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2.
Metabolism ; 126: 154911, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) population is non-obese. Prior studies reporting the severity of NAFLD amongst non-obese patients were heterogenous. Our study, using data from the largest biopsy-proven NAFLD international registry within Asia, aims to characterize the demographic, metabolic and histological differences between non-obese and obese NAFLD patients. METHODS: 1812 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients across nine countries in Asia assessed between 2006 and 2019 were pooled into a curated clinical registry. Demographic, metabolic and histological differences between non-obese and obese NAFLD patients were evaluated. The performance of Fibrosis-4 index for liver fibrosis (FIB-4) and NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) to identify advanced liver disease across the varying obesity subgroups was compared. A random forest analysis was performed to identify novel predictors of fibrosis and steatohepatitis in non-obese patients. FINDINGS: One-fifth (21.6%) of NAFLD patients were non-obese. Non-obese NAFLD patients had lower proportions of NASH (50.5% vs 56.5%, p = 0.033) and advanced fibrosis (14.0% vs 18.7%, p = 0.033). Metabolic syndrome in non-obese individuals was associated with NASH (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.01-2.54, p = 0.047) and advanced fibrosis (OR 1.88, 95% CI 0.99-3.54, p = 0.051). FIB-4 performed better than the NFS score (AUROC 81.5% vs 73.7%, p < 0.001) when classifying patients with F2-4 fibrosis amongst non-obese NAFLD patients. Haemoglobin, GGT, waist circumference and cholesterol are additional variables found on random forest analysis useful for identifying non-obese NAFLD patients with advanced liver disease. CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of non-obese NAFLD patients has NASH or advanced fibrosis. FIB-4, compared to NFS better identifies non-obese NAFLD patients with advanced liver disease. Serum GGT, cholesterol, haemoglobin and waist circumference, which are neither components of NFS nor FIB-4, are important biomarkers for advanced liver disease in non-obese patients.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Obesidade/patologia , Adulto , Ásia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797476

RESUMO

Chronic liver disease is still a major problem because disease progression will ultimately lead to liver cirrhosis. Portal hypertension is the hallmark in advanced liver disease management. By establishing portal vein access, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has been utilized in various clinical applications. In comparison to standard upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, EUS-Doppler has been shown to be a better modality for detecting esophageal and gastric varices along with peri-esophageal collateral veins, para-esophageal collateral veins, and perforating veins, and may be used to objectively predict the recurrence of bleeding. EUS-guided portal vein catheterization has also been proposed to overcome the limitations of trans-jugular approaches. The combination of EUS-elastography and azygos vein evaluation can also enhance the diagnostic accuracy of each modality. Another well-known implementation of EUS-guided procedures is in the management of ascites; particularly in paracentesis and ascitic fluid analysis. In addition, the most common clinical application of EUS in the treatment of portal hypertension is through vascular therapy or creation of intrahepatic portosystemic shunts. Major drawbacks of EUS mainly revolve around technical difficulties, the high cost of the procedure, as well as the requirement of more studies in humans to evaluate EUS-guided advanced therapeutic modalities in portal hypertension.

4.
Hepatol Int ; 15(6): 1376-1388, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a rapidly progressive illness with high short-term mortality. Timely liver transplant (LT) may improve survival. We evaluated various indices for assessment of the severity of liver failure and their application for eligibility and timing of living donor LT (LDLT). METHODS: Altogether 1021 patients were analyzed for the severity and organ failure at admission to determine transplant eligibility and 28 day survival with or without transplant. RESULTS: The ACLF cohort [mean age 44 ± 12.2 years, males 81%) was of sick patients; 55% willing for LT at admission, though 63% of them were ineligible due to sepsis or organ failure. On day 4, recovery in sepsis and/or organ failure led to an improvement in transplant eligibility from 37% at baseline to 63.7%. Delay in LT up to 7 days led to a higher incidence of multiorgan failure (p < 0.01) contributing to 23% of the first week and 55% of all-cause 28-day mortality. In a matched cohort analysis, the actuarial survival with LT (n = 41) and conditional survival in the absence of transplant (n = 191) were comparable, when the condition, i.e., transplant was adjusted. The comparison curve showed differentiation in survival beyond 7 days (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: ACLF is a rapidly progressive disease and risk stratification within the first week of hospitalization is needed. 'Emergent LT' should be defined in the first week in the ACLF patients; the transplant window for improving survival in a live donor setting.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Transplante de Fígado , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Doadores Vivos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is one of the curative modality therapies commonly used for the early stage of HCC management. Although numerous studies have reported the outcome of RFA around the world, the data regarding the usage of RFA for the early and intermediate stage of HCC remains limited. Hence, the study aimed to report the survival rate of the early and intermediate stage HCC patients who underwent RFA in two tertiary referral hospitals in Jakarta, Indonesia. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Cipto Mangunkusumo and Medistra multicenter hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia. The patients with HCC BCLC A and B who underwent RFA treatments between January 2015 to December 2017 were recruited for the study. Baseline characteristics of patients were collected from the medical record. Survival analysis was calculated using the Kaplan Meier. p value result was obtained from the log-rank test. Sub-analysis of factors associated with the survival was also included in this study. RESULTS: There were 62 patients enrolled in this study (32.3% were BCLC A and 67.7% were BCLC B). Forty-six out of 62 patients (74.2%) were reported to have RFA as their first line of treatment, while 12 (25.8%) were reported to have a combination of RFA and other therapy modalities. All these patients were follow-up with an average duration of 27 months. The survival rate of liver cancer due to HCC for 12 and 36 months in patients who received RFA was 82.3% and 57.8%, respectively. Moreover, BCLC staging of liver cancer and response after RFA was significantly associated with survival. CONCLUSION: RFA still can be used as initial modality therapy nor combination with another therapy for the early and intermediate stage of HCC. BCLC staging and response after RFA had shown to be the independent factors related to survival.

6.
Hepatol Int ; 15(4): 970-982, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the dynamics of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and ammonia estimation in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients due to a paucity of evidence. METHODS: ACLF patients recruited from the APASL-ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) were followed up till 30 days, death or transplantation, whichever earlier. Clinical details, including dynamic grades of HE and laboratory data, including ammonia levels, were serially noted. RESULTS: Of the 3009 ACLF patients, 1315 (43.7%) had HE at presentation; grades I-II in 981 (74.6%) and grades III-IV in 334 (25.4%) patients. The independent predictors of HE at baseline were higher age, systemic inflammatory response, elevated ammonia levels, serum protein, sepsis and MELD score (p < 0.05; each). The progressive course of HE was noted in 10.0% of patients without HE and 8.2% of patients with HE at baseline, respectively. Independent predictors of progressive course of HE were AARC score (≥ 9) and ammonia levels (≥ 85 µmol/L) (p < 0.05; each) at baseline. A final grade of HE was achieved within 7 days in 70% of patients and those with final grades III-IV had the worst survival (8.9%). Ammonia levels were a significant predictor of HE occurrence, higher HE grades and 30-day mortality (p < 0.05; each). The dynamic increase in the ammonia levels over 7 days could predict nonsurvivors and progression of HE (p < 0.05; each). Ammonia, HE grade, SIRS, bilirubin, INR, creatinine, lactate and age were the independent predictors of 30-day mortality in ACLF patients. CONCLUSIONS: HE in ACLF is common and is associated with systemic inflammation, poor liver functions and high disease severity. Ammonia levels are associated with the presence, severity, progression of HE and mortality in ACLF patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Encefalopatia Hepática , Amônia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
Hepatol Int ; 15(3): 753-765, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple predictive models of mortality exist for acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients that often create confusion during decision-making. We studied the natural history and evaluated the performance of prognostic models in ACLF patients. METHODS: Prospectively collected data of ACLF patients from APASL-ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) was analyzed for 30-day outcomes. The models evaluated at days 0, 4, and 7 of presentation for 30-day mortality were: AARC (model and score), CLIF-C (ACLF score, and OF score), NACSELD-ACLF (model and binary), SOFA, APACHE-II, MELD, MELD-Lactate, and CTP. Evaluation parameters were discrimination (c-indices), calibration [accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV)], Akaike/Bayesian Information Criteria (AIC/BIC), Nagelkerke-R2, relative prediction errors, and odds ratios. RESULTS: Thirty-day survival of the cohort (n = 2864) was 64.9% and was lowest for final-AARC-grade-III (32.8%) ACLF. Performance parameters of all models were best at day 7 than at day 4 or day 0 (p < 0.05 for C-indices of all models except NACSELD-ACLF). On comparison, day-7 AARC model had the numerically highest c-index 0.872, best accuracy 84.0%, PPV 87.8%, R2 0.609 and lower prediction errors by 10-50%. Day-7 NACSELD-ACLF-binary was the simple model (minimum AIC/BIC 12/17) with the highest odds (8.859) and sensitivity (100%) but with a lower PPV (70%) for mortality. Patients with day-7 AARC score > 12 had the lowest 30-day survival (5.7%). CONCLUSIONS: APASL-ACLF is often a progressive disease, and models assessed up to day 7 of presentation reliably predict 30-day mortality. Day-7 AARC model is a statistically robust tool for classifying risk of death and accurately predicting 30-day outcomes with relatively lower prediction errors. Day-7 AARC score > 12 may be used as a futility criterion in APASL-ACLF patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , APACHE , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico
8.
Case Rep Gastroenterol ; 15(1): 210-217, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790707

RESUMO

Pancreatobiliary disorder is a challenging clinical condition, especially when this condition is causing severe infection or biliary sepsis, and sometimes it requires intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. Biliary drainage is the mainstay of therapy; however, the choice of the drainage method is dependent on the patient's clinical condition and the disease itself. A 79-year-old female was transferred on a ventilator to our ICU from another hospital due to biliary sepsis, a large common bile duct stone, and an infected pancreatic pseudocyst. The patient also has other comorbidities such as heart problems, hypothyroidism, and diabetes mellitus. Bedside percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage without fluoroscopy and percutaneous cyst aspiration was successfully performed, which improved the patient's condition; this was followed by an endoscopic approach, i.e., endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic ultrasound-guided pancreatic pseudocyst drainage. The clinical improvement showed itself in the change of the patient's respiratory status and ventilator mode. In conclusion, the percutaneous approach has a big role in managing critically ill patients in the ICU setting. However, expertise, training experience, and a multidisciplinary team approach are very important for successful management and patient outcome.

9.
Liver Int ; 41(1): 150-157, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic risk factors may impact the severity and outcome of alcoholic liver disease. The present study evaluated this effect in patients with alcohol-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). METHODOLOGY: One thousand two hundred and sixteen prospectively enrolled patients with ACLF (males 98%, mean age 42.5 ± 9.4 years, mean CTP, MELD and AARC scores of 12 ± 1.4, 29.7 ± 7 and 9.8 ± 2 respectively) from the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) database were analysed retrospectively. Patients with or without metabolic risk factors were compared for severity (CTP, MELD, AARC scores) and day 30 and 90 mortality. Information on overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension and dyslipidaemia were available in 1028 (85%), 1019 (84%), 1017 (84%) and 965 (79%) patients respectively. RESULTS: Overall, 392 (32%) patients died at day 30 and 528 (43%) at day 90. Overweight/obesity, T2DM, hypertension and dyslipidaemia were present in 154 (15%), 142 (14%), 66 (7%) and 141 (15%) patients, respectively, with no risk factors in 809 (67%) patients. Patients with overweight/obesity had higher MELD scores (30.6 ± 7.1 vs 29.2 ± 6.9, P = .007) and those with dyslipidaemia had higher AARC scores (10.4 ± 1.2 vs 9.8 ± 2, P = .014). Overweight/obesity was associated with increased day 30 mortality (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.06-2.24, P = .023). None of other metabolic risk factors, alone or in combination, had any impact on disease severity or mortality. On multivariate analysis, overweight or obesity was significantly associated with 30-day mortality (aHR 1.91, 95% CI 1.41-2.59, P < .001), independent of age, CTP, MELD and AARC scores. CONCLUSION: Overweight/obesity and dyslipidaemia increase the severity of alcohol-associated ACLF, and the former also increases the short-term mortality in these patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/etiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2020: 6676294, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33376713

RESUMO

Aim: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been known as a risk for the presence of colon polyp and CRC development. This study was aimed to find out the clinical significance of colon polyps' pathology among NAFLD patients. Method: A retrospective database study was done in patients who underwent elective colonoscopy within one-year period in a referral private hospital, Jakarta. Subjects were adult patients who also had documented abdominal ultrasound (US). The association between NAFLD and colonic polyp was analyzed using Chi-square test with odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: A total of 138 adult patients were enrolled; 68 (51.1%) were men. Patients' mean age was 56.8 ± 15.3 years old. Colon polyps were found in 49 (35.5%) cases; the most common histopathology was adenoma (42.9%). NAFLD was found in 68 (49.3%) of patients. Colon polyps were found to be more among patients with NAFLD than in those without NAFLD (44.1% vs. 27.1%; OR: 2.119; 95% CI: 1.040-4.318). Colon polyps were found in 30 (44.1%) NAFLD patients, where 18 (26.5%) patients had adenomatous polyp, and from this subset of patients with adenomatous polyp, 6 (8.8%) patients had mild dysplasia, 8 (11.8%) had moderate dysplasia, 1 (1.5%) had severe dysplasia, and 3 (4.4%) had adenocarcinoma. Conclusions: NAFLD is associated with increased risk of any colon polyp, regardless of the histopathological type, compared with patients without NAFLD. This finding implies the necessity to perform screening colonoscopy in patients with NAFLD in the future.


Assuntos
Pólipos do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Adolescente , Adulto , Pólipos do Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Pólipos do Colo/epidemiologia , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(4): 326-333, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Th17 cells, a subset of CD4+ T cells with the capacity to produce IL-17, were reported to have pro-tumor and anti-tumor effects. Th1 cells are known for their capacity to eliminate tumor cells by producing IFN-γ. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a treatment of choice for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, this study aimed to determine the association between peripheral Th17, Th1, IL-17, and IFN-γ levels and TACE response in patients with unresectable HCC with or without cirrhosis. METHODS: a prospective cohort study was conducted in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital and several affiliated hospitals from June 2015 to January 2019. HCC patients with or without cirrhosis who met the inclusion criteria were included in this study. Blood samples were obtained immediately before TACE and 30 days after TACE. Th1 and Th17 cells were analyzed by flowcytometry, while IL-17 and IFN-γ were examined with ELISA method. TACE response was assessed with mRECIST. RESULTS: forty-one HCC patients were enrolled in this study. According to mRECIST, 12 patients were assessed as response group (complete and partial response) and 29 patients were assessed as nonresponse group (stable and progressive disease). Levels of Th1 and Th17 increased significantly after TACE in the response group. On the other hand, IL-17 and IFN-γ decreased after TACE in both groups, although not statistically significant. Interestingly, in the response group, a significant increase was found in the number of T cells subset showing both IFN-γ and IL-17 markers on their surfaces, i.e. CD4+/IFN-γ+/IL-17+ T cells. CONCLUSION: increased circulating Th1, Th17, and CD4+/IFN-γ+/IL-17+ T cells were observed in HCC patients with complete or partial response to TACE.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Interferon gama/sangue , Interleucina-17/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th17/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
12.
Hepatol Int ; 14(6): 920-929, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has been giving the devastating impact on the current medical care system. There are quite many guidelines on COVID-19, but only a few on the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during COVID-19 pandemic. AIMS: We develop these recommendations to preserve adequate clinical practice for the management of HCC. METHODS: Experts of HCC in the Asia-Pacific region exchanged opinions via webinar, and these recommendations were formed. RESULTS: Close contact should be minimized to reduce possible exposure of both medical staff and patients to the novel coronavirus. To prevent transmission of the virus, meticulous hygiene measures are important. With the decrease in regular medical service, the medical staff may be mobilized to provide COVID-19-related patient care. However, diagnosis and treatment of HCC should not be delayed because of COVID-19 pandemic. The management of HCC should be the same as in non-pandemic circumstances. HCC is highly malignant, thus it is recommended not to delay curative treatment such as surgery and ablation. However, a kind of triage is necessary even among patients with HCC when resources are insufficient for all to be treated. Curative treatments should be periodized and cytoreductive or non-curative treatment such as vascular interventions and systemic therapy may be postponed until it can be performed safely with sufficient resources. For patients with confirmed or suspected to be infected with the novel coronavirus, diagnosis and treatment should be postponed until the virus is eliminated or they are confirmed as not being infected with it. CONCLUSIONS: These are collection of measures implemented by front-line medical professionals. We would evolve these recommendations over time as more real-world data becomes available.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , COVID-19/complicações , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/complicações , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações
13.
Case Rep Gastroenterol ; 13(3): 385-397, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616233

RESUMO

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) are the standard of care in malignant biliary obstruction cases. Recently, endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) has been widely used after unsuccessful ERCP. However, the patient's clinical impact of EUS-BD over PTBD is still not obvious. Therefore, this case series study aims to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with advanced malignant biliary obstruction who underwent EUS-BD after failed ERCP. A retrospective database study was performed between January 2016 and June 2018 in patients with advanced malignant biliary obstruction. Patients were consecutively enrolled without randomization. Treatment options consisted of ERCP and PTBD or EUS-BD if ERCP failed. Based on 144 biliary obstruction cases, 38 patients were enrolled; 24 (63.2%) were men. The patients' mean age was 66.8 ± 12.36 years. The most common cause of malignant biliary obstruction was pancreatic cancer (44.7%). Biliary drainage was achieved by ERCP (39.5%), PTBD (39.5%), and EUS-BD (21.1%). The technical success rate was 86.7% by PTBD and 87.5% by EUS-BD (p = 1.000), while the clinical success rate was 93.3% by PTBD and 62.5% by EUS-BD (p = 0.500). The median survival in patients who underwent PTBD versus those wo underwent EUS-BD was 11 versus 3 months (log-rank p = 0.455). In conclusion, there is no significant advantage of EUS-BD when compared to PTBD in terms of clinical success and survival benefit in advanced malignant biliary obstruction.

15.
Hepatol Int ; 13(4): 353-390, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172417

RESUMO

The first consensus report of the working party of the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) set up in 2004 on acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) was published in 2009. With international groups volunteering to join, the "APASL ACLF Research Consortium (AARC)" was formed in 2012, which continued to collect prospective ACLF patient data. Based on the prospective data analysis of nearly 1400 patients, the AARC consensus was published in 2014. In the past nearly four-and-a-half years, the AARC database has been enriched to about 5200 cases by major hepatology centers across Asia. The data published during the interim period were carefully analyzed and areas of contention and new developments in the field of ACLF were prioritized in a systematic manner. The AARC database was also approached for answering some of the issues where published data were limited, such as liver failure grading, its impact on the 'Golden Therapeutic Window', extrahepatic organ dysfunction and failure, development of sepsis, distinctive features of acute decompensation from ACLF and pediatric ACLF and the issues were analyzed. These initiatives concluded in a two-day meeting in October 2018 at New Delhi with finalization of the new AARC consensus. Only those statements, which were based on evidence using the Grade System and were unanimously recommended, were accepted. Finalized statements were again circulated to all the experts and subsequently presented at the AARC investigators meeting at the AASLD in November 2018. The suggestions from the experts were used to revise and finalize the consensus. After detailed deliberations and data analysis, the original definition of ACLF was found to withstand the test of time and be able to identify a homogenous group of patients presenting with liver failure. New management options including the algorithms for the management of coagulation disorders, renal replacement therapy, sepsis, variceal bleed, antivirals and criteria for liver transplantation for ACLF patients were proposed. The final consensus statements along with the relevant background information and areas requiring future studies are presented here.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/terapia , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/etiologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Hepatite Autoimune/etiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prognóstico , Sepse/etiologia
16.
Transplantation ; 103(4): 733-746, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The population of Asia exceeds 4.4 billion people. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Asia is characterized by specific distribution of genotypes, lack of access to specific therapeutic agents, relatively high cost of treatment, and lack of experienced healthcare providers. Clear consensus on the diagnosis, management, and monitoring of HCV infection specific to the Asian region is a major unmet need. The consensus guidelines documents that have been published to date by major medical societies presume access to an array of direct acting antiviral agents and diagnostic tests that are not broadly applicable to resource limited settings, including Asia. METHODS: To address the lack of an Asia-specific set of HCV treatment guidelines, we assembled a panel of 15 HCV experts in the field of hepatology from India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Vietnam, Pakistan, Philippines, and Mongolia convened in April 2017 to review the updated literature and provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of chronic HCV infection that reflects local conditions. RESULTS: An evidence-based comprehensive compilation of the literature supported by the graded recommendations from the expert panel for the optimization of the diagnosis, pretreatment, on treatment, and posttreatment assessments, and management of chronic HCV infection has been presented in this article. CONCLUSIONS: With the evolving treatment landscape and addition of several new direct-acting antiviral agents and combination regimens into the therapeutic armamentarium, the current article may serve as a guide to the clinicians in optimizing the diagnosis and treatment selection for the management of chronic HCV infection in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Transplante de Fígado , Ásia , Consenso , Interações Medicamentosas , Quimioterapia Combinada , Genótipo , Rejeição de Enxerto , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos
17.
Hepatology ; 70(2): 587-596, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113706

RESUMO

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is considered less common in the Asia Pacific region. Due to this, AIH flare as a cause of acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) is often overlooked and treatment delayed. We aimed at the defining clinical and histopathological spectrum and role of steroid therapy in AIH-ACLF. Patients with AIH-ACLF, prospectively recruited and followed between 2012 and 2017, were analyzed from the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) data base. Diagnosis of AIH was confirmed using International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group score or simplified AIH score with histopathological evidence. Of 2,825 ACLF patients, 82 (2.9%) fulfilled criteria of AIH (age 42.1 ± 18.1 years, 70% female). At baseline, mean bilirubin was 18.6 ± 8.2 mg/dL, Child-Turcotte-Pugh score was 11.7 ± 1.4, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was 27.6 ± 6.5. Mean immunoglobulin G was 21.61 ± 7.32 g/dL, and this was elevated ≥1.1 times in 97% of cases; 49% were seronegative. Liver histology was available in 90%, with median histological activity index of 10 (interquartile range, 7-12); 90% with moderate to severe interface activity; 56% showing significant parenchymal necrosis (bridging and confluent necrosis); and cirrhosis in 42%. Twenty-eight (34%) patients received steroid therapy and showed shorter intensive care unit (ICU) stay (median 1.5 versus 4 days, P < 0.001) and improved 90-day survival (75% versus 48.1%, P = 0.02) with comparable incidence of sepsis (P = 0.32) compared to those who did not. Patients of advanced age, more severe liver disease (MELD >27; 83.3% sensitivity, 78.9% specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.86), presence of hepatic encephalopathy, and fibrosis grade ≥F3 had an unfavorable response to corticosteroid therapy. Conclusion: AIH presenting as ACLF is not uncommon in Asian patients; a low threshold for liver biopsy is needed to confirm the diagnosis as nearly half the patients are seronegative; early stratification to steroid therapy or liver transplantation (MELD >27, hepatic encephalopathy in ≥F3) would reduce ICU stay and improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Hepatite Autoimune/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Exacerbação dos Sintomas , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
JGH Open ; 2(1): 4-7, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483555

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease (NAFPD) is a disease that ranges from simple steatosis and can further lead to chronic pancreatitis and possible pancreatic cancer development. Its exact pathogenesis and impact on clinical practice are still largely unknown. Pancreatic cancer is still the most lethal malignancy in the world. Studies about the relationship between NAFPD and pancreatic cancer are still lacking. This study aims to find the possible role of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) examination as a screening tool in NAFPD patients based on EUS examination among pancreatic cancer patients. Methods: EUS hospital data were collected within a 2-year period, and all patients who underwent EUS procedures were analyzed. Pancreatic malignancy was diagnosed based on imaging and tumor markers and cytopathology using the endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) procedure. Patients with pre-existing pancreatic diseases, significant alcohol consumption, or other primary cancer with metastasis to the pancreas were excluded. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 23.0. Results: In total, 162 patients (75 females and 87 males) were recruited for database analysis.^ Pancreatic malignancy was found in 43 (26.5%) patients, whereas fatty pancreas was found in 53 (32.7%) patients, and this was commonly found among pancreatic cancer patients.^ Based on logistic regression analysis, factors such as age, gender, diabetes, and chronic pancreatitis were not found to be significant risk factors for pancreatic malignancy where fatty pancreas is the only significant risk factor for pancreatic cancer (odds ratio: 18.027 [95% CI: 7.288-44.588]). Conclusion: Prevalence of NAFPD among pancreatic cancer patients is high. Future studies can be conducted to show whether EUS can be considered a screening tool for the early detection of pancreatic malignancy in NAFPD patients; a cohort prospective study might also be needed to show clear causality between fatty pancreas and pancreatic cancer.

19.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(19): 1913-1921, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498924

RESUMO

Purpose Selective internal radiation therapy or radioembolization (RE) shows efficacy in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) limited to the liver. This study compared the safety and efficacy of RE and sorafenib in patients with locally advanced HCC. Patients and Methods SIRveNIB (selective internal radiation therapy v sorafenib), an open-label, investigator-initiated, phase III trial, compared yttrium-90 (90Y) resin microspheres RE with sorafenib 800 mg/d in patients with locally advanced HCC in a two-tailed study designed for superiority/detriment. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 and stratified by center and presence of portal vein thrombosis. Primary end point was overall survival (OS). Efficacy analyses were performed in the intention-to-treat population and safety analyses in the treated population. Results A total of 360 patients were randomly assigned (RE, 182; sorafenib, 178) from 11 countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the RE and sorafenib groups, 28.6% and 9.0%, respectively, failed to receive assigned therapy without significant cross-over to either group. Median OS was 8.8 and 10.0 months with RE and sorafenib, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.9 to 1.4; P = .36). A total of 1,468 treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) were reported (RE, 437; sorafenib, 1,031). Significantly fewer patients in the RE than sorafenib group had grade ≥ 3 AEs (36 of 130 [27.7%]) v 82 of 162 [50.6%]; P < .001). The most common grade ≥ 3 AEs were ascites (five of 130 [3.8%] v four of 162 [2.5%] patients), abdominal pain (three [2.3%] v two [1.2%] patients), anemia (zero v four [2.5%] patients), and radiation hepatitis (two [1.5%] v zero [0%] patients). Fewer patients in the RE group (27 of 130 [20.8%]) than in the sorafenib group (57 of 162 [35.2%]) had serious AEs. Conclusion In patients with locally advanced HCC, OS did not differ significantly between RE and sorafenib. The improved toxicity profile of RE may inform treatment choice in selected patients.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia/métodos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/radioterapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Sorafenibe/administração & dosagem , Radioisótopos de Ítrio/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Microesferas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Case Rep Gastroenterol ; 11(1): 72-77, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28611556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is still not widely available and has a barrier in most Southeast Asian countries due to lack of training program, high cost, and hospital investment. In this study, we would like to show the impact of therapeutic interventional EUS procedures in gastroenterology practice in Indonesia, which represents the biggest Southeast Asian country. METHODS: Patients who underwent interventional EUS procedure in Medistra Hospital were prospectively recruited within 1 year. RESULTS: Of 147 patients who underwent EUS procedures, 39 patients underwent fine needle aspiration. Most of the cases suffered from pancreatic cancer (47.5%) followed by ampullary cancer (20%), gastric subepithelial mass (10%), and other conditions. There were 4 rare cases that underwent therapeutic interventional EUS procedures. Patients with large mesenteric cyst attached to the gastric wall and large left liver lobe cyst with gastric compression who were previously suspected with gastrointestinal stromal tumor were successfully managed by cyst aspiration. One patient with a large pseudocyst due to chronic pancreatitis was successfully managed by plastic stent placement. Another patient with duodenal duplication cyst causing duodenal obstruction was managed by inserting a plastic stent through the cyst. No complications were observed during and after the therapeutic EUS procedures. CONCLUSIONS: Innovation in interventional EUS has a high impact in gastroenterology practice as well as in a developing country like Indonesia, which represents the biggest Southeast Asian country. Further developments are needed regarding the cost, investment, and especially the necessary training curriculum to make this technology available in tertiary referral centers.

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