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1.
Autophagy ; 16(2): 347-370, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983487

RESUMO

Parkinson disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder associated with misfolded SNCA/α-synuclein accumulation in brain. Impaired catabolism of SNCA potentiates formation of its toxic oligomers. LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase-2) mutations predispose to familial and sporadic PD. Mutant LRRK2 perturbs chaperone-mediated-autophagy (CMA) to degrade SNCA. We showed greater age-dependent accumulation of oligomeric SNCA in striatum and cortex of aged LRRK2R1441G knockin (KI) mice, compared to age-matched wildtype (WT) by 53% and 31%, respectively. Lysosomal clustering and accumulation of CMA-specific LAMP2A and HSPA8/HSC70 proteins were observed in aged mutant striatum along with increased GAPDH (CMA substrate) by immunohistochemistry of dorsal striatum and flow cytometry of ventral midbrain cells. Using our new reporter protein clearance assay, mutant mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) expressing either SNCA or CMA recognition 'KFERQ'-like motif conjugated with photoactivated-PAmCherry showed slower cellular clearance compared to WT by 28% and 34%, respectively. However, such difference was not observed after the 'KFERQ'-motif was mutated. LRRK2 mutant MEFs exhibited lower lysosomal degradation than WT indicating lysosomal dysfunction. LAMP2A-knockdown reduced total lysosomal activity and clearance of 'KFERQ'-substrate in WT but not in mutant MEFs, indicating impaired CMA in the latter. A CMA-specific activator, AR7, induced neuronal LAMP2A transcription and lysosomal activity in MEFs. AR7 also attenuated the progressive accumulation of both intracellular and extracellular SNCA oligomers in prolonged cultures of mutant cortical neurons (DIV21), indicating that oligomer accumulation can be suppressed by CMA activation. Activation of autophagic pathways to reduce aged-related accumulation of pathogenic SNCA oligomers is a viable disease-modifying therapeutic strategy for PD.Abbreviations: 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; AR7: 7-chloro-3-(4-methylphenyl)-2H-1,4-benzoxazine; CMA: chaperone-mediated autophagy; CQ: chloroquine; CSF: cerebrospinal fluid; DDM: n-dodecyl ß-D-maltoside; DIV: days in vitro; ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; FACS: fluorescence-activated cell sorting; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GWAS: genome-wide association studies; HSPA8/HSC70: heat shock protein 8; KFERQ: CMA recognition pentapeptide; KI: knockin; LAMP1: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1; LAMP2A: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2A; LDH: lactate dehydrogenase; LRRK2: leucine-rich repeat kinase 2; MEF: mouse embryonic fibroblast; NDUFS4: NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit S4; NE: novel epitope; PD: Parkinson disease; RARA/RARα: retinoic acid receptor, alpha; SNCA: synuclein, alpha; TUBB3/TUJ1: tubulin, beta 3 class III; WT: wild-type.

2.
Transl Neurodegener ; 8: 23, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428316

RESUMO

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta and intracellular inclusions called Lewy bodies (LB). During the course of disease, misfolded α-synuclein, the major constituent of LB, spreads to different regions of the brain in a prion-like fashion, giving rise to successive non-motor and motor symptoms. Etiology is likely multifactorial, and involves interplay among aging, genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Main body: The prevalence of PD rises exponentially with age, and aging is associated with impairment of cellular pathways which increases susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons to cell death. However, the majority of those over the age of 80 do not have PD, thus other factors in addition to aging are needed to cause disease. Discovery of neurotoxins which can result in parkinsonism led to efforts in identifying environmental factors which may influence PD risk. Nevertheless, the causality of most environmental factors is not conclusively established, and alternative explanations such as reverse causality and recall bias cannot be excluded. The lack of geographic clusters and conjugal cases also go against environmental toxins as a major cause of PD. Rare mutations as well as common variants in genes such as SNCA, LRRK2 and GBA are associated with risk of PD, but Mendelian causes collectively only account for 5% of PD and common polymorphisms are associated with small increase in PD risk. Heritability of PD has been estimated to be around 30%. Thus, aging, genetics and environmental factors each alone is rarely sufficient to cause PD for most patients. Conclusion: PD is a multifactorial disorder involving interplay of aging, genetics and environmental factors. This has implications on the development of appropriate animal models of PD which take all these factors into account. Common converging pathways likely include mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired autophagy, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, which are associated with the accumulation and spread of misfolded α-synuclein and neurodegeneration. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the initiation and progression of PD may lead to potential therapeutic targets to prevent PD or modify its course.

3.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 58(1): 492-501, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28125837

RESUMO

Purpose: Trabecular meshwork (TM) cell volume is a determinant of aqueous humor outflow resistance, and thereby IOP. Regulation of TM cell volume depends on chloride ion (Cl-) release through swelling-activated channels (ICl,Swell), whose pore is formed by LRRC8 proteins. Chloride ion release through swelling-activated channels has been reported to be regulated by calcium-activated anoctamins, but this finding is controversial. Particularly uncertain has been the effect of anoctamin Ano6, reported as a Ca2+-activated Cl- (CaCC) or cation channel in other cells. The current study tested whether anoctamin activity modifies volume regulation of primary TM cell cultures and cell lines. Methods: Gene expression was studied with quantitative PCR, supplemented by reverse-transcriptase PCR and Western immunoblots. Currents were measured by ruptured whole-cell patch clamping and volume by electronic cell sizing. Results: Primary TM cell cultures and the TM5 and GTM3 cell lines expressed Ano6 3 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than the other anoctamin CaCCs (Ano1 and Ano2). Ionomycin increased cell Ca2+ and activated macroscopic currents conforming to CaCCs in other cells, but displayed significantly more positive mean reversal potentials (+5 to +12 mV) than those displayed by ICl,Swell (-14 to -21 mV) in the same cells. Nonselective CaCC inhibitors (tannic acid>CaCCinh-A01) and transient Ano6 knockdown strongly inhibited ionomycin-activated currents, ICl,Swell and the regulatory volume response to hyposmotic swelling. Conclusions: Ionomycin activates CaCCs associated with net cation movement in TM cells. These currents, ICl,Swell, and cell volume are regulated by Ano6. The findings suggest a novel clinically-relevant approach for altering cell volume, and thereby outflow resistance, by targeting Ano6.


Assuntos
Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos/genética , Malha Trabecular/metabolismo , Anoctaminas , Western Blotting , Cálcio/metabolismo , Tamanho Celular , Células Cultivadas , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Humanos , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos/biossíntese , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Malha Trabecular/citologia
4.
Chem Sci ; 7(5): 3206-3214, 2016 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29997812

RESUMO

The inhibition of amyloid ß (Aß) peptide production is a key approach in the development of therapeutics for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have identified that timosaponins consisting of sarsasapogenin (SSG) as the aglycone can effectively lower the production of Aß peptides and stimulate neurite outgrowth in neuronal cell cultures. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that the cis-fused AB ring, 3ß-configuration, spiroketal F-ring and 25S-configuration of SSG are the essential structural features responsible for the Aß-lowering effects and neurite-stimulatory activity. New synthetic derivatives that retain the SSG scaffold also exhibited an Aß lowering effect. Treatment of cells with timosaponins led to modulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing through the suppression of ß-cleavage and preferential lowering of the production of the 42-amino acid Aß species (Aß42) without affecting another γ-secretase substrate. The SSG and "SSG-aglyconed" timosaponins also penetrated brain tissue and lowered brain Aß42 levels in mice. Our studies demonstrate that timosaponins represent a unique class of steroidal saponins that may be useful for the development of AD therapeutics.

5.
Purinergic Signal ; 10(3): 465-75, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24595664

RESUMO

Mast cell degranulation triggers hypersensitivity reactions at the body-environment interface. Adenosine modulates degranulation, but enhancement and inhibition have both been reported. Which of four adenosine receptors (ARs) mediate modulation, and how, remains uncertain. Also uncertain is whether adenosine reaches mast cell ARs by autocrine ATP release and ecto-enzymatic conversion. Uncertainties partly reflect species and cell heterogeneity, circumvented here by focusing on homogeneous human LAD2 cells. Quantitative PCR detected expression of A2A, A2B, and A3, but not A1, ARs. Nonselective activation of ARs with increasing NECA monotonically enhanced immunologically or C3a-stimulated degranulation. NECA alone stimulated degranulation slightly. Selective AR antagonists did not affect C3a-stimulated degranulation. NECA's enhancement of C3a-triggered degranulation was partially inhibited by separate application of each selective antagonist, and abolished by simultaneous addition of antagonists to the three ARs. Only the A2A antagonist separately inhibited NECA's enhancement of immunologically stimulated degranulation, which was abolished by simultaneous addition of the three selective antagonists. Immunological or C3a activation did not stimulate ATP release. NECA also enhanced immunologically triggered degranulation of mouse bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs), which was partially reduced only by simultaneous addition of the three antagonists or by the nonselective antagonist CGS15943. BMMCs also expressed A2A, A2B, and A3 ARs. but not A1AR detectably. We conclude that (a) A1AR is unnecessary for LAD2 degranulation or AR enhancement; (b) A2A, A2B, and A3 ARs all contribute to pharmacologic AR enhancement of LAD2 and BMMC degranulation; and (c) LAD2 cells depend on microenvironmental adenosine to trigger AR modulation.


Assuntos
Mastócitos/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P1/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Antagonistas de Receptores Purinérgicos P1/farmacologia , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia
6.
Exp Eye Res ; 96(1): 4-12, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22300616

RESUMO

Lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) is currently the only strategy documented to slow the onset and progression of glaucomatous blindness. Ouabain, a cardiotonic glycoside inhibitor of Na(+), K(+)-activated ATPase, was recently reported to enhance outflow facility in porcine anterior segments at concentrations as low as 30 nM for ≥4 h, suggesting a novel approach to lowering IOP. The underlying mechanism is unknown, but associated cytoskeletal changes were observed in porcine trabecular meshwork cells. We have previously found that changes in ATP release and subsequent ectoenzymatic conversion to adenosine may play a role in linking cytoskeletal remodeling with modulation of outflow resistance. We now tested whether altered ATP release might also be a mediator of ouabain's effect on outflow facility. ATP release from transformed human TM5 and explant-derived human trabecular meshwork cells was measured by the luciferin-luciferase reaction. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were studied by zymography, cell Na(+) concentration by SBFI fluorometry, gene expression of ATP-release pathways by real-time PCR, cell volume by electronic cell sorting and cell viability by the LDH and MTT methods. Actin was examined by confocal microscopy of phalloidin-stained cells. Contrary to expectation, ouabain at concentrations ≥10 nM inhibited swelling-triggered ATP release from TM5 cells after ≥4 h of exposure. Inhibition was enhanced by increasing ouabain concentration and exposure time. Similar effects were produced by the reversible cardiac aglycone strophanthidin. Ouabain also inhibited swelling-activated ATP release from explant-derived native human TM cells. Ouabain (4 h, 30 nM and 100 nM) did not alter gene expression of the ATP-release pathways, and cell viability was unchanged by exposure to ouabain (30 nM-1 µM). Preincubation with 30 nM ouabain for 4 h did not detectably change Na(+) level, the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) or the actin cytoskeleton of TM5 cells, but did inhibit hypotonicity-elicited ATP release. Moreover, even when N-methyl-d-glucosamine replaced Na(+) in the extracellular fluid, ouabain still inhibited swelling-initiated ATP release at 100 nM. In the absence of ouabain, extracellular ATP stimulated MMP secretion, which was largely blocked by inhibiting conversion of ATP to adenosine, as expected. In contrast, ouabain reduced ATP release, but did not alter secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 from cells pretreated for ≤4 h. The results suggest that: (1) ouabain can trigger enhancement of outflow facility independent of its transport and actin-restructuring effects exerted at higher concentration and longer duration; (2) ouabain exerts parallel independent effects on ATP release and outflow facility; and (3) these effects likely reflect ouabain-induced changes in the scaffolding and/or signaling functions of Na(+), K(+)-activated ATPase.


Assuntos
Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Ouabaína/farmacologia , Malha Trabecular/efeitos dos fármacos , Actinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Tamanho Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Expressão Gênica , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Microscopia Confocal , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sódio/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , Malha Trabecular/enzimologia
7.
J Cell Physiol ; 227(1): 172-82, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21381023

RESUMO

Our guiding hypothesis is that ecto-enzymatic conversion of extracellular ATP to adenosine activates A(1) adenosine receptors, reducing resistance to aqueous humor outflow and intraocular pressure. The initial step in this purinergic regulation is ATP release from outflow-pathway cells by mechanisms unknown. We measured similar ATP release from human explant-derived primary trabecular meshwork (TM) cells (HTM) and a human TM cell line (TM5). Responses to 21 inhibitors indicated that pannexin-1 (PX1) and connexin (Cx) hemichannels and P2X(7) receptors (P2RX(7) ) were comparably important in modulating ATP release induced by hypotonic swelling, whereas vesicular release was insignificant. Consistent with prior studies of PX1 activity in certain other cells, ATP release was lowered by the reducing agent dithiothreitol. Overexpressing PX1 in HEK293T cells promoted, while partial knockdown (KD) in both HEK293T and TM5 cells inhibited hypotonicity-activated ATP release. Additionally, KD reduced the pharmacologically defined contribution of PX1 and enhanced those of Cx and P2RX(7) . ATP release was also triggered by raising intracellular Ca(2+) activity with ionomycin after a prolonged lag time and was unaffected by the PX1 blocker probenecid, but nearly abolished by P2RX(7) antagonists. We conclude that swelling-stimulated ATP release from human TM cells is physiologically mediated by PX1 and Cx hemichannels and P2X(7) receptors, but not by vesicular release. PX1 appears not to be stimulated by intracellular Ca(2+) in TM cells, but can be modulated by oxidation-reduction state. The P2RX(7) -dependent component of swelling-activated release may be mediated by PX1 hemichannels or reflect apoptotic magnification of ATP release, either through itself and/or hemichannels.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Malha Trabecular/metabolismo , Adenosina/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Conexinas/metabolismo , Glaucoma/metabolismo , Glaucoma/fisiopatologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Medições Luminescentes , Microscopia Confocal , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Malha Trabecular/citologia
8.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 28(6): 1135-44, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22179002

RESUMO

The only effective intervention to slow onset and progression of glaucomatous blindness is to lower intraocular pressure (IOP). Among other modulators, adenosine receptors (ARs) exert complex regulation of IOP. Agonists of A(3)ARs in the ciliary epithelium activate Cl(-) channels, favoring increased formation of aqueous humor and elevated IOP. In contrast, stimulating A(1)ARs in the trabecular outflow pathway enhances release of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) from trabecular meshwork (TM) cells, reducing resistance to outflow of aqueous humor to lower IOP. These opposing actions are thought to be initiated by cellular release of ATP and its ectoenzymatic conversion to adenosine. This view is now supported by our identification of six ectoATPases in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells and by our observation that external ATP enhances TM-cell secretion of MMPs through ectoenzymatic formation of adenosine. ATP release is enhanced by cell swelling and stretch. Also, enhanced ATP release and downstream MMP secretion is one mediator of the action of actin depolymerization to reduce outflow resistance. Inflow and outflow cells share pannexin-1 and connexin hemichannel pathways for ATP release. However, vesicular release and P2X(7) release pathways were functionally limited to inflow and outflow cells, respectively, suggesting that blocking exocytosis might selectively inhibit inflow, lowering IOP.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P1/metabolismo , Humor Aquoso/fisiologia , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P1/fisiologia , Malha Trabecular/metabolismo , Malha Trabecular/fisiologia
9.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 52(11): 7996-8005, 2011 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21896846

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To test whether adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release links cytoskeletal remodeling with release of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), regulators of outflow facility and intraocular pressure. METHODS: ATP release was measured by luciferin-luciferase. Ecto-ATPases from transformed human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells (TM5) and explant-derived TM cells were identified by RT-PCR. Actin was visualized by phalloidin staining. Cell viability was assayed by lactate dehydrogenase and thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide methods and propidium iodide exclusion, gene expression by real-time PCR, and MMP release by zymography. Cell volume was monitored by electronic cell sorting. RESULTS: Hypotonicity (50%) and mechanical stretch increased ATP release with similar pharmacologic profiles. TM cells expressed ecto-ATPases E-NPP1-3, E-NTPD2, E-NTPD8, and CD73. Prolonged dexamethasone (DEX) exposure (≥ 2 weeks), but not brief exposure (3 days), increased cross-linked actin networks and reduced swelling-triggered ATP release. Cytochalasin D (CCD) exerted opposite effects. Neither DEX nor CCD altered the cell viability, gene expression, or pharmacologic profile of ATP-release pathways. DEX accelerated, and CCD slowed, the regulatory volume decrease after hypotonic exposure. Activating A(1) adenosine receptors (A(1)ARs) increased total MMP-2 and MMP-9 release. DEX reduced total A(1)AR-triggered MMP release, and CCD increased the active form of MMP-2 release. The A(1)AR agonist CHA and the A(1)AR antagonist DPCPX partially reversed the effects of DEX and CCD, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Cytoskeletal restructuring modulated swelling-activated ATP release, in part by changing the duration of cell swelling after hypotonic challenge. Modifying ATP release is expected to modulate MMP secretion by altering ecto-enzymatic delivery of adenosine to A(1)ARs, linking cytoskeletal remodeling and MMP-mediated modulation of outflow facility.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto/fisiologia , Malha Trabecular/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Tamanho Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Citocalasina D/farmacologia , Citoesqueleto/efeitos dos fármacos , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Microscopia Confocal , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptor A1 de Adenosina/metabolismo , Malha Trabecular/citologia , Malha Trabecular/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 299(6): C1308-17, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20926783

RESUMO

ATP release by nonpigmented (NPE) and pigmented (PE) ciliary epithelial cells is the enabling step in purinergic regulation of aqueous humor formation, but the release pathways are unknown. We measured ATP release from primary cultures of bovine mixed NPE and PE (bCE) cells and transformed bovine NPE and PE cells, using the luciferin-luciferase reaction. Hypotonicity-triggered bCE ATP release was inhibited by the relatively selective blocker of pannexin-1 (PX1) hemichannels (probenecid, 1 mM, 47 ± 2%), by a connexin inhibitor (heptanol, 1 mM, 49 ± 4%), and by an inhibitor of vesicular release (bafilomycin A1, 25 ± 2%), but not by the P2X(7) receptor (P2RX(7)) antagonist KN-62. Bafilomycin A1 acts by reducing the driving force for uptake of ATP from the cytosol into vesicles. The reducing agent dithiothreitol reduced probenecid-blockable ATP release. Similar results were obtained with NPE and PE cell lines. Pannexins PX1-3, connexins Cx43 and Cx40, and P2RX(7) were identified in native cells and cell lines by RT-PCR. PX1 mRNA expression was confirmed by Northern blots; its quantitative expression was comparable to that of Cx43 by real-time PCR. Heterologous expression of bovine PX1 in HEK293T cells enhanced swelling-activated ATP release, inhibitable by probenecid. We conclude that P2RX(7)-independent PX1 hemichannels, Cx hemichannels, and vesicular release contribute comparably to swelling-triggered ATP release. The relatively large response to dithiothreitol raises the possibility that the oxidation-reduction state is a substantial regulator of PX1-mediated ATP release from bovine ciliary epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , Corpo Ciliar/metabolismo , Conexinas/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/metabolismo , 1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/análogos & derivados , 1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/farmacologia , Animais , Humor Aquoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Corpo Ciliar/efeitos dos fármacos , Conexinas/análise , Ditiotreitol/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Heptanol/farmacologia , Humanos , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Probenecid/farmacologia
11.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 298(4): C798-806, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20089928

RESUMO

Aqueous humor is formed by fluid transfer from the ciliary stroma sequentially across the pigmented ciliary epithelial (PE) cells, gap junctions, and nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (NPE) cells. Which connexins (Cx) contribute to PE-NPE gap junctional formation appears species specific. We tested whether small interfering RNA (siRNA) against Cx43 (siCx43) affects bovine PE-NPE communication and whether cAMP affects communication. Native bovine ciliary epithelial cells were studied by dual-cell patch clamping, Lucifer Yellow (LY) transfer, quantitative polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcription (qRT-PCR), and Western immunoblot. qRT-PCR revealed at least 100-fold greater expression for Cx43 than Cx40. siCx43 knocked down target mRNA expression by 55 +/- 7% after 24 h, compared with nontargeting control siRNA (NTC1) transfection. After 48 h, siCx43 reduced Cx43 protein expression and LY transfer. The ratio of fluorescence intensity (R(f)) in recipient to donor cell was 0.47 +/- 0.09 (n = 11) 10 min after whole cell patch formation in couplets transfected with NTC1. siCx43 decreased R(f) by approximately 60% to 0.20 +/- 0.07 (n = 13, P < 0.02). Dibutyryl-cAMP (500 microM) also reduced LY dye transfer by approximately 60%, reducing R(f) from 0.41 +/- 0.05 (n = 15) to 0.17 +/- 0.05 (n = 20) after 10 min. Junctional currents were lowered by approximately 50% (n = 6) after 10-min perfusion with 500 microM dibutyryl-cAMP (n = 6); thereafter, heptanol abolished the currents (n = 5). Preincubation with the PKA inhibitor H-89 (2 microM) prevented cAMP-triggered current reduction (n = 6). We conclude that 1) Cx43, but not Cx40, is a major functional component of bovine PE-NPE gap junctions; and 2) under certain conditions, cAMP may act through PKA to inhibit bovine PE-NPE gap junctional communication.


Assuntos
Corpo Ciliar , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Junções Comunicantes/metabolismo , Animais , Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , Bucladesina/metabolismo , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Corpo Ciliar/citologia , Corpo Ciliar/metabolismo , Conexina 43/genética , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Conexinas/genética , Conexinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Heptanol/metabolismo , Isoquinolinas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
12.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 295(5): C1083-91, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18753314

RESUMO

Intraocular pressure (IOP) is regulated by the resistance to outflow of the eye's aqueous humor. Elevated resistance raises IOP and can cause glaucoma. Despite the importance of outflow resistance, its site and regulation are unclear. The small size, complex geometry, and relative inaccessibility of the outflow pathway have limited study to whole animal, whole eye, or anterior-segment preparations, or isolated cells. We now report measuring elemental contents of the heterogeneous cell types within the intact human trabecular outflow pathway using electron-probe X-ray microanalysis. Baseline contents of Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), and P and volume (monitored as Na+K contents) were comparable to those of epithelial cells previously studied. Elemental contents and volume were altered by ouabain to block Na(+)-K(+)-activated ATPase and by hypotonicity to trigger a regulatory volume decrease (RVD). Previous results with isolated trabecular meshwork (TM) cells had disagreed whether TM cells express an RVD. In the intact tissue, we found that all cells, including TM cells, displayed a regulatory solute release consistent with an RVD. Selective agonists of A(1) and A(2) adenosine receptors (ARs), which exert opposite effects on IOP, produced similar effects on juxtacanalicular (JCT) cells, previously inaccessible to functional study, but not on Schlemm's canal cells that adjoin the JCT. The results obtained with hypotonicity and AR agonists indicate the potential of this approach to dissect physiological mechanisms in an area that is extremely difficult to study functionally and demonstrate the utility of electron microprobe analysis in studying the cellular physiology of the human trabecular outflow pathway in situ.


Assuntos
Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , Microanálise por Sonda Eletrônica , Malha Trabecular/metabolismo , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/farmacologia , Agonistas do Receptor A1 de Adenosina , Agonistas do Receptor A2 de Adenosina , Tamanho Celular , Cloretos/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Soluções Hipotônicas , Pressão Intraocular , Norbornanos/farmacologia , Pressão Osmótica , Ouabaína/farmacologia , Fenetilaminas/farmacologia , Fósforo/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Receptor A1 de Adenosina/metabolismo , Receptores A2 de Adenosina/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/antagonistas & inibidores , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Malha Trabecular/citologia , Malha Trabecular/efeitos dos fármacos
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