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1.
Braz J Anesthesiol ; 71(1): 50-57, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgical approaches enhance recovery, reduce postoperative pain, and shorten hospital length-of-stay. Nevertheless, increased intra-abdominal pressure is associated with decreased renal blood flow, renal hypoxia and acute kidney injury. When combined with Trendelenburg positioning, renal function may further deteriorate. We tested the primary hypothesis that the combination of laparoscopic surgical approach and Trendelenburg position is associated with larger reductions in estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) within the initial 48 postoperative hours compared to open surgery without Trendelenburg positioning. Secondarily, we tested, if laparoscopic procedures are associated with greater incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury. METHODS: Adults who had laparoscopic colorectal surgery in Trendelenburg position at the Cleveland Clinic Main Campus from 2009 to 2016 were propensity-matched to patients who had comparable open procedures. Patients with pre-existing renal impairment were excluded. RESULTS: Among 7,357 eligible patients, 1,846 laparoscopic cases with Trendelenburg were matched to 1,846 open cases. No association was found between laparoscopic approach and postoperative eGFR. A significant protective effect of the laparoscopic procedure on the odds of having AKI was found. Patients who had laparoscopic surgeries were an estimated 0.70 (95% CI 0.55, 0.90, pHolm-adj = 0.006) times as likely to have AKI as open surgical patients. CONCLUSION: Despite compelling potential mechanisms, laparoscopic approach with Trendelenburg position in adult colorectal surgeries did not worsen postoperative eGFR, and actually reduced postoperative acute kidney injury. Given the other advantages of laparoscopic surgery, the approach should not be avoided for concerns about renal injury.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744114

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines include assessment of creatinine and urine output to identify acute kidney injury (AKI). Whether urine output is an accurate indicator of AKI after cardiac surgery, however, is unclear. The authors' goal was to examine whether cardiac surgery patients who fulfilled criteria for AKI by KDIGO urine output criteria also demonstrated kidney injury by elevated creatinine, other kidney biomarkers, or had worse clinical outcomes. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from a clinical trial, "6% Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 in Cardiac Surgery (NCT02192502)." SETTING: Academic, quaternary care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients undergoing elective aortic valve replacement INTERVENTIONS: None MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: One hundred forty-one patients were classified into AKI stage by KDIGO urine output criteria within 24 hours after surgery. Kidney biomarkers (serum creatinine, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], urinary interleukin-18 [IL-18]) and hospital and intensive care unit length of stay were analyzed across AKI stages. Urine output criteria classified four times as many patients with AKI than creatinine criteria (95 [67%] v 21 [15%]). Most patients meeting KDIGO urine output criteria for AKI postoperatively did not satisfy KDIGO creatinine criteria for AKI within one week (77 of 95 [81%]) or six-to-12 months (27 of 29 [93%]). Higher AKI stage assessed by urine output was not associated with higher NGAL, IL-18, or longer hospital or intensive care unit stays. CONCLUSIONS: Acute kidney injury classified by KDIGO urine output criteria was not associated with other biomarkers of kidney injury or worse patient outcomes. These data suggested that KDIGO urine output criteria after cardiac surgery may overclassify AKI stage; further research is needed.

3.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631150

RESUMO

Pulmonary vein anomalies are often unrecognized during donor lung procurement. Consequently, they are at high risk for injury and this leaves the implanting surgeon with an unpleasant surprise. An innovative approach can help resolve the situation. We wish to highlight our experience with an anomalous left upper pulmonary vein and describe a novel reconstruction technique.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246332, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561174

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The frequency and implications of an elevated cardiac troponin (4th or 5th generation TnT) in patients outside of the emergency department or presenting with non-cardiac conditions is unclear. METHODS: Consecutive patients aged 18 years or older admitted for a primary non-cardiac condition who had the 4th generation TnT drawn had the 5th generation TnT run on the residual blood sample. Primary and secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality (ACM) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) respectively at 1 year. RESULTS: 918 patients were included (mean age 59.8 years, 55% male) in the cohort. 69% had elevated 5th generation TnT while 46% had elevated 4th generation TnT. 5th generation TnT was more sensitive and less specific than 4th generation TnT in predicting both ACM and MACE. The sensitivities for the 5th generation TnT assay were 85% for ACM and 90% for MACE rates, compared to 65% and 70% respectively for the 4th generation assay. 5th generation TnT positive patients that were missed by 4th generation TnT had a higher risk of ACM (27.5%) than patients with both assays negative (27.5% vs 11.1%, p<0.001), but lower than patients who had both assay positive (42.1%). MACE rates were not better stratified using the 5th generation TnT assay. CONCLUSIONS: In patients admitted for a non-cardiac condition, 5th generation TnT is more sensitive although less specific in predicting MACE and ACM. 5th generation TnT identifies an intermediate risk group for ACM previously missed with the 4th generation assay.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166994

RESUMO

AIMS: Non-invasive assessment and risk stratification of coronary artery disease in patients with large body habitus is challenging. We aim to examine whether body mass index (BMI) modifies the prognostic value and diagnostic utility of stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in a multicentre registry. METHODS AND RESULTS: The SPINS Registry enrolled consecutive intermediate-risk patients who presented with a clinical indication for stress CMR in the USA between 2008 and 2013. Baseline demographic data including BMI, CMR indices, and ratings of study quality were collected. Primary outcome was defined by a composite of cardiovascular death and non-fatal myocardial infarction. Of the 2345 patients with available BMI included in the SPINS cohort, 1177 (50%) met criteria for obesity (BMI ≥ 30) with 531 (23%) at or above Class 2 obesity (BMI ≥ 35). In all BMI categories, >95% of studies were of diagnostic quality for cine, perfusion, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) sequences. At a median follow-up of 5.4 years, those without ischaemia and LGE experienced a low annual rate of hard events (<1%), across all BMI strata. In patients with obesity, both ischaemia [hazard ratio (HR): 2.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30-3.50; P = 0.003] and LGE (HR: 3.09; 95% CI: 1.83-5.22; P < 0.001) maintained strong adjusted association with the primary outcome in a multivariable Cox regression model. Downstream referral rates to coronary angiography, revascularization, and cost of care spent on ischaemia testing did not significantly differ within the BMI categories. CONCLUSION: In this large multicentre registry, elevated BMI did not negatively impact the diagnostic quality and the effectiveness of risk stratification of patients referred for stress CMR.

9.
Med Res Arch ; 8(2)2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094161

RESUMO

Background and Hypothesis: The initial assessment of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) reflects cardiac damage and is an important prognostic factor in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). N-Terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is released following cardiomyocytes injury. However, the relationship between NT-proBNP levels, myocardial damage and clinical outcomes after STEMI has not been well defined. Methods: Plasma levels of NT-proBNP, troponin I and creatinine kinase (CK) were assessed in 75 patients with STEMI. Echocardiography and CMR were performed prior to hospital discharge. Cardiac damage was quantified using peak biomarker levels and LGE. Patients were followed for a median of 975 days (IQR 823-1098 days) for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (all-cause mortality, recurrent myocardial infraction, unplanned recurrent revascularization and recurrent hospitalization for heart failure). Results: Plasma levels of NT-proBNP increased following STEMI to peak at 24 hours. The dynamic changes in plasma NT-proBNP were similar to those noted with troponin I and its delayed peak but not those observed with plasma CK levels. Peak NT-proBNP levels correlated positively with indices of myocardial damage such as peak troponin I (R2 =0.38, P <0.001), peak CK (R2 =0.22, P = 0.01) and LGE examination (R2 = 0.46, P <0.001). Peak plasma level of NT- proBNP was strongly predictive of MACE during the follow-up period. Conclusions: Peak levels of NT-proBNP following STEMI are predictive of the extent of myocardial damage and clinical outcomes. These results suggest an important prognostic role for NT-proBNP assessment in STEMI patients.

10.
J Ultrasound Med ; 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881005

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The inability to identify landmarks is an absolute contraindication for intraosseous access. The feasibility of landmark identification using ultrasound (US) has been demonstrated on human cadavers. We aimed to study the feasibility of point-of-care US in identifying proximal humerus landmarks in living human patients. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study conducted from May 3 to June 7, 2017, after approval from the Institutional Review Board at the Cleveland Clinic. Sixty upper extremities of 30 consenting participants across 3 distinct body mass index (BMI) groups (normal, obese, and morbidly obese) were alternately examined with a 12 L-RS linear US transducer (GE Healthcare, Chicago, IL) by 2 investigators. Six anatomic landmarks were identified: the humeral shaft, the surgical neck of the humerus, the lesser tubercle, the greater tubercle, the inter tubercular sulcus, and the target site for needle insertion on the greater tubercle. Rates of successful identification of all 6 landmarks as defined by independent agreement between the investigators were reported as estimated incidence rates with 95% bootstrap confidence interval (CI) sampling at the participant level. RESULTS: Ultrasound had an overall success rate of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.78-0.95) in identifying all 6 landmarks with slight variability among various BMI groups. After excluding the surgical neck, the overall success rate improved to 0.93 (95% CI, 0.87-0.98), with minimum variability across BMI groups and no change in the ability to identify the target site. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound is reliable in identifying proximal humerus intraosseous landmarks, with reasonable accuracy across various BMI groups.

11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(8): 945-957, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) provides accurate assessment of both myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemia. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the incremental prognostic value of unrecognized myocardial infarction (UMI), detected during assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD) by stress CMR, beyond cardiac function and ischemia. METHODS: In the multicenter SPINS (Stress CMR Perfusion Imaging in the United States) study, 2,349 consecutive patients (63 ± 11 years of age, 53% were male) with suspected CAD were assessed by stress CMR and followed over a median of 5.4 years. UMI was defined as the presence of late gadolinium enhancement consistent with MI in the absence of medical history of MI. This study investigated the association of UMI with all-cause mortality and nonfatal MI (death and/or MI), and major adverse cardiac events (MACE). RESULTS: UMI was detected in 347 patients (14.8%) and clinically recognized myocardial infarction (RMI) in 358 patients (15.2%). Compared with patients with RMI, patients with UMI had a similar burden of cardiovascular risk factors, but significantly lower left ventricular ejection fraction (p < 0.001) and lower rates of guideline-directed medical therapies, including aspirin (p < 0.001), statin (p < 0.001), and beta-blockers (p = 0.002). During follow-up, 328 deaths and/or MIs and 528 MACE occurred. In univariate analysis, UMI and RMI were strongly associated with death and/or MI (UMI: hazard ratio [HR]: 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63 to 2.83; p < 0.001; RMI: HR: 2.45; 95% CI: 1.89 to 3.18) and MACE. Compared with patients with RMI, patients with UMI presented an increased risk for heart failure hospitalization (UMI vs. RMI: HR: 2.60; 95% CI: 1.48 to 4.58; p < 0.001). In a multivariate model including ischemia and left ventricular ejection fraction, UMI and RMI maintained robust prognostic association with death and/or MI (UMI: HR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.37 to 2.42; p < 0.001; RMI: HR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.14 to 2.09) and MACE. CONCLUSIONS: In a multicenter cohort of patients with suspected CAD, presence of UMI or RMI portended an equally significant risk for death and/or MI, independently of the presence of ischemia. Compared with RMI patients, those with UMI were less likely to receive guideline-directed medical therapies and presented an increased risk for heart failure hospitalization that warrants further study. (Stress CMR Perfusion Imaging in the United States [SPINS]; NCT03192891).

12.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745166

RESUMO

Importance: The role of stress cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in clinical decision-making by reclassification of risk across American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline-recommended categories has not been established. Objective: To examine the utility of stress CMR imaging for risk reclassification in patients without a history of coronary artery disease (CAD) who presented with suspected myocardial ischemia. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective, multicenter cohort study with median follow-up of 5.4 years (interquartile range, 4.6-6.9) was conducted at 13 centers across 11 US states. Participants included 1698 consecutive patients aged 35 to 85 years with 2 or more coronary risk factors but no history of CAD who presented with suspected myocardial ischemia to undergo stress CMR imaging. The study was conducted from February 18, 2019, to March 1, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cardiovascular (CV) death and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI). Major adverse CV events (MACE) including CV death, nonfatal MI, hospitalization for heart failure or unstable angina, and late, unplanned coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Results: Of the 1698 patients, 873 were men (51.4%); mean (SD) age was 62 (11) years, accounting for 67 CV death/nonfatal MIs and 190 MACE. Clinical models of pretest risk were constructed and patients were categorized using guideline-based categories of low (<1% per year), intermediate (1%-3% per year), and high (>3% year) risk. Stress CMR imaging provided risk reclassification across all baseline models. For CV death/nonfatal MI, adding stress CMR-assessed left ventricular ejection fraction, presence of ischemia, and late gadolinium enhancement to a model incorporating the validated CAD Consortium score, hypertension, smoking, and diabetes provided significant net reclassification improvement of 0.266 (95% CI, 0.091-0.441) and C statistic improvement of 0.086 (95% CI, 0.022-0.149). Stress CMR imaging reclassified 60.3% of patients in the intermediate pretest risk category (52.4% reclassified as low risk and 7.9% as high risk) with corresponding changes in the observed event rates of 0.6% per year for low posttest risk and 4.9% per year for high posttest risk. For MACE, stress CMR imaging further provided significant net reclassification improvement (0.361; 95% CI, 0.255-0.468) and C statistic improvement (0.092; 95% CI, 0.054-0.131), and reclassified 59.9% of patients in the intermediate pretest risk group (48.7% reclassified as low risk and 11.2% as high risk). Conclusions and Relevance: In this multicenter cohort of patients with no history of CAD presenting with suspected myocardial ischemia, stress CMR imaging reclassified patient risk across guideline-based risk categories, beyond clinical risk factors. The findings of this study support the value of stress CMR imaging for clinical decision-making, especially in patients at intermediate risk for CV death and nonfatal MI.

13.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(10): 2132-2145, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771575

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in patients with reduced left ventricular (LV) systolic function. BACKGROUND: Patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy are at risk from both myocardial ischemia and heart failure. Invasive testing is often used as the first-line investigation, and there is limited evidence as to whether stress testing can effectively provide risk stratification. METHODS: In this substudy of a multicenter registry from 13 U.S. centers, patients with reduced LV ejection fraction (<50%), referred for stress CMR for suspected myocardial ischemia, were included. The primary outcome was cardiovascular death or nonfatal myocardial infarction. The secondary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina or congestive heart failure, and unplanned late coronary artery bypass graft surgery. RESULTS: Among 582 patients (mean age 62 ± 12 years, 34% women), 40% had a history of congestive heart failure, and the median LV ejection fraction was 39% (interquartile range: 28% to 45%). At median follow-up of 5.0 years, 97 patients had experienced the primary outcome, and 182 patients had experienced the secondary outcome. Patients with no CMR evidence of ischemia or late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) experienced an annual primary outcome event rate of 1.1%. The presence of ischemia, LGE, or both was associated with higher event rates. In a multivariate model adjusted for clinical covariates, ischemia and LGE were independent predictors of the primary (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.63; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.68 to 4.14; p < 0.001; and HR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.05 to 3.29; p = 0.03) and secondary (HR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.55 to 2.95; p < 0.001; and HR 1.70; 95% CI: 1.16 to 2.49; p = 0.007) outcomes. The addition of ischemia and LGE led to improved model discrimination for the primary outcome (change in C statistic from 0.715 to 0.765; p = 0.02). The presence and extent of ischemia were associated with higher rates of use of downstream coronary angiography, revascularization, and cost of care spent on ischemia testing. CONCLUSIONS: Stress CMR was effective in risk-stratifying patients with reduced LV ejection fractions. (Stress CMR Perfusion Imaging in the United States [SPINS] Study; NCT03192891).

14.
Anesth Analg ; 131(3): 822-829, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled pain after noncardiac surgery activates the sympathetic nervous system, which causes tachycardia, hypertension, and increased cardiac contractility-all of which may increase myocardial oxygen demand. We therefore determined whether time-weighted average pain scores over the initial 72 postoperative hours are associated with myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of adults with routine postoperative troponin monitoring after noncardiac surgery under general, regional, or combined anesthesia at tertiary level centers in Cleveland from January 2012 to December 2015. Time-weighted average pain scores were calculated from all the available pain scores, typically at 4-hour intervals, until a troponin elevation was detected. MINS was defined as peak troponin T concentrations exceeding 0.03 ng/mL within 72 hours after surgery. We used a generalized linear mixed model to assess the association between pain and MINS with 3 hospitals as clusters, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Among 2892 eligible patients, 4.5% had myocardial injury within 72 hours after surgery. Higher time-weighted average pain scores were associated with increased hazard of myocardial injury. The estimated hazard ratio for a 1-unit increase in pain score was 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.22; P = .013), adjusting for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, time-weighted average pain scores within 72 hours after surgery were significantly associated with myocardial injury.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/etiologia , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Dor Aguda/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina/sangue , Regulação para Cima
15.
Lancet ; 396(10245): 177-185, 2020 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation and delirium are common consequences of cardiac surgery. Dexmedetomidine has unique properties as sedative agent and might reduce the risk of each complication. This study coprimarily aimed to establish whether dexmedetomidine reduces the incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation and the incidence of delirium. METHODS: A randomised, placebo-controlled trial was done at six academic hospitals in the USA. Patients who had had cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1, stratified by site, to dexmedetomidine or normal saline placebo. Randomisation was computer generated with random permuted block size 2 and 4, and allocation was concealed by a web-based system. Patients, caregivers, and evaluators were all masked to treatment. The study drug was prepared by the pharmacy or an otherwise uninvolved research associate so that investigators and clinicians were fully masked to allocation. Participants were given either dexmedetomidine infusion or saline placebo started before the surgical incision at a rate of 0·1 µg/kg per h then increased to 0·2 µg/kg per h at the end of bypass, and postoperatively increased to 0·4 µg/kg per h, which was maintained until 24 h. The coprimary outcomes were atrial fibrillation and delirium occurring between intensive care unit admission and the earlier of postoperative day 5 or hospital discharge. All analyses were intention-to-treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02004613 and is closed. FINDINGS: 798 patients of 3357 screened were enrolled from April 17, 2013, to Dec 6, 2018. The trial was stopped per protocol after the last designated interim analysis. Among 798 patients randomly assigned, 794 were analysed, with 400 assigned to dexmedetomidine and 398 assigned to placebo. The incidence of atrial fibrillation was 121 (30%) in 397 patients given dexmedetomidine and 134 (34%) in 395 patients given placebo, a difference that was not significant: relative risk 0·90 (97·8% CI 0·72, 1·15; p=0·34). The incidence of delirium was non-significantly increased from 12% in patients given placebo to 17% in those given dexmedetomidine: 1·48 (97·8% CI 0·99-2·23). Safety outcomes were clinically important bradycardia (requiring treatment) and hypotension, myocardial infarction, stroke, surgical site infection, pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, and death. 21 (5%) of 394 patients given dexmedetomidine and 8 (2%) of 396 patients given placebo, had a serious adverse event as determined by clinicians. 1 (<1%) of 391 patients given dexmedetomidine and 1 (<1%) of 387 patients given placebo died. INTERPRETATION: Dexmedetomidine infusion, initiated at anaesthetic induction and continued for 24 h, did not decrease postoperative atrial arrhythmias or delirium in patients recovering from cardiac surgery. Dexmedetomidine should not be infused to reduce atrial fibrillation or delirium in patients having cardiac surgery. FUNDING: Hospira Pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther ; 25(6): 541-547, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551836

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with sepsis have high rates of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in the literature, but the stratification of those at risk has been limited. Statin indicated groups provides clear criteria for therapy, but the risk of MACE after sepsis based on these groups has never been assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort analysis conducted on adult patients admitted from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2013, with suspected or confirmed sepsis and data available on statin use. Patients' past medical history; statin use prior, during, or at time of discharge; and occurrence of MACE were recorded from electronic health records. RESULT: A total of 321 patients were screened and 265 were found to have data available on statin use. The mean age of the patients was 59 ± 15 years and 47% were female. Overall, 9% were observed to have a MACE at 1 year, with significantly higher rates in those in a statin indicated group (12.2%). On admission, 174 patients were not taking a statin out of whom 52% were in a statin indicated group. Among those in a statin indicated group who survived to hospital discharge, only 10% not on a statin on admission received a statin on discharge, whereas 89% on a statin on admission received a statin on discharge. CONCLUSION: There is a high risk of MACE after sepsis especially among those in statin indicated groups with significant clinical inertia in prescribing practices.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Proteção , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(7): 1505-1517, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare, using results from the multicenter SPINS (Stress CMR Perfusion Imaging in the United States) study, the incremental cost-effectiveness of a stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-first strategy against 4 other clinical strategies for patients with stable symptoms suspicious for myocardial ischemia: 1) immediate x-ray coronary angiography (XCA) with selective fractional flow reserve for all patients; 2) single-photon emission computed tomography; 3) coronary computed tomographic angiography with selective computed tomographic fractional flow reserve; and 4) no imaging. BACKGROUND: Stress CMR perfusion imaging has established excellent diagnostic utility and prognostic value in coronary artery disease (CAD), but its cost-effectiveness in current clinical practice has not been well studied in the United States. METHODS: A decision analytic model was developed to project health care costs and lifetime quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for symptomatic patients at presentation with a 32.4% prevalence of obstructive CAD. Rates of clinical events, costs, and quality-of-life values were estimated from SPINS and other published research. The analysis was conducted from a U.S. health care system perspective, with health and cost outcomes discounted annually at 3%. RESULTS: Using hard cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death or acute myocardial infarction) as the endpoint, total costs per person were lowest for the no-imaging strategy ($16,936) and highest for the immediate XCA strategy ($20,929). Lifetime QALYs were lowest for the no-imaging strategy (12.72050) and highest for the immediate XCA strategy (12.76535). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the CMR-based strategy compared with the no-imaging strategy was $52,000/QALY, whereas the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the immediate XCA strategy was $12 million/QALY compared with CMR. Results were sensitive to variations in model inputs for prevalence of disease, hazard rate ratio for treatment of CAD, and annual discount rate. CONCLUSIONS: Prior to invasive XCA, stress CMR can be a cost-effective gatekeeping tool in patients at risk for obstructive CAD in the United States. (Stress CMR Perfusion Imaging in the United States [SPINS] Study; NCT03192891.

18.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 22(1): 31, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The T1 Mapping and Extracellular volume (ECV) Standardization (T1MES) program explored T1 mapping quality assurance using a purpose-developed phantom with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Conformité Européenne (CE) regulatory clearance. We report T1 measurement repeatability across centers describing sequence, magnet, and vendor performance. METHODS: Phantoms batch-manufactured in August 2015 underwent 2 years of structural imaging, B0 and B1, and "reference" slow T1 testing. Temperature dependency was evaluated by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology and by the German Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. Center-specific T1 mapping repeatability (maximum one scan per week to minimum one per quarter year) was assessed over mean 358 (maximum 1161) days on 34 1.5 T and 22 3 T magnets using multiple T1 mapping sequences. Image and temperature data were analyzed semi-automatically. Repeatability of serial T1 was evaluated in terms of coefficient of variation (CoV), and linear mixed models were constructed to study the interplay of some of the known sources of T1 variation. RESULTS: Over 2 years, phantom gel integrity remained intact (no rips/tears), B0 and B1 homogenous, and "reference" T1 stable compared to baseline (% change at 1.5 T, 1.95 ± 1.39%; 3 T, 2.22 ± 1.44%). Per degrees Celsius, 1.5 T, T1 (MOLLI 5s(3s)3s) increased by 11.4 ms in long native blood tubes and decreased by 1.2 ms in short post-contrast myocardium tubes. Agreement of estimated T1 times with "reference" T1 was similar across Siemens and Philips CMR systems at both field strengths (adjusted R2 ranges for both field strengths, 0.99-1.00). Over 1 year, many 1.5 T and 3 T sequences/magnets were repeatable with mean CoVs < 1 and 2% respectively. Repeatability was narrower for 1.5 T over 3 T. Within T1MES repeatability for native T1 was narrow for several sequences, for example, at 1.5 T, Siemens MOLLI 5s(3s)3s prototype number 448B (mean CoV = 0.27%) and Philips modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) 3s(3s)5s (CoV 0.54%), and at 3 T, Philips MOLLI 3b(3s)5b (CoV 0.33%) and Siemens shortened MOLLI (ShMOLLI) prototype 780C (CoV 0.69%). After adjusting for temperature and field strength, it was found that the T1 mapping sequence and scanner software version (both P < 0.001 at 1.5 T and 3 T), and to a lesser extent the scanner model (P = 0.011, 1.5 T only), had the greatest influence on T1 across multiple centers. CONCLUSION: The T1MES CE/FDA approved phantom is a robust quality assurance device. In a multi-center setting, T1 mapping had performance differences between field strengths, sequences, scanner software versions, and manufacturers. However, several specific combinations of field strength, sequence, and scanner are highly repeatable, and thus, have potential to provide standardized assessment of T1 times for clinical use, although temperature correction is required for native T1 tubes at least.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/instrumentação , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Imagens de Fantasmas/normas , Consenso , Humanos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 215(2): 344-350, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348185

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major risk factor for stroke. The CHA2DS2-VASc score is used to risk stratify patients, and the score includes known coronary artery disease (CAD) as a variable. The aim of this study was to assess if the presence of incidental coronary artery calcification (CAC), without known CAD, is associated with stroke independent of CHA2DS2-VASc variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A retrospective review of health records was performed for patients who had AF, a chest CT scan performed within 1 year, and a subsequent visit for stroke. Patients with CAD and other vascular disease, a mechanical valve, or who were older than 74 years old were excluded. Included patients were one-to-one matched by age and CHA2DS2-VASc risk factors to patients who had had similar follow-up but who did not have a stroke. Nongated CT images were reviewed for CAC. Univariate and Cox regression analyses were performed. RESULTS. A total of 203 patients met the study criteria, and 203 matched patients without stroke were identified. Median age was 61 years old with stroke and 62 years old without stroke (p = 0.99). In both groups, 82 (39.0%) were women and the median CHA2DS2-VASc was 2 (interquartile range, 1-2). Anticoagulation medication was prescribed to 46 (22.7%) patients in the group who had had a stroke and 52 (25.6%) in the group without stroke (p = 0.49). On Cox regression analysis, CAC was associated with stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 1.47; 95% CI, 1.10-1.97; p < 0.01) and mortality (adjusted HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.02-1.95; p = 0.04). CONCLUSION. Patients with AF and incidental CAC depicted on chest CT have an increased risk of stroke and mortality beyond established risk factors.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Calcificação Vascular/complicações , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(11): 1732-1737, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291093

RESUMO

Cardiovascular complications are reported in up to 30% of sepsis survivors. Currently, there is limited evidence to guide cardiovascular risk stratification of septic patients. We propose the use of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) on nongated computed tomography (CT) scans to identify septic patients at highest risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). We retrospectively reviewed 517 adult patients with sepsis, elevated troponin levels, nongated CT scans that visualized the coronaries, and an echocardiogram. Patients were stratified into 4 groups based on the LVEF and presence or absence of CAC. Using the CAC negative/LVEF ≥ 50% as a control, we compared MACE and all-cause mortality outcomes across the patient groups. At 30 days, 39 patients (7.5%) experienced MACE and 166 patients (32%) died. Patients with no CAC and LVEF ≥ 50% experienced no MACE at 30 days or 1 year. Among patients with EF < 50%, CAC positive or negative patients were statistically more likely to experience a MACE event at 30 days (p < 0.001 for both groups). After 30 days, a further 6 patients (1.2%) experienced MACE and 66 (12.7%) patients died within the first year. Patients with CAC positive/LVEF < 50% experienced the highest rates of MACE at 1 year (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the combination of LVEF on echocardiography and CAC on nongated CT scans provides a powerful risk stratification tool for predicting cardiovascular events in septic patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Sepse/epidemiologia , Volume Sistólico , Calcificação Vascular/epidemiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Imagem Multimodal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
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