that environments with greater representation of multiracial individuals, such as Hawai'i, are associated with less racial miscategorization, more inclusion, and better psychological well-being among multiracial individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Racial miscategorization is a prominent and aversive experience among multiracial individuals, but multiracial environments can serve as a psychological buffer. Racial miscategorization has important theoretical and practical implications for racial and ethnic identity research, which we discuss. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

2.
J Surg Case Rep ; 2020(11): rjaa457, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294158

RESUMO

Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms (IAAAs) are rare large-vessel pathology, with potentially life-threatening complications including obstructive uropathy secondary to retroperitoneal fibrosis. Comprising a small proportion of all AAA, their pathogenesis remains unknown, with the hypothesis of infective and immunological aetiologies circulating in current literature. Management principles of IAAAs aim at prevention of aortic rupture and include open-surgical or endovascular therapies. Due to their involvement of other structures, additional considerations are needed when approaching their management for optimal patient outcomes. We present the case of a 53-year-old otherwise healthy male with a large IAAA complicated by adjacent ureteric obstruction, successfully treated with ureteric stenting and delayed endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.

3.
Soc Sci Res ; 78: 71-81, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670222

RESUMO

A plethora of research has explored how blacks and whites respond to deracialized and racialized outreach. However, these studies overwhelmingly focus on individuals' reactions to liberal black elites. We explore whether whites and/or blacks favor co-racial elites who take a conservative deracialized position in the form of support for privatizing social security or a conservative racialized position in the form of advocating for ending the norm of political correctness. Using an online experiment with an oversample of black respondents, we find that whites, and in particular white Republicans, have a strong preference for racialized black conservatives over deracialized black conservatives. In contrast, we find that blacks display a preference for deracialized co-racial conservatives, but view black and white racialized conservatives as being equally likeable.

4.
Water Res ; 144: 642-655, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096690

RESUMO

The consumption of saline groundwater has contributed to a growing incidence of renal diseases, particularly in coastal communities of India. Although reverse osmosis (RO) is routinely used to remove salt from groundwater, conventional RO systems (i.e. centralized systems using spiral wound RO elements) have limited utility in these communities due to high capital and maintenances costs, and lack of infrastructure to distribute the water. Consequently, there is a need to develop an appropriate solution for groundwater treatment based on small-scale, mobile and community-led systems. In this work, we designed a mobile desalination system to provide a simple platform for water treatment and delivery of goods to rural communities. The system employs tubular RO membranes packed in a single, low-profile vessel which fits below the cargo space. The low-profile enables minimal intrusion on the space available for the transportation of goods. Pressure is delivered by a belt driven clutch pump, powered by the engine. Water is treated locally by connecting the intake to the village well while the vehicle idles. A combined numerical and experimental approach was used to optimise the module/system design, resulting in ∼20% permeate flux enhancement. Experimental results revealed that the system can produce 16 L per square meter of membrane area per hour (LMH) at a salinity level of 80 ppm from a ∼2000 ppm groundwater when it is feed at 1 m3/h at 8 bars. This indicates that a vehicle equipped with 12 m2 of tubular RO membranes can deliver 1 m3 of drinkable water by using ∼0.9 L of diesel. Assuming eight such systems could be implemented in a community to fulfil the water demands for a village with 2000 residents, a social business study revealed that a payback time of 2.5 years is achievable, even if the sale price of the water is relatively low, USD 0.18 (Rs 12, which is half of the lowest market price) per 20 L, including providing a goods transportation service at price of USD 5.25 (Rs 350) per 100 km.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Purificação da Água , Humanos , Índia , Membranas Artificiais , Osmose , População Rural
7.
Gastroenterol Res Pract ; 2017: 4803262, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29109735

RESUMO

Aim: To investigate the epidemiology and risk factors of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with IBD. 1006 charts were screened and 654 patients met the inclusion criteria. Patients were divided into 2 cohorts based on the presence of prior diagnosis of CDI. Statistical analysis with Pearson's chi-squared and two-sample t-test was performed. Results: The incidence of CDI among IBD patients was 6.7%. There was equal prevalence of CDI among Crohn's disease (CD) (n = 21, 49%) and ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 22, 51%). IBD patients acquired CDI at a mean age of 42.7 years, with 56% of infections acquired in the community and only 28% associated with healthcare. Only 30% of IBD patients with CDI had prior antibiotic use, and 16% had prior steroid use. IBD patients were significantly more likely to require biologic therapy (57% versus 37%, p < 0.01) and have extraintestinal manifestations of IBD (43% versus 28%, p < 0.02). Conclusions: IBD patients are more susceptible to CDI at a younger age and often lack traditional risk factors. IBD patients with at least one CDI were more likely to require biologic therapy and had greater rates of extraintestinal manifestations.

8.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 51(8): 720-727, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27557115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal angioectasias (AEs) represent the most common vascular malformation within the gastrointestinal tract. This study sought to characterize epidemiologic/comorbid risk factors for AEs, rebleeding, and patterns of anatomic distribution within the small intestine. STUDY: This retrospective observational cohort study included 158 patients with AEs on capsule endoscopy (CE) from 2007 to 2015. Epidemiologic/comorbid data were collected and incorporated into final analysis. Each AE was categorized by location using a small bowel transit time-based quartile system. Rebleeding was evaluated following CE. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to statistically significant factors on univariate analysis to determine independent risk factors for rebleeding. RESULTS: Most lesions were found in the first quartile (67.1%). Rebleeding occurred in 46 (29.7%) of the 156 patients for whom data were available. Rates of rebleeding were significantly higher among older patients (74.4 vs. 67.7 y, P=0.001), those with active bleeding on CE (41.3% vs. 16.5%, P=0.001), those with a history of aortic stenosis (21.7% vs. 9.2%, P=0.033), and those with AEs presents in quartile 3 (26.1% vs. 8.3%, P=0.003). Age, active bleeding on CE, and AE presence in quartile 3 were independently associated with rebleeding in multivariate analysis (P=0.009, 0.023, and 0.008, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These data help improve our knowledge of AEs regarding risk factors for rebleeding, and utilizes a novel small bowel transit time-based quartile localization method that may simplify future research and comparisons of anatomic distribution and behavior of small bowel AEs.


Assuntos
Malformações Arteriovenosas/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Intestino Delgado , Idoso , Malformações Arteriovenosas/etiologia , Malformações Arteriovenosas/patologia , Malformações Arteriovenosas/prevenção & controle , Endoscopia por Cápsula , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/patologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Registros Médicos , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(14): 8611-22, 2015 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26121005

RESUMO

The environmental benefits and burdens of phosphorus recovery in four centralized and two decentralized municipal wastewater systems were compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). In centralized systems, phosphorus recovered as struvite from the solids dewatering liquid resulted in an environmental benefit except for the terrestrial ecotoxicity and freshwater eutrophication impact categories, with power and chemical use offset by operational savings and avoided fertilizer production. Chemical-based phosphorus recovery, however, generally required more resources than were offset by avoided fertilizers, resulting in a net environmental burden. In decentralized systems, phosphorus recovery via urine source separation reduced the global warming and ozone depletion potentials but increased terrestrial ecotoxicity and salinization potentials due to application of untreated urine to land. Overall, mineral depletion and eutrophication are well-documented arguments for phosphorus recovery; however, phosphorus recovery does not necessarily present a net environmental benefit. While avoided fertilizer production does reduce potential impacts, phosphorus recovery does not necessarily offset the resources consumed in the process. LCA results indicate that selection of an appropriate phosphorus recovery method should consider both local conditions and other environmental impacts, including global warming, ozone depletion, toxicity, and salinization, in addition to eutrophication and mineral depletion impacts.


Assuntos
Cidades , Meio Ambiente , Fósforo/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/química , Ecotoxicologia , Eutrofização , Aquecimento Global , Humanos , Minerais/análise , Oxirredução , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Processos Fotoquímicos , Salinidade , Água do Mar/química
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