Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 92
Filtrar
1.
Lancet ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An association between increasing anaesthetic depth and decreased postoperative survival has been shown in observational studies; however, evidence from randomised controlled trials is lacking. Our aim was to compare all-cause 1-year mortality in older patients having major surgery and randomly assigned to light or deep general anaesthesia. METHODS: In an international trial, we recruited patients from 73 centres in seven countries who were aged 60 years and older, with significant comorbidity, having surgery with expected duration of more than 2 h, and an anticipated hospital stay of at least 2 days. We randomly assigned patients who had increased risk of complications after major surgery to receive light general anaesthesia (bispectral index [BIS] target 50) or deep general anaesthesia (BIS target 35). Anaesthetists also nominated an appropriate range for mean arterial pressure for each patient during surgery. Patients were randomly assigned in permuted blocks by region immediately before surgery, with the patient and assessors masked to group allocation. The primary outcome was 1-year all-cause mortality. The trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12612000632897, and is closed to accrual. FINDINGS: Patients were enrolled between Dec 19, 2012, and Dec 12, 2017. Of the 18 026 patients screened as eligible, 6644 were enrolled, randomly assigned to treatment or control, and formed the intention-to-treat population (3316 in the BIS 50 group and 3328 in the BIS 35 group). The median BIS was 47·2 (IQR 43·7 to 50·5) in the BIS 50 group and 38·8 (36·3 to 42·4) in the BIS 35 group. Mean arterial pressure was 3·5 mm Hg (4%) higher (median 84·5 [IQR 78·0 to 91·3] and 81·0 [75·4 to 87·6], respectively) and volatile anaesthetic use was 0·26 minimum alveolar concentration (30%) lower (0·62 [0·52 to 0·73] and 0·88 [0·74 to 1·04], respectively) in the BIS 50 than the BIS 35 group. 1-year mortality was 6·5% (212 patients) in the BIS 50 group and 7·2% (238 patients) in the BIS 35 group (hazard ratio 0·88, 95% CI 0·73 to 1·07, absolute risk reduction 0·8%, 95% CI -0·5 to 2·0). Grade 3 adverse events occurred in 954 (29%) patients in the BIS 50 group and 909 (27%) patients in the BIS 35 group; and grade 4 adverse events in 265 (8%) and 259 (8%) patients, respectively. The most commonly reported adverse events were infections, vascular disorders, cardiac disorders, and neoplasms. INTERPRETATION: Among patients at increased risk of complications after major surgery, light general anaesthesia was not associated with lower 1-year mortality than deep general anaesthesia. Our trial defines a broad range of anaesthetic depth over which anaesthesia may be safely delivered when titrating volatile anaesthetic concentrations using a processed electroencephalographic monitor. FUNDING: Health Research Council of New Zealand; National Health and Medical Research Council, Australia; Research Grant Council of Hong Kong; National Institute for Health and Research, UK; and National Institutes of Health, USA.

2.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e030402, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494615

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The intraoperative administration of dexamethasone for prophylaxis against postoperative nausea and vomiting is a common and recommended practice. The safety of the administration of this immunosuppressive agent at a time of significant immunological disruption has not been rigorously evaluated in terms of infective complications. METHODS/ANALYSIS: This is a pragmatic, multicentre, randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial. A total of 8880 patients undergoing elective major surgery will be enrolled. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive either dexamethasone 8 mg or placebo intravenously following the induction of anaesthesia in a 1:1 ratio, stratified by centre and diabetes status. Patient enrolment into the trial is ongoing. The primary outcome is surgical site infection at 30 days following surgery, defined according to the Centre for Disease Control criteria. ETHICS/DISSEMINATION: The PADDI trial has been approved by the ethics committees of over 45 participating sites in Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, South Africa and the Netherlands. The trial has been endorsed by the Australia and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists Clinical Trials Network and the Australian Society for Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Network. Participant recruitment began in March 2016 and is expected to be complete in mid-2019. Publication of the results of the PADDI trial is anticipated to occur in early 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12614001226695.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436553

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review the use of total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) in ambulatory care. RECENT FINDINGS: The number of ambulatory surgery cases is likely to increase in coming years. Recent meta-analyses suggest that TIVA offers decreased postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and decreased pain scores in the postanaesthesia care unit (PACU) in day case/ambulatory surgery patients when compared with volatile anaesthesia. Particular improvements have also been shown in endoscopic nasal surgery in terms of decreased blood loss. TIVA consistently scores higher than volatile techniques in patient satisfaction surveys. Surveys of anesthetists suggest that TIVA is not in widespread use. This may be because of the perceived lack of training or confidence in the technique, therefore, recent internationally agreed guidelines aimed at formalizing its practice are welcome. There is also some recent evidence to suggest that intraoperative dexmedetomidine is superior to remifentanil with respect to postoperative pain and speed of recovery, and that intraoperative lignocaine infusion may reduce chronic pain incidence in breast surgery. SUMMARY: Review of recent evidence of TIVA's use in ambulatory surgery and summary of new international guidelines on its use.

4.
Anesthesiology ; 131(5): 974-982, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative awareness with recall while under apparently adequate general anesthesia is a rare, unexplained, and often very distressing phenomenon. It is possible that a relatively small number of genetic variants might underlie the failure of general anesthetic drugs to adequately suppress explicit memory formation and recall in the presence of apparently adequate anesthesia concentrations. METHODS: The authors recruited 12 adult patients who had experienced an episode of intraoperative awareness with recall (compared with 12 controls), performed whole exome sequencing, and applied filtering to obtain a set of genetic variants that might be associated with intraoperative awareness with recall. The criteria were that the variant (1) had a minor allele frequency less than 0.1% in population databases, (2) was within exonic or splicing regions, (3) caused a nonsynonymous change, (4) was predicted to be functionally damaging, (5) was expressed in the top 50% of genes expressed in the brain, and (6) was within genes in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways associated with general anesthesia, drug metabolism, arousal, and memory. RESULTS: The authors identified 29 rare genetic variants in 27 genes that were absent in controls and could plausibly be associated with this disorder. One variant in CACNA1A was identified in two patients and two different variants were identified in both CACNA1A and CACNA1S. Of interest was the relative overrepresentation of variants in genes encoding calcium channels and purinergic receptors. CONCLUSIONS: Within the constraints of the filtering process used, the authors did not find any single gene variant or gene that was strongly associated with intraoperative awareness with recall. The authors report 27 candidate genes and associated pathways identified in this pilot project as targets of interest for future larger biologic and epidemiologic studies.

6.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(3): 350-359, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted a cohort study of adult patients presenting for orthopaedic trauma surgery at a statewide trauma centre, with the aims of determining (i) the incidence and risk factors for severe acute pain in the PACU, and (ii) the incidence and risk factors for persistent post-surgical pain at 3 months. METHODS: Data were collected before operation, in the PACU, 72 h after surgery and 3 months after surgery, and included numerical rating scale (NRS) scores for pain, and modified Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, and Pain Catastrophizing Scale scores. RESULTS: Severe acute pain in the PACU was reported by 171 (56%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 51%, 62%) of the 303 included patients. Female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.06, 3.26) and prior post-injury surgery (OR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.11, 4.41) remained associated with severe acute pain after multivariable adjustment. Persistent post-surgical pain at 3 months was reported by 149 (65%; 95% CI: 59%, 71%) of the 229 included patients. The preoperative NRS score (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.32) remained associated with persistent pain after multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: We identified three easy-to-measure risk factors: female sex, prior post-injury surgery for severe acute pain, and preoperative NRS scores for persistent pain. Further research is required to identify pain management strategies and psychosocial interventions to reduce the burden of pain, disability, and distress in these patients.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/etiologia , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesões , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Aguda/epidemiologia , Dor Aguda/cirurgia , Adulto , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Musculoesquelético/cirurgia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/cirurgia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Centros de Traumatologia , Vitória/epidemiologia
7.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e027505, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196899

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Postoperative nausea, retching and vomiting (PONV) remains one of the most common side effects of general anaesthesia, contributing significantly to patient dissatisfaction, cost and complications. Chewing gum has potential as a novel, drug-free alternative treatment. We aim to conduct a large, definitive randomised controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of peppermint-flavoured chewing gum to treat PONV in the postanaesthesia care unit (PACU). If chewing gum is shown to be as effective as ondansetron, this trial has the potential to significantly improve outcomes for tens of millions of surgical patients around the world each year. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a prospective, multicentre, randomised controlled non-inferiority trial. 272 female patients aged ≥12 years having volatile anaesthetic-based general anaesthesia for breast or laparoscopic surgery will be randomised. Patients experiencing nausea, retching or vomiting in PACU will be randomised to 15 min of chewing gum or 4 mg intravenous ondansetron. The primary outcome (complete response) is cessation of PONV within 2 hours of administration, with no recurrence nor rescue medication requirement for 2 hours after administration. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Chewy Trial has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committees at all sites. Dissemination will be via international and national anaesthesia conferences, and publication in the peer-reviewed literature. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12618000429257; Pre-results.

9.
Anaesth Intensive Care ; 47(1): 76-84, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864474

RESUMO

Major bleeding in noncardiac surgery is common and associated with serious complications. The antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces bleeding and may reduce the risk of these complications. TXA also may have immunomodulatory effects that could reduce surgical site infection. Clinical trials of TXA in noncardiac surgery have been insufficiently powered to evaluate its efficacy and safety. Therefore, large randomised controlled trials of its use in noncardiac surgery are required. To ensure that future clinical trials are feasible and acceptable, we undertook a survey of Fellows of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA). Our aims were to ascertain current patterns of TXA administration and to assess the acceptability of randomising patients to intravenous TXA or placebo. A 12-item survey was electronically mailed to 1001 ANZCA Fellows. Two hundred and eighty nine responses were received and analysed (response rate 29%). Ninety-eight percent of respondents had used intravenous TXA in noncardiac surgery; 67% give TXA routinely for lower limb arthroplasty, with smaller proportions giving TXA for spinal surgery (40%) and other major orthopaedic surgery (28%). Almost half (49%) give TXA routinely for major trauma surgery. Thirty-six percent indicated that they did not give TXA for major vascular, abdominal, pelvic or thoracic surgery. The majority administered TXA as a single, fixed dose. Fifty-seven percent agreed that there is uncertainty about the relative risks and benefits of perioperative TXA in noncardiac surgery and 87% agreed that large definitive trials determining the safety and efficacy of perioperative TXA in noncardiac surgery are required. These results indicate that for ANZCA Fellows the use of TXA in noncardiac surgery is highly variable, that there is uncertainty about the safety and efficacy of TXA, and that a large trial would be acceptable.


Assuntos
Anestesistas , Antifibrinolíticos , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Ácido Tranexâmico , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Austrália , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico
11.
N Engl J Med ; 378(24): 2263-2274, 2018 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29742967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines to promote the early recovery of patients undergoing major surgery recommend a restrictive intravenous-fluid strategy for abdominal surgery. However, the supporting evidence is limited, and there is concern about impaired organ perfusion. METHODS: In a pragmatic, international trial, we randomly assigned 3000 patients who had an increased risk of complications while undergoing major abdominal surgery to receive a restrictive or liberal intravenous-fluid regimen during and up to 24 hours after surgery. The primary outcome was disability-free survival at 1 year. Key secondary outcomes were acute kidney injury at 30 days, renal-replacement therapy at 90 days, and a composite of septic complications, surgical-site infection, or death. RESULTS: During and up to 24 hours after surgery, 1490 patients in the restrictive fluid group had a median intravenous-fluid intake of 3.7 liters (interquartile range, 2.9 to 4.9), as compared with 6.1 liters (interquartile range, 5.0 to 7.4) in 1493 patients in the liberal fluid group (P<0.001). The rate of disability-free survival at 1 year was 81.9% in the restrictive fluid group and 82.3% in the liberal fluid group (hazard ratio for death or disability, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.88 to 1.24; P=0.61). The rate of acute kidney injury was 8.6% in the restrictive fluid group and 5.0% in the liberal fluid group (P<0.001). The rate of septic complications or death was 21.8% in the restrictive fluid group and 19.8% in the liberal fluid group (P=0.19); rates of surgical-site infection (16.5% vs. 13.6%, P=0.02) and renal-replacement therapy (0.9% vs. 0.3%, P=0.048) were higher in the restrictive fluid group, but the between-group difference was not significant after adjustment for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients at increased risk for complications during major abdominal surgery, a restrictive fluid regimen was not associated with a higher rate of disability-free survival than a liberal fluid regimen and was associated with a higher rate of acute kidney injury. (Funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and others; RELIEF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01424150 .).


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/efeitos adversos , Hidratação/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Soluções para Reidratação/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/mortalidade , Feminino , Hidratação/efeitos adversos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Soluções Hipotônicas/administração & dosagem , Soluções Hipotônicas/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Soluções para Reidratação/efeitos adversos , Soluções para Reidratação/química , Fatores de Risco
12.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 31(4): 481-485, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846194

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review the practice of sedation for adults having gastrointestinal endoscopy in Australia and to compare it with practice in other countries. RECENT FINDINGS: The practice of sedation for endoscopy in Australia is dominated by anaesthesiologists, who have a preference for deep propofol-based sedation. The recent literature includes a number of guidelines for sedation developed by multidisciplinary groups, anaesthesiologists and gastroenterologists in Australia and other countries. The appropriate health practitioner to provide deep sedation and general anaesthesia, to use propofol for sedation and to manage higher risk patients remains controversial. The estimated risks associated with endoscopy vary by provider, sedation technique and study design (prospective or retrospective, single- or multicentre). New airway management techniques are being investigated that may be useful in patients at high risk of hypoventilation and hypoxia. SUMMARY: Endoscopy sedation is safe but more high-quality, multicentre observer-blinded randomized controlled trials are required.


Assuntos
Anestesia/estatística & dados numéricos , Sedação Consciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Sedação Profunda/estatística & dados numéricos , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/efeitos adversos , Dor Processual/prevenção & controle , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/tendências , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Anestesia/métodos , Austrália , Sedação Consciente/efeitos adversos , Sedação Profunda/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipoventilação/etiologia , Hipoventilação/prevenção & controle , Hipóxia/etiologia , Hipóxia/prevenção & controle , Dor Processual/etiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Propofol/administração & dosagem
13.
Anesth Analg ; 127(5): 1118-1126, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29533264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, >300 million patients have surgery annually, and ≤20% experience adverse postoperative events. We studied the impact of both cardiac and noncardiac adverse events on 1-year disability-free survival after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: We used the study cohort from the Evaluation of Nitrous oxide in Gas Mixture of Anesthesia (ENIGMA-II) trial, an international randomized trial of 6992 noncardiac surgical patients. All were ≥45 years of age and had moderate to high cardiac risk. The primary outcome was mortality within 1 postoperative year. We defined 4 separate types of postoperative adverse events. Major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) included myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac arrest, and myocardial revascularization with or without troponin elevation. MI was defined using the third Universal Definition and was blindly adjudicated. A second cohort consisted of patients with isolated troponin increases who did not meet the definition for MI. We also considered a cohort of patients who experienced major adverse postoperative events (MAPEs), including unplanned admission to intensive care, prolonged mechanical ventilation, wound infection, pulmonary embolism, and stroke. From this cohort, we identified a group without troponin elevation and another with troponin elevation that was not judged to be an MI. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models for death at 1 year and assessments of proportionality of hazard functions were performed and expressed as an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: MACEs were observed in 469 patients, and another 754 patients had isolated troponin increases. MAPEs were observed in 631 patients. Compared with control patients, patients with a MACE were at increased risk of mortality (aHR, 3.36 [95% CI, 2.55-4.46]), similar to patients who suffered a MAPE without troponin elevation (n = 501) (aHR, 2.98 [95% CI, 2.26-3.92]). Patients who suffered a MAPE with troponin elevation but without MI had the highest risk of death (n = 116) (aHR, 4.29 [95% CI, 2.89-6.36]). These 4 types of adverse events similarly affected 1-year disability-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: MACEs and MAPEs occur at similar frequencies and affect survival to a similar degree. All 3 types of postoperative troponin elevation in this analysis were associated, to varying degrees, with increased risk of death and disability.

14.
N Z Med J ; 131(1470): 79-86, 2018 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29470475

RESUMO

Since 2006 the Australian Medical Council (AMC) accreditation standards have required medical schools to comprehensively address issues related to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia, and Maori in New Zealand. This has spanned areas of staff expertise, staff and student recruitment, curriculum and institutional leadership. These Indigenous specific standards have, until now, been absent for specialist medical college accreditation. The AMC revised its accreditation standards for specialist medical colleges in 2015, and for the first time included Indigenous specific standards. This commentary presents a guideline to support Australasian medical colleges' responsiveness to these Indigenous specific standards.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/normas , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/normas , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Faculdades de Medicina/normas , Austrália , Humanos , Nova Zelândia
15.
Anesthesiology ; 128(2): 317-327, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29189290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relative contributions of intraoperative and postoperative hypotension to perioperative morbidity remain unclear. We determined the association between hypotension and a composite of 30-day myocardial infarction and death over three periods: (1) intraoperative, (2) remaining day of surgery, and (3) during the initial four postoperative days. METHODS: This was a substudy of POISE-2, a 10,010-patient factorial-randomized trial of aspirin and clonidine for prevention of myocardial infarction. Clinically important hypotension was defined as systolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg requiring treatment. Minutes of hypotension was the exposure variable intraoperatively and for the remaining day of surgery, whereas hypotension status was treated as binary variable for postoperative days 1 to 4. We estimated the average relative effect of hypotension across components of the composite using a distinct effect generalized estimating model, adjusting for hypotension during earlier periods. RESULTS: Among 9,765 patients, 42% experienced hypotension, 590 (6.0%) had an infarction, and 116 (1.2%) died within 30 days of surgery. Intraoperatively, the estimated average relative effect across myocardial infarction and mortality was 1.08 (98.3% CI, 1.03, 1.12; P < 0.001) per 10-min increase in hypotension duration. For the remaining day of surgery, the odds ratio was 1.03 (98.3% CI, 1.01, 1.05; P < 0.001) per 10-min increase in hypotension duration. The average relative effect odds ratio was 2.83 (98.3% CI, 1.26, 6.35; P = 0.002) in patients with hypotension during the subsequent four days of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically important hypotension-a potentially modifiable exposure-was significantly associated with a composite of myocardial infarction and death during each of three perioperative periods, even after adjustment for previous hypotension.


Assuntos
Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Ann Intern Med ; 168(4): 237-244, 2018 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29132159

RESUMO

Background: Uncertainty remains about the effects of aspirin in patients with prior percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) having noncardiac surgery. Objective: To evaluate benefits and harms of perioperative aspirin in patients with prior PCI. Design: Nonprespecified subgroup analysis of a multicenter factorial trial. Computerized Internet randomization was done between 2010 and 2013. Patients, clinicians, data collectors, and outcome adjudicators were blinded to treatment assignment. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01082874). Setting: 135 centers in 23 countries. Patients: Adults aged 45 years or older who had or were at risk for atherosclerotic disease and were having noncardiac surgery. Exclusions were placement of a bare-metal stent within 6 weeks, placement of a drug-eluting stent within 1 year, or receipt of nonstudy aspirin within 72 hours before surgery. Intervention: Aspirin therapy (overall trial, n = 4998; subgroup, n = 234) or placebo (overall trial, n = 5012; subgroup, n = 236) initiated within 4 hours before surgery and continued throughout the perioperative period. Of the 470 subgroup patients, 99.9% completed follow-up. Measurements: The 30-day primary outcome was death or nonfatal myocardial infarction; bleeding was a secondary outcome. Results: In patients with prior PCI, aspirin reduced the risk for the primary outcome (absolute risk reduction, 5.5% [95% CI, 0.4% to 10.5%]; hazard ratio [HR], 0.50 [CI, 0.26 to 0.95]; P for interaction = 0.036) and for myocardial infarction (absolute risk reduction, 5.9% [CI, 1.0% to 10.8%]; HR, 0.44 [CI, 0.22 to 0.87]; P for interaction = 0.021). The effect on the composite of major and life-threatening bleeding in patients with prior PCI was uncertain (absolute risk increase, 1.3% [CI, -2.6% to 5.2%]). In the overall population, aspirin increased the risk for major bleeding (absolute risk increase, 0.8% [CI, 0.1% to 1.6%]; HR, 1.22 [CI, 1.01 to 1.48]; P for interaction = 0.50). Limitation: Nonprespecified subgroup analysis with small sample. Conclusion: Perioperative aspirin may be more likely to benefit rather than harm patients with prior PCI. Primary Funding Source: Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

17.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 30(6): 658-662, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28915133

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review complications and unplanned hospital admissions in patients presenting for ambulatory procedures requiring anesthesia care in the gastrointestinal endoscopy, bronchoscopy, and radiology suites. RECENT FINDINGS: The range of ambulatory diagnostic and therapeutic procedures being undertaken in the gastrointestinal endoscopy, bronchoscopy, and radiology suites is expanding rapidly. Recent observational studies in gastrointestinal endoscopy confirm low incidences of complications and unplanned admissions. Deep propofol-based sedation is associated with more complications than lighter sedation. Older patients suffer more complications but obstructive sleep apnea does not appear to increase risk. Sedation improves patient comfort during bronchoscopy. Propofol-based sedation is associated with fewer complications than benzodiazepine-based sedation, but all combinations are associated with high patient satisfaction. Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea are not associated with worse outcomes in bronchoscopy patients. Sedation is increasingly required for interventions in the radiology suite. When patients are involved in choosing sedation depth, there is a trend to lighter sedation and high patient satisfaction. SUMMARY: Sedation and anesthesia are required for the increasing number of increasingly complex procedures being undertaken outside the operating suite. Large randomized trials are required to define the optimum sedation drugs, sedation depth and sedation provider.


Assuntos
Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Anestesia/métodos , Admissão do Paciente/tendências , Broncoscopia/métodos , Sedação Consciente , Humanos , Radiologia Intervencionista/métodos
20.
BMJ Open ; 7(3): e015358, 2017 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28259855

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The optimal intravenous fluid regimen for patients undergoing major abdominal surgery is unclear. However, results from many small studies suggest a restrictive regimen may lead to better outcomes. A large, definitive clinical trial evaluating perioperative fluid replacement in major abdominal surgery, therefore, is required. METHODS/ANALYSIS: We designed a pragmatic, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial (the RELIEF trial). A total of 3000 patients were enrolled in this study and randomly allocated to a restrictive or liberal fluid regimen in a 1:1 ratio, stratified by centre and planned critical care admission. The expected fluid volumes in the first 24 hour from the start of surgery in restrictive and liberal groups were ≤3.0 L and ≥5.4 L, respectively. Patient enrolment is complete, and follow-up for the primary end point is ongoing. The primary outcome is disability-free survival at 1 year after surgery, with disability defined as a persistent (at least 6 months) reduction in functional status using the 12-item version of the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule. ETHICS/DISSEMINATION: The RELIEF trial has been approved by the responsible ethics committees of all participating sites. Participant recruitment began in March 2013 and was completed in August 2016, and 1-year follow-up will conclude in August 2017. Publication of the results of the RELIEF trial is anticipated in early 2018. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01424150.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Hidratação/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA