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1.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590362

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Individuals with moderate to severe substance use disorders may seek residential treatment, but outcomes after discharge for this hard-to-reach population are often unknown. Using linked data, we examined mortality outcomes among individuals after residential treatment. METHODS: We included 1056 individuals admitted to three residential treatment facilities across Queensland, Australia, from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2016. Records were linked to Queensland death registration data and cause of death records from the Australian Coordinating Registry (1 January-31 December 2018). Standard mortality ratios were assessed, comparing participants to the Queensland, Australia, general population. Causes of death and years of potential life lost (YPLL) were examined. RESULTS: Thirty-six participants died (3.4%) in 3408 years of follow-up data. The age- and sex-adjusted standard mortality ratios were 3.96 (95% confidence interval: 2.78, 5.48) overall, 8.19 (3.74, 15.55) in females and 3.38 (2.23, 4.92) in males. Two-thirds of deaths were due to suicide/overdose. There was an average of 45.50 YPLL (SD 9.16). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study used linked data to quantify mortality following residential substance use treatment. The YPLL and avoidable nature of deaths highlight the need for continuing care following discharge from residential services.

2.
Health Technol (Berl) ; : 1-10, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540521

RESUMO

To (i) examine the use of social media before and after the COVID-19 outbreak; (ii) examine the self-perceived impact of social media before and after the outbreak; and (iii) examine whether the self-perceived impacts of social media after the outbreak varied by levels of mental health. A cross-national online survey was conducted in Norway, UK, USA and Australia. Participants (n = 3810) reported which social media they used, how frequently they used them before and after the COVID-19 outbreak, and the degree to which they felt social media contributed to a range of outcomes. The participants also completed the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The data were analyzed by chi-square tests and multiple linear regression analysis. Social media were used more frequently after the pandemic outbreak than compared to before the outbreak. Self-perceived effects from using social media increased after the COVID-19 outbreak, and in particular stress and concern for own and others' health. Emotional distress was associated with being more affected from using social media, in particular in terms of stress and concern for own or others' health. The use of social media has increased during the coronavirus outbreak, as well as its impacts on people. In particular, the participants reported more stress and health concerns attributed to social media use after the COVID-19 outbreak. People with poor mental health appear to be particularly vulnerable to experiencing more stress and concern related to their use of social media.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 17-25, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the prevalent mental illnesses and leading cause of global disease burden. However, most people with depression do not access treatment. Remission without treatment may occur in some cases of depression. This study aimed to estimate the short-term remission (natural recovery) from untreated depression. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was registered on PROSPERO and conducted following PRISMA guidelines. EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed were searched, supplemented with an additional hand search to identify studies reporting natural recovery from untreated depression. Study selection and screening were carried out by three independent reviewers. Methodological quality assessment of the included studies was conducted. Remission was defined as no longer meeting the diagnostic criteria or scoring below the cut off points of the validated tools as reported by the included studies. The data were synthesized using narrative summary and random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Sixteen waitlist-controlled trial studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The duration of follow-up ranged from 4 to 12 weeks with a median duration of 8 weeks. The overall pooled remission from untreated depression was 12.5%, 95% confidence interval (7.8, 18.0%). Due to lack of published data, we were unable to determine if the severity of depression symptoms was associated with remission rates. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term remission from depression without treatment is uncommon. Across studies, 8 - 18% of people remitted without treatment within 12 weeks. Waitlist control groups may not represent all persons with depression.

4.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107073, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364109

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An increase in electronic cigarette (EC) use among US youth has raised concerns that their use may increase conventional cigarette smoking. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional data from two large nationally representative samples of US youth were drawn from the National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) and Monitoring the Future (MTF). Students from grade 6-12 of the NYTS (N = 98,454-132,003) and students from grade 12 of the MTF (N = 17,870-30,981) were included in the analyses. Trends in smoking behavior, intention to smoke in the future and perceived smoking harms among youth who do and do not use ECs were estimated from 2014 to 2020 using weighted multinomial logistic regression and predicted marginal probabilities. RESULTS: The prevalence for regular smoking decreased among youth who regularly use ECs. For example, among regular EC users, smoking prevalence decreased from 27.8% to 6.7% (-21%; 99.67% CI:[-32.3%, -9.9%]) in the NYTS between 2014 and 2020 and from 31.8% to 10.6% (-21.2%, 99.67% CI:[-35.0%, -7.3%]) in the MTF between 2014 and 2018. Intent to smoke in the future and perceiving smoking as harmless decreased or remained unchanged during the same period. For example, among regular EC users, there was no significant change in intention to smoke next year in the NYTS between 2014 and 2018; intention to smoke in the next 5 years decreased significantly from 30.7% to 11.2% (-19.5%, 99.67% CI:[-37.7%, -1.3%]) in the MTF. CONCLUSIONS: In two national samples of US youth, smoking prevalence declined by a sizeable relative percentage. Intent to smoke in the future and harm perceptions of smoking declined or remained unchanged while EC use increased. Results provide little evidence that EC use has increased conventional cigarette smoking among youth.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Intenção , Fumaça , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabaco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107059, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365087

RESUMO

AIM: We examine age-related trends in past-year cannabis use in a series of nationally representative surveys in Australia. METHODS: We analysed data from the largest nationally representative survey in Australia collected between 2001 and 2019 (National Drug Strategy Household Survey [NDSHS]; N = 157,151). Prevalence of past-year daily/occasional (non-daily)/non-use of cannabis use were estimated using weighted multinomial logistic regression and predicted marginal probabilities. Difference-in-difference analysis was used to examine if trends of cannabis use across age groups were different. RESULTS: The youngest age group (14-17 s) witnessed the largest increase in past-year abstinence rate from 79% to 92% from 2001 to 2019 (p < .003); the increase in abstinent rate among the 18-24 and 25-39 were relatively moderate (from 68 to 76% and from 81% to 84% respectively; p < .003). The abstinent rate among the 40-54 s and 55-74 s decreased significantly from 93% to 90% and from 99% to 95% respectively (p < .003). There were similar diverging trends in occasional and daily cannabis use, with decreases in both patterns of use observed among the younger age group (14-17 s and 18-25 s) but increases among the older age group (40-54 s and 55-74 s). CONCLUSION: There is a diverging trend in cannabis use among younger and older age groups in Australia between 2001 and 2019. Cannabis use substantially decreased among the youngest age group (14-17 s) but modestly increased among older people (55-74 s).


Assuntos
Cannabis , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In June 2020, the Australian Government announced that personal importation of nicotine vaping products (NVP) would be prohibited, pending a 12-month classification and regulation review by the Therapeutic Goods Administration. This brief report examines the themes of responses on Twitter to this announcement. METHODS: Simple random sampling was used to retrieve tweets containing keywords from 19 to 26 June 2020. Tweets were manually coded and descriptive statistics calculated for themes and policy position. RESULTS: The vast majority of the 1,168 tweets were anti-policy. Themes included: criticism towards government (59.8%), activism against NVP restriction (38%), potential adverse consequences (30.8%) and support for NVP restriction (1.4%). Tweets that identified potential adverse consequences of NVP restriction cited: smoking relapse for individuals currently using NVPs (75.6%); the impact of policy enforcement (8.6%); illicit market (8.3%); panic buying (3.6%); difficulty obtaining prescriptions (2.8%); and impacts on NVP businesses (2.8%). CONCLUSION: Tweets predominately objected to the policy announcement. Approximately three-quarters of tweets that cited potential adverse consequences of the policy mentioned smoking relapse as their primary concern. Implications for public health: User-generated content on Twitter was primarily used to lobby against the proposed policy, which was subsequently amended.

8.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(7)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356281

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine differences in worry, loneliness, and mental health between those individuals infected by COVID-19 or having someone their family infected, and the rest of the population. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in Norway, UK, USA, and Australia during April/May 2020. Participants (n = 3810) were recruited via social media postings by the researchers and the involved universities. Differences between those with and without infection in the family were investigated with chi-square tests and independent t-tests. Multiple regression analyses were used to assess associations between sociodemographic variables and psychological outcomes (worry, loneliness, and mental health) in both groups. RESULTS: Compared to their counterparts, participants with infection in the family reported higher levels of worries about themselves (p < 0.05) and their family members (p < 0.001) and had poorer mental health (p < 0.05). However, the effect sizes related to the differences were small. The largest effect (d = 0.24) concerned worries about their immediate family. Poorer psychological outcomes were observed in those who were younger, female, unemployed, living alone and had lower levels of education, yet with small effect sizes. CONCLUSIONS: In view of the small differences between those with and without infection, we generally conclude that the mental health effects of the COVID-19 situation are not limited to those who have been infected or have had an infection within the family but extend to the wider population.

9.
Tob Control ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312317

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The rising popularity of TikTok among adolescents may influence their awareness and perceptions of e-cigarette use via user-generated content. This study aimed to examine how e-cigarette/vaping-related videos are portrayed on TikTok. METHODS: The nine most viewed hashtag based keywords were used to identify popular e-cigarette/vaping-related videos on TikTok (n=1000) from its inception (earliest upload date: January 2019) to November 2020. Five researchers independently coded the number of views, likes, user category and theme. RESULTS: A final sample of 808 e-cigarette/vaping-related videos that met study criteria were included. Collectively, these videos were viewed over 1.5 billion times, with a median view count of 1 000 000 (range 112 900-78 600 000) and a median 'likes' count of 143 000 (range 10 000-1 000 000). A majority of the videos portrayed e-cigarette use positively (63%; collectively viewed over 1.1 billion times). Neutral depictions of e-cigarette use were viewed a total of 290 million times (24%) and negative depictions of e-cigarettes were viewed a total of 193 million times (13%). The video themes included (not mutually exclusively): 'comedy and joke' (52%; total of 618 million views), 'lifestyle and acceptability' (35%; 459 million), 'marketing' (29%; 392 million), 'vaping tricks' (20%; 487 million), 'nicotine and addiction' (20%; 194 million), 'creativity' (16%; 322 million) and 'warning' (11%; 131 million). CONCLUSION: Our findings illustrated that positively framed e-cigarette and vaping-related postings available without age restrictions on TikTok-a rising video-sharing platform that is popular among adolescents-have been viewed many times. Effective age restrictions are needed to reduce adolescents' potential exposure to videos that portray vaping positively.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200670

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to examine the use of video-based communication and its association with loneliness, mental health and quality of life in older adults (60-69 years versus 70+ years) during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in Norway, UK, USA and Australia during April/May 2020, and 836 participants in the relevant age groups were included in the analysis. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between the use of video-based communication tools and loneliness, mental health and quality of life within age groups, while adjusting by sociodemographic variables. Video-based communication tools were found to be more often used among participants aged 60-69 years (60.1%), compared to participants aged 70 or above (51.8%, p < 0.05). Adjusting for all variables, the use of video-based communication was associated with less loneliness (ß = -0.12, p < 0.01) and higher quality of life (ß = 0.14, p < 0.01) among participants aged 60-69 years, while no associations were observed for participants in the oldest age group. The use of video-based communication tools was therefore associated with favorable psychological outcomes among participants in their sixties, but not among participants in the oldest age group. The study results support the notion that age may influence the association between the use of video-based communication tools and psychological outcomes amongst older people.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Comunicação , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Solidão , Saúde Mental , Noruega , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Neuropharmacology ; 193: 108610, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010617

RESUMO

The legality of cannabis use has been changing in a number of jurisdictions around the world. In the U.S., it has been legalised for medicinal and/or recreational uses in 34 jurisdictions and counting. This study leverages the decades-long experience of legalisation in the U.S. to provide an overview of the associated changes in public attitudes, cannabis markets and adverse health effects. We found a broad-based warming of public attitudes toward legalisation, potentially influenced by the increasingly positive portrayal of cannabis in media and declines in cannabis risk perceptions. Potency of cannabis products increased significantly while prices fell sharply. Although adults were less responsive to price changes than adolescents, adults who use cannabis regularly were sensitive to prices, with an estimated 10% price reduction leading to about 2.5% increase in the rate of use. Overall, past-year cannabis use has increased in adults since 2002, and adults over 26 years old who resided in states with medicinal cannabis laws were more likely to have used cannabis in the past 30 days, to have used daily, and to have higher rates of cannabis use disorders than adults who resided in states without legalised medicinal cannabis. Traffic fatalities involving cannabis temporarily increased in some states post-legalisation, and there were more presentations to medical services related to chronic regular cannabis use. There is suggestive evidence that adverse health consequences have increased among people who use cannabis regularly since legalisation. More robust research is needed to determine whether these effects of legalisation are temporary or long-term.

12.
Addict Behav ; 119: 106912, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798919

RESUMO

AIM: E-cigarettes, or nicotine vaping products, are potential smoking cessation aids that provide both nicotine and behavioural substitution for combustible cigarette smoking. This review aims to compare the effectiveness of nicotine e-cigarettes for smoking cessation with licensed nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) and nicotine-free based control conditions by using network meta-analysis (NMA). METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science and PsycINFO for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that allocated individuals to use nicotine e-cigarettes, compared to those that used licensed NRT (e.g., nicotine patches, nicotine gums, etc), or a nicotine-free control condition such as receiving placebo (nicotine-free) e-cigarettes or usual care. We only included studies of healthy individuals who smoked. Furthermore, we identified the latest Cochrane review on NRT and searched NRT trials that were published in similar periods as the e-cigarette trials we identified. NMA was conducted to compare the effect of e-cigarettes on cessation relative to NRT and control condition. Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials Version 2 was used to access study bias. RESULTS: For the e-cigarette trials, our initial search identified 4,717 studies and we included 7 trials for NMA after removal of duplicates, record screening and assessment of eligibility (Total N = 5,674). For NRT trials, our initial search identified 1,014 studies and we included 9 trials that satisfied our inclusion criteria (Total N = 6,080). Results from NMA indicated that participants assigned to use nicotine e-cigarettes were more likely to remain abstinent from smoking than those in the control condition (pooled Risk Ratio (RR) = 2.08, 97.5% CI = [1.39, 3.15]) and those who were assigned to use NRT (pooled RR = 1.49, 97.5% CI = [1.04, 2.14]. There was a moderate heterogeneity between studies (I2 = 42%). Most of the e-cigarette trials has moderate or high risk of bias. CONCLUSION: Smokers assigned to use nicotine e-cigarettes were more likely to remain abstinent from smoking than those assigned to use licensed NRT, and both were more effective than usual care or placebo conditions. More high quality studies are required to ascertain the effect of e-cigarette on smoking cessation due to risk of bias in the included studies.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Agonistas Nicotínicos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799497

RESUMO

COVID-19 has been a global healthcare concern impacting multiple aspects of individual and community wellness. As one moves forward with different methods to reduce the infection and mortality rates, it is critical to continue to study the impact that national and local "social distancing" policies have on the daily lives of individuals. The aim of this study was to examine loneliness in relation to risk assessment, measures taken against risks, concerns, and social media use, while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. The cross-sectional study collected data from 3474 individuals from the USA, the UK, Norway, and Australia. Loneliness was measured with the de Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale. Multiple linear regression was used in the analysis of associations between variables. The results showed that concerns about finances were more strongly associated with social loneliness, while concerns about the future was more strongly associated with emotional loneliness. Longer daily time spent on social media was associated with higher emotional loneliness. In conclusion, pandemic-related concerns seem to affect perceptions of loneliness. While social media can be used productively to maintain relationships, and thereby prevent loneliness, excessive use may be counterproductive.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Solidão , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fator IX , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923936

RESUMO

This cross-national study explored stability and change in mental health, quality of life, well-being and loneliness during the early stage and nine months after the implementation of COVID-19 pandemic social distancing measures and periodic lockdowns as adjusted by demographic variables. In the USA, the UK, Australia and Norway, 7284 individuals responded to the invitation to take part in two cross-sectional web-based surveys (April and November 2020), including questions about sociodemographic variables and psychosocial outcomes. Independent t-tests and generalized linear models (GLM) and estimated marginal means were used to analyze differences between subgroups and countries, multiple linear regression analyses were conducted on the psychosocial outcome measures by demographic variables and time in each country and mean responses presented by time after adjusting for all demographic variables in the model. Age, gender, civil status, education, employment, place of work and living area were all significant factors for psychosocial health across the countries. Differences in mental health, quality of life, well-being and loneliness were found between the countries in both April and November 2020, while time did not contribute to reducing the toll in any of the four countries over the nine-month period.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Austrália , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Ment Health ; 30(2): 148-155, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak raised questions about how people experience their mental health, quality of life (QoL), wellbeing and loneliness in the context of social distancing, and the use of social media during this time. AIMS: To examine the experience of mental health, QoL, wellbeing and loneliness and use of social media among people living in Norway, USA, UK and Australia. METHODS: A cross-country comparative survey of people living in Norway, USA, UK and Australia. Relevant statistical analyses were used to examine differences between the countries and to explore associations between demographic, mental health and psychosocial variables and use of social media. RESULTS: There were 3810 respondents from four countries, of which 50 - 74% showed a high level of emotional distress. The Norwegian population reported significantly better mental health, QoL and wellbeing and lower levels of loneliness compared to the other countries. High-frequent use of social media after the COVID-19 outbreak was associated with poorer mental- and psychosocial health. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the COVID-19 outbreak took a toll on people's experience of mental health, QoL, wellbeing and experienced loneliness, and high-frequent use of social media was associated with these factors.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Solidão/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Distanciamento Físico , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Addiction ; 116(9): 2443-2453, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There has been an increase in the potency of cannabis during the last two decades and adoption of a novel method of administration-vaping. YouTube, a social media platform, has become a popular source to access cannabis-related information. This study aimed to identify cannabis vaping YouTube videos from 2016 to 2020 and examine the themes and metrics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional sample of 200 YouTube videos. SETTING: YouTube, an on-line video sharing platform. MEASUREMENTS: Videos related to cannabis vaping were identified using the search terms: 'vaping cannabis', 'vaping weed', 'vaping marijuana' and 'vaping THC' [tetrahydrocannabinol]. Videos were independently coded by two researchers. The number of views, likes, dislikes and comments were also collected. Robust regression was used to analyse the relationship between identified video themes and video metrics. FINDINGS: Six themes were identified: 'advertisement', 'product review', 'celebratory', 'reflective', 'how-to' and 'warning'. The 'how-to' and 'celebratory' videos received the highest number of views and likes. The most popular video was viewed more than 4 000 000 times. Many videos portrayed risky behaviour (e.g. vaping a whole THC cartridge in a single setting). Fifty-two percent of these videos had no age access restrictions. The robust regression model also found that engagement metric was positively associated with 'reflective' videos and negatively associated with 'advertisement' videos. CONCLUSIONS: A large number of videos on cannabis vaping are available on-line without age-restriction. Videos that portrayed risky behaviour appear to be prevalent.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Mídias Sociais , Vaping , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Gravação em Vídeo
17.
Glob Soc Welf ; : 1-10, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432284

RESUMO

Background: Social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in changes in the work environment and employment uncertainty. This paper reports on a cross-national comparison of four countries (Norway, UK, USA and Australia) and examines the differences in mental health between those individuals employed and those not employed during the social distancing implementation. Methods: Participants (N = 3,810) were recruited through social media in April/May 2020 and were invited to complete a self-administered electronic survey over a 3-week period. Differences between those employed and those not employed with regard to their sociodemographic characteristics and mental health were investigated with chi-square tests, independent t tests, and one-way analysis of variances (ANOVAs). Results: Compared with their counterparts, participants who were employed reported lower levels of mental health distress (p < 0.001), higher levels of psychosocial well-being (p < 0.001), better overall quality of life (p < 0.001), and lower levels of overall loneliness, social loneliness, and emotional loneliness (p < 0.001). Small to medium but consistent differences (Cohen's d = 0.23-0.67) in mental health favor those with employment or those who were retired. Conclusion: Further study is needed to assess mental health over time as the COVID-19 pandemic and employment uncertainty continues.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514049

RESUMO

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had increased population-level anxiety and had elicited panic buying behaviour across the world. The over-hoarding of toilet paper has received a lot of negative public attention. In this work, we used Twitter data to qualitatively analyse tweets related to panic buying of toilet paper during the crisis. Methods: A total of 255,171 tweets were collected. Of these 4081 met our inclusion criteria and 100 tweets were randomly selected to develop a coding scheme in the initial phase. Random samples of tweets in folds of 100 were then qualitatively analysed in the focused coding phase until saturation was met at 500 tweets analysed. Results: Five key themes emerged: (1) humour or sarcasm, (2) marketing or profiteering, (3) opinion and emotions, (4) personal experience, and (5) support or information. About half of the tweets carried negative sentiments, expressing anger or frustration towards the deficiency of toilet paper and the frantic situation of toilet paper hoarding, which were among the most influential tweets. Discussion: Panic buying of toilet paper was seen during the 2020 pandemic period with a mass amount of related content spread across social media. The spontaneous contagion of fear and panic through social media could fuel psychological reactions in midst of crises. The high level of negative social media posts regarding the toilet paper crisis acts as an emotional trigger of public anxiety and panic. Conclusions: Social media data can provide rapid infodemiology of public mental health. In a pandemic or crisis situation, real-time data could be monitored and content-analysed for authorities to promptly address public concerns.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , COVID-19 , Comportamento do Consumidor , Colecionismo , Pandemias , Mídias Sociais , Ansiedade , Humanos
19.
Addiction ; 116(4): 743-756, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studies have consistently found a longitudinal association between e-cigarette use (vaping) and cigarette smoking. Many have interpreted such association as causal. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the plausibility of a causal interpretation by (1) estimating the effect of adolescent vaping on smoking initiation, adjusted for study quality characteristics, (2) evaluating the sufficiency of adjustment for confounding based on the social development model (SDM) and the social ecological model (SEM) and E-value analyses and (3) investigating sample attrition and publication bias. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies that examined the association between e-cigarette use at baseline and smoking at follow-up. Participants were non-smokers aged < 18 at baseline. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of 11 studies showed a significant longitudinal association between vaping and smoking [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.22, 3.87]. Studies with sample sizes < 1000 had a significantly higher odds ratio (OR = 6.68, 95% CI = 3.63, 12.31) than studies with sample sizes > 1000 (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.97, 3.15). Overall, the attrition rate was very high (median = 30%). All but one study reported results from complete sample analysis, despite those dropping out having higher risk profiles. Only two studies comprehensively adjusted for confounding. The median E-value was 2.90, indicating that the estimates were not robust against unmeasured confounding. CONCLUSIONS: There is a longitudinal association between adolescent vaping and smoking initiation; however, the evidence is limited by publication bias, high sample attrition and inadequate adjustment for potential confounders.

20.
Health Promot Int ; 36(1): 46-57, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277828

RESUMO

This paper considers the impact of variables at three different levels-city, community and individual-on the depression of adults aged 45 years and above in China. Evidence shows that community factors, such as infrastructure and elderly centres, are critical to reduce depression but the effect of city-level factors such as lowering income inequality and improving public health investment is different for the segments of poor and non-poor as well as the rural and urban residents. This highlights the need to consider targeted policy mix options to avoid resource misallocation. Lastly, Chinese females' depression has worsened over time with ageing, particularly those who drink alcohol or are less educated are prone to depression prompting the need for specialist women health centres.

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