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1.
Rheum Dis Clin North Am ; 45(4): 537-548, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564295

RESUMO

The treat-to-target principle of controlling inflammatory disease activity by means of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs or immunosuppressive drugs also pertains to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, in SLE, intensifying immunosuppression with higher-dose glucocorticoids may worsen outcomes. Therefore, all current recommendations favor better disease control while limiting daily glucocorticoid doses to a maximum of 5 or 7.5 mg of prednisolone daily. Hydroxychloroquine and other prophylactic measures are added, and antiphospholipid syndrome is treated with anticoagulation and not with immunosuppression, which makes the approach of treat to target slightly more complex, mirroring the complexity of the disease.

2.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(9): 1151-1159, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop new classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) jointly supported by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS: This international initiative had four phases. (1) Evaluation of antinuclear antibody (ANA) as an entry criterion through systematic review and meta-regression of the literature and criteria generation through an international Delphi exercise, an early patient cohort and a patient survey. (2) Criteria reduction by Delphi and nominal group technique exercises. (3) Criteria definition and weighting based on criterion performance and on results of a multi-criteria decision analysis. (4) Refinement of weights and threshold scores in a new derivation cohort of 1001 subjects and validation compared with previous criteria in a new validation cohort of 1270 subjects. RESULTS: The 2019 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for SLE include positive ANA at least once as obligatory entry criterion; followed by additive weighted criteria grouped in seven clinical (constitutional, haematological, neuropsychiatric, mucocutaneous, serosal, musculoskeletal, renal) and three immunological (antiphospholipid antibodies, complement proteins, SLE-specific antibodies) domains, and weighted from 2 to 10. Patients accumulating ≥10 points are classified. In the validation cohort, the new criteria had a sensitivity of 96.1% and specificity of 93.4%, compared with 82.8% sensitivity and 93.4% specificity of the ACR 1997 and 96.7% sensitivity and 83.7% specificity of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics 2012 criteria. CONCLUSION: These new classification criteria were developed using rigorous methodology with multidisciplinary and international input, and have excellent sensitivity and specificity. Use of ANA entry criterion, hierarchically clustered and weighted criteria reflect current thinking about SLE and provide an improved foundation for SLE research.

3.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(9): 1400-1412, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop new classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) jointly supported by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS: This international initiative had four phases. 1) Evaluation of antinuclear antibody (ANA) as an entry criterion through systematic review and meta-regression of the literature and criteria generation through an international Delphi exercise, an early patient cohort, and a patient survey. 2) Criteria reduction by Delphi and nominal group technique exercises. 3) Criteria definition and weighting based on criterion performance and on results of a multi-criteria decision analysis. 4) Refinement of weights and threshold scores in a new derivation cohort of 1,001 subjects and validation compared with previous criteria in a new validation cohort of 1,270 subjects. RESULTS: The 2019 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for SLE include positive ANA at least once as obligatory entry criterion; followed by additive weighted criteria grouped in 7 clinical (constitutional, hematologic, neuropsychiatric, mucocutaneous, serosal, musculoskeletal, renal) and 3 immunologic (antiphospholipid antibodies, complement proteins, SLE-specific antibodies) domains, and weighted from 2 to 10. Patients accumulating ≥10 points are classified. In the validation cohort, the new criteria had a sensitivity of 96.1% and specificity of 93.4%, compared with 82.8% sensitivity and 93.4% specificity of the ACR 1997 and 96.7% sensitivity and 83.7% specificity of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics 2012 criteria. CONCLUSION: These new classification criteria were developed using rigorous methodology with multidisciplinary and international input, and have excellent sensitivity and specificity. Use of ANA entry criterion, hierarchically clustered, and weighted criteria reflects current thinking about SLE and provides an improved foundation for SLE research.

4.
Immunotherapy ; 10(6): 465-472, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29504436

RESUMO

Giant cell arteritis is a systemic vasculitis of large vessels, manifesting mainly as temporal arteritis or large vessel vasculitis of the aorta and its branches. Glucocorticoid therapy is essential and so far had to be continued over a period of 1.5-2 years, resulting in relevant morbidity through adverse effects. With the approval of tocilizumab, an effective glucocorticoid sparing option is now available. In two randomized controlled trials, a profound reduction of cumulative glucocorticoid dose, prolonged relapse-free remission and reduced number of adverse events in the treatment groups have been demonstrated. Therefore, tocilizumab constitutes a novel therapeutic option in giant cell arteritis. Its differential role in different subgroups, timing of tocilizumab therapy and optimal treatment duration remain to be determined.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29579364

RESUMO

Thoughtful and eloquent as always, Drs. Pisetsky and Lipsky in their letter (1) highlight a critical point in the current SLE classification criteria project jointly supported by EULAR and ACR: if ANA positivity is to be the entry criterion, the sensitivity of the assay to detect ANA and that of ANA positivity for SLE are both important. Indeed, this issue has been a matter constantly discussed by the classification criteria steering committee since the beginning of the project. Our tenet is not that various ANA assays are comparable, but that ANA positivity is optimally positioned as an entry criterion for the classification of SLE (2). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 70(3): 428-438, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28544593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the published literature on the performance of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF)-HEp-2 antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing for classification of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases for articles published between January 1990 and October 2015. The research question was structured according to Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome (PICO) format rules, and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations were followed where appropriate. Meta-regression analysis for diagnostic tests was performed, using the ANA titer as independent variable, while sensitivity and specificity were dependent variables. RESULTS: Of 4,483 publications screened, 62 matched the eligibility criteria, and another 2 articles were identified through reference analysis. The included studies comprised 13,080 SLE patients in total, of whom 12,542 (95.9%) were reported to be IIF-ANA positive at various titers. For ANA at titers of 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, and 1:320, meta-regression gave sensitivity values of 98.4% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 97.6-99.0%), 97.8% (95% CI 96.8-98.5%), 95.8% (95% CI 94.1-97.1%), and 86.0% (95% CI 77.0-91.9%), respectively. The corresponding specificities were 66.9% (95% CI 57.8-74.9%), 74.7% (95% CI 66.7-81.3%), 86.2% (95% CI 80.4-90.5%), and 96.6% (95% CI 93.9-98.1%), respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of this systematic literature review and meta-regression confirm that IIF-ANAs have high sensitivity for SLE. ANAs at a titer of 1:80 have sufficiently high sensitivity to be considered as an entry criterion for SLE classification criteria, i.e., formally test other classification criteria for SLE only if ANAs of at least 1:80 have been found.

7.
Z Orthop Unfall ; 155(5): 539-548, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29050054

RESUMO

Background and Objectives Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a significant public health burden. Rates of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in OA vary substantially between geographical regions, most likely due to the lack of standardised indication criteria. We set out to define indication criteria for the German healthcare system for TKA in patients with knee OA, on the basis of best evidence and transparent multi-stakeholder consensus. Methods We undertook a complex mixed methods study, including an iterative process of systematic appraisal of existing evidence, Delphi consensus methods and stakeholder conferences. We established a consensus panel representing key German national societies of healthcare providers (orthopaedic surgeons, rheumatologists, pain physicians, psychologists, physiotherapists), payers, and patient representatives. A priori defined consensus criteria were at least 70% agreement and less than 20% disagreement among the consensus panel. Agreement was sought for (1) core indication criteria defined as criteria that must be met to consider TKA in a normal patient with knee OA, (2) additional (not obligatory) indication criteria, (3) absolute contraindication criteria that generally prohibit TKA, and (4) risk factors that do not prohibit TKA, but usually do not lead to a recommendation for TKA. Results The following 5 core indication criteria were agreed within the panel: 1. intermittent (several times per week) or constant knee pain for at least 3 - 6 months; 2. radiological confirmation of structural knee damage (osteoarthritis, osteonecrosis); 3. inadequate response to conservative treatment, including pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment for at least 3 - 6 months; 4. adverse impact of knee disease on patient's quality of life for at least 3 - 6 months; 5. patient-reported suffering/impairment due to knee disease. Additional indication criteria, contraindication criteria, and risk factors for adverse outcome were also agreed by a large majority within the multi-perspective stakeholder panel. Conclusion The defined indication criteria constitute a prerequisite for appropriate provision of TKA in patients with knee OA in Germany. In eligible patients, shared-decision making should eventually determine if TKA is performed or not. The next important steps are the implementation of the defined indication criteria, and the prospective investigation of predictors of success or failure of TKA in the context of routine care provision in Germany.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Consenso , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Alemanha , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Osteoartrite do Joelho/classificação , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico
8.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 66(12): 1895-904, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24839085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify in a Delphi exercise of international systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) experts and a systematic literature review the most relevant concepts that impact on the functioning of SLE patients. METHODS: Sixty SLE experts participated in all rounds of a 3-round e-mail-based Delphi exercise; for the literature review, 573 manuscripts out of 4 decades were analyzed. Concepts in the first Delphi round and from the literature were linked to categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Categories were voted on individually in a feedback-driven Delphi process, and ranked by frequency in the literature, respectively. RESULTS: In the Delphi exercise, at least 80% of the participants found 30 categories of the domain body functions and structures, and 3 categories in the domain activities and participation and environmental factors important. In general, the categories identified in the literature review overlapped with those in the Delphi exercise with regard to body functions and structures, while showing some differences in other domains. The highest agreement concerned the ICF categories "joints," "skin and related structures," "fatiguability," "immunological system functions," and "handling stress and other psychological demands." Agreement with an earlier patient Delphi exercise was considerable. CONCLUSION: A 3-step Delphi exercise of 60 SLE experts and a literature review identified a wide spectrum of relevant ICF categories with impact on functioning of SLE patients. The categories derived from these approaches overlap with each other and with those of a patient Delphi exercise.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Pessoas com Deficiência , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Técnica Delfos , Avaliação da Deficiência , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/psicologia
9.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 50(6): 413-7, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22541746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress plays an important role in human disease, but antioxidant therapies are limited. Under physiological conditions superoxide is controlled by the enzyme superoxide dismutase. A recombinant human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (rhSOD) might open new therapeutic possibilities. METHODS: Safety profile and pharmacokinetics in plasma and urine were assessed in an open label phase I study with dose-escalation. 18 healthy male volunteers received a single intravenous 10-minute infusion of 150, 300, or 600 mg rhSOD, respectively (n = 6 per dose group). RESULTS: rhSOD was well tolerated. Peak plasma concentrations (cmax; mean ± SD) were reached at the end of infusion, with 32.96 ± 10.31, 51.60 ± 8.23, and 103.90 ± 19.02 µg/ ml, respectively. Non-compartmental halflife was 1.06 ± 0.37, 1.59 ± 0.64, and 1.63 ± 0.28 hours. Urinary excretion (10 h) showed dose-dependent relative increases with 11.28 ± 6.46 (7.5%), 54.93 ± 15.25 (18.3%), and 191.81 ± 104.60 mg (32.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a good safety profile and predictable pharmacokinetics of rhSOD, suggesting that therapeutic exploratory studies might be safely conducted in humans.


Assuntos
Superóxido Dismutase/farmacocinética , Adulto , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacocinética , Superóxido Dismutase/administração & dosagem
10.
Thromb Res ; 129(4): e83-91, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21925716

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: AZD0837 and ximelagatran are oral direct thrombin inhibitors that are rapidly absorbed and bioconverted to their active forms, AR-H067637 and melagatran, respectively. This study investigated the antithrombotic effect of AZD0837, compared to ximelagatran and the vitamin K antagonist (VKA) phenprocoumon (Marcoumar), in a disease model of thrombosis in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). METHODS: Open, parallel-group studies were performed in NVAF patients treated with VKA, which was stopped aiming for an international normalized ratio (INR) of ≤ 2 before randomization. Study I: 38 patients randomized to AZD0837 (150,250 or 350 mg) or ximelagatran 36 mg twice daily for 10-14 days. Study II: 27 patients randomized to AZD0837 250 mg twice daily or VKA titrated to an INR of 2-3 for 10-14 days. A control group of 20 healthy elderly subjects without NVAF or anticoagulant treatment was also studied. Size of thrombus formed on pig aorta strips was measured after a 5-minute perfusion at low shear rate with blood from the patient/control subject. RESULTS: Thrombus formation was inhibited by AZD0837 and ximelagatran. Relative to untreated patients, a 50% reduction of thrombus size was estimated at plasma concentrations of 0.6 and 0.2 µmol/L for AR-H067637 and melagatran, respectively. For patients receiving VKA treatment, the thrombus size was about 15% lower compared with healthy elderly controls. CONCLUSIONS: Effects of AZD0837 and ximelagatran on thrombus formation were similar or greater than for VKA therapy and correlated with plasma concentrations of their active forms.


Assuntos
Amidinas/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Benzilaminas/administração & dosagem , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Idoso , Animais , Antitrombinas/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suínos , Trombose/complicações , Trombose/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
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