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1.
Anesth Analg ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation with low tidal volumes appears to provide benefit in patients having noncardiac surgery; however, whether it is beneficial in patients having cardiac surgery is unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively examined patients having elective cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass through a median sternotomy approach who received mechanical ventilation with a single lumen endotracheal tube from January 2010 to mid-August 2016. Time-weighted average tidal volume (milliliter per kilogram predicted body weight [PBW]) during the duration of surgery excluding cardiopulmonary bypass was analyzed. The association between tidal volumes and postoperative oxygenation (measured by arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio [PaO2/FIO2]), impaired oxygenation (PaO2/FIO2<300), and clinical outcomes were examined. RESULTS: Of 9359 cardiac surgical patients, larger tidal volumes were associated with slightly worse postoperative oxygenation. Postoperative PaO2/FIO2 decreased an estimated 1.05% per 1 mL/kg PBW increase in tidal volume (97.5% confidence interval [CI], -1.74 to -0.37; PBon = .0005). An increase in intraoperative tidal volumes was also associated with increased odds of impaired oxygenation (odds ratio [OR; 97.5% CI]: 1.08 [1.02-1.14] per 1 mL/kg PBW increase in tidal volume; PBon = .0029), slightly longer intubation time (5% per 1 mL/kg increase in tidal volume (hazard ratio [98.33% CI], 0.95 [0.93-0.98] per 1 mL/kg PBW; PBon < .0001), and increased mortality (OR [98.33% CI], 1.34 [1.06-1.70] per 1 mL/kg PBW increase in tidal volume; PHolm = .0144). An increase in intraoperative tidal volumes was also associated with acute postoperative respiratory failure (OR [98.33% CI], 1.16 [1.03-1.32] per 1 mL/kg PBW increase in tidal volume; PHolm = .0146), but not other pulmonary complications. CONCLUSIONS: Lower time-weighted average intraoperative tidal volumes were associated with a very modest improvement in postoperative oxygenation in patients having cardiac surgery.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927665

RESUMO

PURPOSE: When patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) develop symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF), external direct current cardioversion (EDCCV), as well as internal cardioversion using their ICD, are the options available. It is currently unknown which of these two methods are more effective. We compared the effectiveness of EDCCV versus internal cardioversion to terminate AF in patients with a single-coil ICD. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial (clinicaltrial.gov NCT03164395) enrolled consecutive patients with a single-coil ICD that presented with symptomatic AF of less than 1-year duration. They received either the maximum energy internal shock through the ICD or an EDCCV using transcutaneous pads of 200 J. The primary endpoint was a successful conversion to sinus rhythm after one shock. Crossover was permitted if the first shock was unsuccessful. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients were enrolled in the study, including 16 in the internal ICD cardioversion group. The study included patients with a mean age of 59.5 ± 16.0 years, 41.9% females, median AF duration 1 month (interquartile range 1-3), 45.2% non-ischemic cardiomyopathies, mean EF 28.6 ± 16.0%, and 45.2% biventricular ICD. There were no significant differences in baseline clinical characteristics between the two groups. In the internal cardioversion group, 5/16 patients (31.3%) met the primary endpoint versus 14/15 (93.3%) in the EDCCV group, p < 0.001. All patients that failed the first shock were subsequently cardioverted externally. CONCLUSION: Among patients with a single-coil ICD and symptomatic AF of less than 1 year, external direct current cardioversion is much more effective than internal shock through the ICD.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(14): 1741-1755, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has demonstrated excellent diagnostic and prognostic value in single-center studies. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the prognostic value of stress CMR and downstream costs from subsequent cardiac testing in a retrospective multicenter study in the United States. METHODS: In this retrospective study, consecutive patients from 13 centers across 11 states who presented with a chest pain syndrome and were referred for stress CMR were followed for a target period of 4 years. The authors associated CMR findings with a primary outcome of cardiovascular death or nonfatal myocardial infarction using competing risk-adjusted regression models and downstream costs of ischemia testing using published Medicare national payment rates. RESULTS: In this study, 2,349 patients (63 ± 11 years of age, 47% female) were followed for a median of 5.4 years. Patients with no ischemia or late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) by CMR, observed in 1,583 patients (67%), experienced low annualized rates of primary outcome (<1%) and coronary revascularization (1% to 3%), across all years of study follow-up. In contrast, patients with ischemia+/LGE+ experienced a >4-fold higher annual primary outcome rate and a >10-fold higher rate of coronary revascularization during the first year after CMR. Patients with ischemia and LGE both negative had low average annual cost spent on ischemia testing across all years of follow-up, and this pattern was similar across the 4 practice environments of the participating centers. CONCLUSIONS: In a multicenter U.S. cohort with stable chest pain syndromes, stress CMR performed at experienced centers offers effective cardiac prognostication. Patients without CMR ischemia or LGE experienced a low incidence of cardiac events, little need for coronary revascularization, and low spending on subsequent ischemia testing. (Stress CMR Perfusion Imaging in the United States [SPINS]: A Society for Cardiovascular Resonance Registry Study; NCT03192891).

4.
Anesth Analg ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative hyperoxia has been recommended by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for the prevention of surgical site infections. Based on animal studies and physiological concerns, the kidneys and heart may be at risk from hyperoxia. We therefore conducted 2 unplanned subanalyses of a previous alternating cohort trial in which patients having colorectal surgery were assigned to either 30% or 80% inspired intraoperative oxygen. Specifically, we tested 2 coprimary hypotheses: (1) hyperoxia increases the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) within 7 postoperative days (PODs); and (2) hyperoxia worsens a composite of myocardial injury, in-hospital cardiac arrest, and 30-day mortality. METHODS: The underlying controlled trial included 5749 colorectal surgeries in 4481 patients, with the exposure alternating between 30% and 80% fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) during general anesthesia at 2-week intervals over a period of 39 months. AKI was defined as a 1.5-fold increase in creatinine from the preoperative level to the highest value measured during the initial 7 PODs. Myocardial injury was defined by fourth-generation troponin-T level >0.03 ng/mL. We assessed the effect of 80% vs 30% oxygen on the outcomes using generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic models that adjusted for the possible within-patient correlation across multiple potential operations for a patient on different visits. RESULTS: For the AKI outcome, 2522 surgeries were allocated to 80% oxygen and 2552 to 30% oxygen. Hyperoxia had no effect on the primary outcome of postoperative AKI, with an incidence of 7.7% in the 80% oxygen group and 7.7% in the 30% oxygen group (relative risk = 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-1.2; P = .95). One thousand six hundred forty-seven surgeries (all with scheduled troponin monitoring) were analyzed for the composite cardiovascular outcome. Hyperoxia had no effect on the collapsed composite of myocardial injury, cardiac arrest, and 30-day mortality, nor on any of its components (estimated relative risk = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.44-1.16; P = .17). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that intraoperative hyperoxia causes AKI or cardiovascular complications in adults undergoing colorectal surgery. Consequently, we suggest that clinicians select intraoperative inspired oxygen fraction based on other considerations.

5.
NMR Biomed ; 32(7): e4104, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094042

RESUMO

Systolic cardiac function is typically preserved in obese adults, potentially masking underlying declines in cardiomyocyte metabolism that may contribute to heart failure. We used chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI, a sensitive method for measurement of myocardial creatine, to examine whether myocardial creatine levels correlate with cardiac structure, contractile function, or visceral fat mass in obese adults. In this study, obese (body mass index, BMI > 30, n = 20) and healthy (BMI < 25, n = 11) adults were examined with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to quantify fat masses. Cine MRI and myocardial tagging were performed at 1.5 T to measure ventricular structure and global function. CEST imaging with offsets in the range of ±10 parts per million (ppm) were performed in one mid-ventricular slice, where creatine CEST contrast was calculated at 1.8 ppm following field homogeneity correction. Ventricular structure, global function (ejection fraction 69.4 ± 4.3% healthy versus 69.6 ± 9.3% obese, NS), and circumferential strain (-17.0 ± 2.3% healthy versus -16.5 ± 1.5% obese, NS) and strain rate were preserved in obese adults. However, creatine CEST contrast was significantly reduced in obese adults (6.8 ± 1.3% healthy versus 4.1 ± 2.7% obese, p = 0.001). Creatine CEST contrast was inversely correlated with total body fat% (ρ = -0.45, p = 0.011), visceral fat mass (ρ = -0.58, p = 0.001), and septal wall thickness (ρ = -0.44, p = 0.013), but uncorrelated to ventricular function or contractile function. In conclusion, creatine CEST-MRI reveals a strong correlation between heightened body and visceral fat masses and reduced myocardial metabolic function that is independent of ventricular structure and global function in obese adults.

6.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 11: 100, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133843

RESUMO

A growing body of evidence indicates that biomarkers of cardiovascular risk may be related to cerebral health. However, little is known about the role that non-fasting lipoproteins play in assessing age-related declines in a cerebral biomarker sensitive to vascular compromise, white matter (WM) microstructure. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is atheroprotective and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major atherogenic lipoprotein. This study explored the relationships between non-fasting levels of cholesterol and WM microstructure in healthy older adults. A voxelwise and region of interest approach was used to determine the relationship between cholesterol and fractional anisotropy (FA). Participants included 87 older adults between the ages of 59 and 77 (mean age = 65.5 years, SD = 3.9). Results indicated that higher HDL-C was associated with higher FA in diffuse regions of the brain when controlling for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). HDL-C was also positively associated with FA in the corpus callosum and fornix. No relationship was observed between LDL-C and FA. Findings suggest that a modifiable lifestyle variable associated with cardiovascular health may help to preserve cerebral WM.

7.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 36(5): 320-326, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The WHO recommends routine intra-operative and early postoperative use of high inspired oxygen concentrations (hyperoxia). However, a high intra-operative inspired oxygen fraction (FiO2) might result in an increased risk of postoperative respiratory complications. AIM: To test the hypothesis that intra-operative FiO2 of 80% compared with 30% inspired oxygen decreases the postoperative ratio of arterial saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2). Secondarily, to evaluate whether an intra-operative inspired FiO2 of 80% increases the incidence of pulmonary complications. DESIGN: Posthoc subanalysis of a large alternating cohort trial. SETTING: Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, United States, from 2013 to 2016. PATIENTS: Adults having colorectal surgery. Cases lasting less than 2 h, re-operations on the same hospitalisation, and cases with missing intra-operative or postoperative data were excluded. INTERVENTION: Maintaining intra-operative FiO2 at 30 or 80% and alternating this management every 2 weeks for a study period of 39 months. MAIN OUTCOME: Minimal SpO2/FiO2 ratio value in the postanaesthesia care unit. Secondary outcome was a composite of postoperative pulmonary complications throughout hospitalisation. RESULTS: A total of 5056 patients were included. Groups were well balanced on all demographic, baseline and procedural variables. Median time-weighted averages of intra-operative FiO2 in the 30 and 80% groups were 43% (IQR 38 to 54%, N=2486) and 81% (IQR 78 to 82%, N=2570), respectively. No difference was found in the lowest SpO2/FiO2 ratio (estimated median difference 0 [95% confidence interval: 0, 0], P = 0.91). The incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications was 16.3 and 17.6% in the 30 and 80% FiO2 groups, respectively (relative risk 1.07 [95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.21], P = 0.25). CONCLUSION: Intra-operative hyperoxia did not change the postoperative SpO2/FiO2 ratio or the risk for pulmonary complications. Clinicians should not refrain from using hyperoxia for fear of provoking respiratory complications. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01777568.

9.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212704, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-quality chest compressions are imperative for Cardio-Pulmonary-Resuscitation (CPR). International CPR guidelines advocate, that chest compressions should not be interrupted for ventilation once a patient's trachea is intubated or a supraglottic-airway-device positioned. Supraglottic-airway-devices offer limited protection against pulmonary aspiration. Simultaneous chest compressions and positive pressure ventilation both increase intrathoracic pressure and potentially enhances the risk of pulmonary aspiration. The hypothesis was, that regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration is more common during continuous versus interrupted chest compressions in human cadavers ventilated with a laryngeal tube airway. METHODS: Twenty suitable cadavers were included, and were positioned supine, the stomach was emptied, 500 ml of methylene-blue-solution instilled and laryngeal tube inserted. Cadavers were randomly assigned to: 1) continuous chest compressions; or, 2) interrupted chest compressions for ventilation breaths. After 14 minutes of the initial designated CPR strategy, pulmonary aspiration was assessed with a flexible bronchoscope. The methylene-blue-solution was replaced by 500 ml barium-sulfate radiopaque suspension. 14 minutes of CPR with the second designated ventilation strategy was performed. Pulmonary aspiration was then assessed with a conventional chest X-ray. RESULTS: Two cadavers were excluded for technical reasons, leaving 18 cadavers for statistical analysis. Pulmonary aspiration was observed in 9 (50%) cadavers with continuous chest compressions, and 7 (39%) with interrupted chest compressions (P = 0.75). CONCLUSION: Our pilot study indicate, that incidence of pulmonary aspiration is generally high in patients undergoing CPR when a laryngeal tube is used for ventilation. Our study was not powered to identify potentially important differences in regurgitation or aspiration between ongoing vs. interrupted chest compression. Our results nonetheless suggest that interrupted chest compressions might better protect against pulmonary aspiration when a laryngeal tube is used for ventilation.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo/epidemiologia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/efeitos adversos , Aspiração Respiratória de Conteúdos Gástricos/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cadáver , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/instrumentação , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Máscaras Laríngeas/efeitos adversos , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/instrumentação , Distribuição Aleatória , Aspiração Respiratória de Conteúdos Gástricos/diagnóstico por imagem , Aspiração Respiratória de Conteúdos Gástricos/etiologia
10.
Anesth Analg ; 128(3): 494-501, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29697506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuraxial anesthesia improves components of the Virchow's triad (hypercoagulability, venous stasis, and endothelial injury) which are key pathogenic contributors to venous thrombosis in surgical patients. However, whether neuraxial anesthesia reduces the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) remain unclear. We therefore tested the primary hypothesis that neuraxial anesthesia reduces the incidence of 30-day VTE in adults recovering from orthopedic surgery. Secondarily, we tested the hypotheses that neuraxial anesthesia reduces 30-day readmission, 30-day mortality, and the duration of postoperative hospitalization. METHODS: Inpatient orthopedic surgeries from American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (2011-2015) in adults lasting more than 1 hour with either neuraxial or general anesthesia were included. Groups were matched 1:1 by propensity score matching for appropriate confounders. Logistic regression model was used to assess the effect of neuraxial anesthesia on 30-day VTE, 30-day mortality, and readmission, while Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to assess its effect on length of stay. RESULTS: Neuraxial anesthesia decreased odds of 30-day VTE (odds ratio 0.85, 95% confidence interval, 0.78-0.95; P = .002) corresponding to number-needed-to-treat of 500. Although there was no difference in 30-day mortality, neuraxial anesthesia reduced 30-day readmission (odds ratio 0.90, 98.3% confidence interval, 0.85-0.95; P < .001) corresponding to number-needed-to-treat of 250 and had a shortened hospitalization (2.87 vs 3.11; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Neuraxial anesthesia appears to provide only weak VTE prophylaxis, but can be offered as an adjuvant to current thromboprophylaxis in high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Anestesia Epidural/tendências , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Idoso , Anestesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Bases de Dados Factuais/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sociedades Médicas/tendências , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade
11.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16972, 2018 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451960

RESUMO

Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) suffer high mortality from arrhythmias linked to fibrosis, but are contraindicated to late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We present a quantitative method for gadolinium-free cardiac fibrosis imaging using magnetization transfer (MT) weighted MRI, and probe correlations with widely used surrogate markers including cardiac structure and contractile function in patients with ESRD. In a sub-group of patients who returned for follow-up imaging after one year, we examine the correlation between changes in fibrosis and ventricular structure/function. Quantification of changes in MT revealed significantly greater fibrotic burden in patients with ESRD compared to a healthy age matched control cohort. Ventricular mechanics, including circumferential strain and diastolic strain rate were unchanged in patients with ESRD. No correlation was observed between fibrotic burden and concomitant measures of either circumferential or longitudinal strains or strain rates. However, among patients who returned for follow up examination a strong correlation existed between initial fibrotic burden and subsequent loss of contractile function. Gadolinium-free myocardial fibrosis imaging in patients with ESRD revealed a complex and longitudinal, not contemporary, association between fibrosis and ventricular contractile function.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Fibrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Gadolínio , Cardiopatias/complicações , Cardiopatias/patologia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/patologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
J Vis Exp ; (138)2018 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30222151

RESUMO

Coronary artery calcification (CAC) provides an objective measure of coronary artery disease and can readily be identified on non-gated computed tomography (CT) scans with a high correlation with gated cardiac CT scans. This standardized protocol takes a step-wise approach to not only optimizing an image for the identification of calcification but also to distinguishing CAC from other common causes of calcification in the cardiac silhouette. Recognition of CAC on non-gated CT scans helps to identify a very powerful prognostic factor that can influence therapeutic interventions or downstream diagnostic testing without requiring a gated cardiac scan. These non-gated CT scans are often acquired as part of the routine care of the patient, and this data is readily available without another dose of ionizing radiation. This protocol allows for the precise and accurate extraction of this data for the purposes of retrospective data analysis in clinical research studies, but also in the clinical evaluation and management of patients.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Anesth Analg ; 127(5): 1129-1136, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypotension compromises local tissue perfusion, thereby reducing tissue oxygenation. Hypotension might thus be expected to promote infection. Hypotension on surgical wards, while usually less severe than intraoperative hypotension, is common and often prolonged. In this retrospective cohort study, we tested the hypotheses that there is an association between surgical site infections and low postoperative time-weighted average mean arterial pressure and/or postoperative minimum mean arterial pressure. METHODS: We considered patients who had colorectal surgery lasting ≥1 hour at the Cleveland Clinic between 2009 and 2013. We defined blood pressure exposures as time-weighted average (primary) and minimum mean arterial pressure (secondary) within 72 hours after surgery. We assessed associations between continuous blood pressure exposures with a composite of deep and superficial surgical site infection using separate severity-weighted average relative effect generalized estimating equations models, each using an unstructured correlation structure and adjusting for potentially confounding variables. RESULTS: A total of 5896 patients were eligible for analysis. Time-weighted mean arterial pressure and surgical site infection were not significantly associated, with an estimated odds ratio (95% CI) of 1.03 (0.99-1.08) for a 5-mm Hg decrease (P = .16). However, there was a significant inverse association between minimum postoperative mean arterial pressure and infection, with an estimated odds ratio of 1.08 (1.03-1.12) per 5-mm Hg decrease (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative time-weighted mean arterial pressure was not associated with surgical site infection, but lowest postoperative mean arterial pressure was. Whether the relationship is causal remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Colo/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/efeitos adversos , Hipotensão/etiologia , Reto/cirurgia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ohio , Duração da Cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(5): e9386, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29384839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric cardiac arrest is a fatal emergent condition that is associated with high mortality, permanent neurological injury, and is a socioeconomic burden at both the individual and national levels. The aim of this study was to test in an infant manikin a new chest compression (CC) technique ("2 thumbs-fist" or nTTT) in comparison with standard 2-finger (TFT) and 2-thumb-encircling hands techniques (TTEHT). METHODS: This was prospective, randomized, crossover manikin study. Sixty-three nurses who performed a randomized sequence of 2-minute continuous CC with the 3 techniques in random order. Simulated systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressures (PP, SBP-DBP) in mm Hg were measured. RESULTS: The nTTT resulted in a higher median SBP value (69 [IQR, 63-74] mm Hg) than TTEHT (41.5 [IQR, 39-42] mm Hg), (P < .001) and TFT (26.5 [IQR, 25.5-29] mm Hg), (P <.001). The simulated median value of DBP was 20 (IQR, 19-20) mm Hg with nTTT, 18 (IQR, 17-19) mm Hg with TTEHT and 23.5 (IQR, 22-25.5) mm Hg with TFT. DBP was significantly higher with TFT than with TTEHT (P <.001), as well as with TTEHT than nTTT (P <.001). Median values of simulated MAP were 37 (IQR, 34.5-38) mm Hg with nTTT, 26 (IQR, 25-26) mm Hg with TTEHT and 24.5 (IQR,23.5-26.5) mm Hg with TFT. A statistically significant difference was noticed between nTTT and TFT (P <.001), nTTT and TTEHT (P <.001), and between TTEHT and TFT (P <.001). Sixty-one subjects (96.8%) preferred the nTTT over the 2 standard methods. CONCLUSIONS: The new nTTT technique achieved higher SBP and MAP compared to the standard CC techniques in our infant manikin model. nTTT appears to be a suitable alternative or complementary to the TFT and TTEHT.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pressão Sanguínea , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Manequins , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Polegar
17.
J Crit Care ; 44: 261-266, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29220755

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sepsis is a highly prevalent and fatal condition, with reported cardiovascular event rates as high as 25-30% at 1year. Risk stratification in septic patients has been extremely limited. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 267 septic patients with detectable troponin levels, APACHE II scores, and CT scans of the chest or abdomen were assessed. Patients with a recent cardiac intervention were excluded. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) was identified as present or absent on body CT scans. Cardiovascular death, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), or PCI at 1year was assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Patients with CAC were older, predominantly male with more risk factors for coronary disease, but similar peak troponin levels and APACHE II scores. In a multivariate analysis, CAC was predictive of the primary outcome (OR 6.827; 95% CI 1.336-54.686; p=0.037). Patients with no CAC, history of CHF or CKD were at low risk (<1%) for cardiovascular complications at 1year even at very high troponin levels (<8.0ng/dL). CONCLUSION: CAC risk stratifies septic patients for cardiovascular complications better than traditional risk factors and can be identified on body CT scans. This novel, risk stratifying framework built on CAC can help guide individualized management of septic patients.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Sepse/complicações , Calcificação Vascular/complicações , Calcificação Vascular/patologia , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/metabolismo , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Troponina/metabolismo , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/fisiopatologia
18.
Acta Radiol Open ; 6(11): 2058460117729186, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29201434

RESUMO

Background: Emerging quantitative cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) techniques use cine balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) to measure myocardial signal intensity and probe underlying physiological parameters. This correlation assumes that steady-state is maintained uniformly throughout the heart in space and time. Purpose: To determine the effects of longitudinal cardiac motion and initial slice position on signal deviation in cine bSSFP imaging by comparing two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) acquisitions. Material and Methods: Nine healthy volunteers completed cardiac MRI on a 1.5-T scanner. Short axis images were taken at six slice locations using both 2D and 3D cine bSSFP. 3D acquisitions spanned two slices above and below selected slice locations. Changes in myocardial signal intensity were measured across the cardiac cycle and compared to longitudinal shortening. Results: For 2D cine bSSFP, 46% ± 9% of all frames and 84% ± 13% of end-diastolic frames remained within 10% of initial signal intensity. For 3D cine bSSFP the proportions increased to 87% ± 8% and 97% ± 5%. There was no correlation between longitudinal shortening and peak changes in myocardial signal. The initial slice position significantly impacted peak changes in signal intensity for 2D sequences (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The initial longitudinal slice location significantly impacts the magnitude of deviation from steady-state in 2D cine bSSFP that is only restored at the center of a 3D excitation volume. During diastole, a transient steady-state is established similar to that achieved with 3D cine bSSFP regardless of slice location.

19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 70(18): 2290-2303, 2017 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29073958

RESUMO

Early-career academic cardiologists, who many believe are an important component of the future of cardiovascular care, face myriad challenges. The Early Career Section Academic Working Group of the American College of Cardiology, with senior leadership support, assessed the progress of this cohort from 2013 to 2016 with a global perspective. Data consisted of accessing National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute public information, data from the American Heart Association and international organizations, and a membership-wide survey. Although the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute increased funding of career development grants, only a small number of early-career American College of Cardiology members have benefited as funding of the entire cohort has decreased. Personal motivation, institutional support, and collaborators continued to be positive influential factors. Surprisingly, mentoring ceased to correlate positively with obtaining external grants. The totality of findings suggests that the status of early-career academic cardiologists remains challenging; therefore, the authors recommend a set of attainable solutions.


Assuntos
Cardiologistas/educação , Cardiologia/educação , Escolha da Profissão , Mentores/educação , Cardiologistas/economia , Cardiologistas/tendências , Cardiologia/economia , Cardiologia/tendências , Humanos , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/economia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/tendências
20.
J Clin Anesth ; 43: 33-38, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28972924

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The use of neuromuscular blockade agents (NMBA), had been associated with significant residual post-operative paralysis and morbidity. There is a lack of clinical evidence on incidence of postoperative complications within the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) in patients exposed to intraoperative NMBA's. This study aims to estimate the incidence of post-operative complications associated with use of NMBAs and assessing its association with healthcare resource utilization. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Post-anesthesia care unit in tertiary care center. PATIENTS: Adults having non-cardiac surgery and receiving NMBAs between April-2005 and December-2013 MEASUREMENTS: We assessed: 1) incidences of major and minor PACU complications, 2) incidence of any postoperative complication in patients receiving a NMBA reversal (neostigmine) vs. without. 3) We secondarily assessed the relationship between PACU complications and use of healthcare resources. MAIN RESULTS: The incidence of any major complications was 2.1% and that of any minor complication was 35.2%. ICU admission rate was 1.3% in patients without any complications, versus 5.2% in patients with any minor and 30.6% in patients with any major complication. ICU length of stay was prolonged in patients with any major (52.1±203h), compared to patients with any minor (6.2±64h) and with no complications (1.7±28h). Patients who received a NMBA and neostigmine, compared to without neostigmine, had a lower incidence of any major complication (1.7% vs. 6.05%), rate of re-intubation (0.8% vs. 4.6%) and unplanned ICU admission (0.8% vs. 3.2%). CONCLUSIONS: This study documents that incidence of major PACU complications after non-cardiac surgery was 2.1%, with the most frequent complications being re-intubation and ICU admission. Patients receiving NMBA reversal were at a lower risk of re-intubation and unplanned ICU admission, justifying routine use of reversals. Complete NMBA reversals are crucial in reducing preventable patient harm and healthcare utilization.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Bloqueio Neuromuscular/efeitos adversos , Bloqueadores Neuromusculares/efeitos adversos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Extubação/estatística & dados numéricos , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Neostigmina/uso terapêutico , Bloqueio Neuromuscular/métodos , Bloqueadores Neuromusculares/antagonistas & inibidores , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos
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