Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 94
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











País/Região como assunto
Intervalo de ano
1.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA119025732, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409268

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- In patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis, identifying the underlying stroke mechanisms may inform secondary prevention. We aimed to propose reproducible classification criteria for stroke mechanisms based on routine neuroimaging in symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis and explore their clinical implications. Methods- We recruited patients with acute ischemic stroke attributed to 50% to 99% intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis in anterior circulation from 2 centers. Two investigators independently classified probable stroke mechanisms as parent artery atherosclerosis occluding penetrating artery, artery-to-artery embolism, hypoperfusion, and mixed mechanisms, with prespecified criteria based on infarct topography and magnetic resonance/computed tomography angiography. These stroke mechanisms were correlated with features of the patients at baseline and recurrent ischemic stroke in the same territory or relevant transient ischemic attack within 1 year. Results- Among 153 patients recruited, the most common stroke mechanisms were isolated hypoperfusion (35.3%) and mixed mechanism of artery-to-artery embolism and hypoperfusion (37.3%) that was associated with higher incidence of dyslipidemia (P=0.045) and hypertension (P=0.033) than patients with other stroke mechanisms. The proposed criteria showed substantial to excellent intrarater and interrater reproducibilities (κ, 0.791-0.908). Overall, 31 patients received interventional treatment of the diseased intracranial artery; 122 received medical treatment, among whom a mixed mechanism of artery-to-artery embolism and hypoperfusion at baseline was associated with higher risk of ischemic stroke in the same territory within 1 year (24.4% versus 7.8%; hazard ratio, 3.40; 95% CI, 1.25-9.20; log-rank P=0.010) than other mechanisms combined. Conclusions- Artery-to-artery embolism and hypoperfusion commonly coexist in ischemic stroke attributed to intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis, which may be associated with higher risk of stroke relapse.

2.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(7): 1903-1904, 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969941
3.
Ann Neurol ; 85(5): 752-764, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840312

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether hemodynamic features of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (sICAS) might correlate with the risk of stroke relapse, using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. METHODS: In a cohort study, we recruited patients with acute ischemic stroke attributed to 50 to 99% ICAS confirmed by computed tomographic angiography (CTA). With CTA-based CFD models, translesional pressure ratio (PR = pressurepoststenotic /pressureprestenotic ) and translesional wall shear stress ratio (WSSR = WSSstenotic - throat /WSSprestenotic ) were obtained in each sICAS lesion. Translesional PR ≤ median was defined as low PR and WSSR ≥4th quartile as high WSSR. All patients received standard medical treatment. The primary outcome was recurrent ischemic stroke in the same territory (SIT) within 1 year. RESULTS: Overall, 245 patients (median age = 61 years, 63.7% males) were analyzed. Median translesional PR was 0.94 (interquartile range [IQR] = 0.87-0.97); median translesional WSSR was 13.3 (IQR = 7.0-26.7). SIT occurred in 20 (8.2%) patients, mostly with multiple infarcts in the border zone and/or cortical regions. In multivariate Cox regression, low PR (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 3.16, p = 0.026) and high WSSR (adjusted HR = 3.05, p = 0.014) were independently associated with SIT. Patients with both low PR and high WSSR had significantly higher risk of SIT than those with normal PR and WSSR (risk = 17.5% vs 3.0%, adjusted HR = 7.52, p = 0.004). INTERPRETATION: This work represents a step forward in utilizing computational flow simulation techniques in studying intracranial atherosclerotic disease. It reveals a hemodynamic pattern of sICAS that is more prone to stroke relapse, and supports hypoperfusion and artery-to-artery embolism as common mechanisms of ischemic stroke in such patients. Ann Neurol 2019;85:752-764.

4.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 90(4): 428-435, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), which predict future intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), may guide anticoagulant decisions for atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to evaluate the risk of warfarin-associated ICH in Chinese patients with AF with CMBs. METHODS: In this prospective, observational, multicentre study, we recruited Chinese patients with AF who were on or intended to start anticoagulation with warfarin from six hospitals in Hong Kong. CMBs were evaluated with 3T MRI brain at baseline. Primary outcome was clinical ICH at 2-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes were ischaemic stroke, systemic embolism, mortality of all causes and modified Rankin Scale ≥3. Outcome events were compared between patients with and without CMBs. RESULTS: A total of 290 patients were recruited; 53 patients were excluded by predefined criteria. Among the 237 patients included in the final analysis, CMBs were observed in 84 (35.4%) patients, and 11 had ≥5 CMBs. The mean follow-up period was 22.4±10.3 months. Compared with patients without CMBs, patients with CMBs had numerically higher rate of ICH (3.6% vs 0.7%, p=0.129). The rate of ICH was lower than ischaemic stroke for patients with 0 to 4 CMBs, but higher for those with ≥5 CMBs. CMB count (C-index 0.82) was more sensitive than HAS-BLED (C-index 0.55) and CHA2DS2-VASc (C-index 0.63) scores in predicting ICH. CONCLUSIONS: In Chinese patients with AF on warfarin, presence of multiple CMBs may be associated with higher rate of ICH than ischaemic stroke. Larger studies through international collaboration are needed to determine the risk:benefit ratio of oral anticoagulants in patients with AF of different ethnic origins.

5.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; : 271678X18805209, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351176

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the roles of antegrade residual flow and leptomeningeal collateral flow in sustaining cerebral perfusion distal to an intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS). Patients with apparently normal cerebral perfusion distal to a symptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA)-M1 stenosis were enrolled. Computational fluid dynamics models were built based on CT angiography to obtain a translesional pressure ratio (PR) to gauge the residual antegrade flow. Leptomeningeal collaterals (LMCs) were scaled on CT angiography. Cerebral perfusion metrics were obtained in CT perfusion maps. Among 83 patients, linear regression analyses revealed that both translesional PR and LMC scale were independently associated with relative ipsilesional mean transit time (rMTT). Subgroup analyses showed that ipsilesional rMTT was significantly associated with translesional PR ( p < 0.001) rather than LMC scale in those with a moderate (50-69%) MCA stenosis, which, however, was only significantly associated with LMC scale ( p = 0.051) in those with a severe (70-99%) stenosis. Antegrade residual flow and leptomeningeal collateral flow have complementary effects in sustaining cerebral perfusion distal to an ICAS, while cerebral perfusion may rely more on the collateral circulation in those with a severe stenosis.

7.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 89(9): 918-926, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29666204

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Individual neuroimaging features of small vessel disease (SVD) have been reported to influence poststroke cognition. This study aimed to investigate the joint contribution and strategic distribution patterns of multiple types of SVD imaging features in poststroke cognitive impairment. METHODS: We studied 145 first-ever ischaemic stroke patients with MRI and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) examined at baseline. The local burdens of acute ischaemic lesion (AIL), white matter hyperintensity, lacune, enlarged perivascular space and cross-sectional atrophy were quantified and entered into support vector regression (SVR) models to associate with the global and domain scores of MoCA. The SVR models were optimised with feature selection through 10-fold cross-validations. The contribution of SVD features to MoCA scores was measured by the prediction accuracy in the corresponding SVR model after optimisation. RESULTS: The combination of the neuroimaging features of SVD contributed much more to the MoCA deficits on top of AILs compared with individual SVD features, and the cognitive impact of different individual SVD features was generally similar. As identified by the optimal SVR models, the important SVD-affected regions were mainly located in the basal ganglia and white matter around it, although the specific regions varied for MoCA and its domains. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple types of SVD neuroimaging features jointly had a significant impact on global and domain cognitive functionings after stroke on top of AILs. The map of strategic cognitive-relevant regions of SVD features may help clinicians to understand their complementary impact on poststroke cognition.

8.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 89(7): 680-686, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are radiological markers which predict future intracerebral haemorrhage. Researchers are exploring how CMBs can guide anticoagulation decisions in atrial fibrillation (AF). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) exposure and prevalence of CMBs in Chinese patients with AF. METHODS: We prospectively recruited Chinese patients with AF on NOAC therapy of ≥30 days for 3T MRI brain for evaluation of CMBs and white matter hyperintensities. Patients with AF without prior exposure to oral anticoagulation were recruited as control group. RESULTS: A total of 282 patients were recruited, including 124 patients in NOAC group and 158 patients in control group. Mean duration of NOAC exposure was 723.8±500.3 days. CMBs were observed in 103 (36.5%) patients. No significant correlation was observed between duration of NOAC exposure and quantity of CMBs. After adjusting for confounding factors (ie, age, hypertension, labile hypertension, stroke history and white matter scores), previous intracerebral haemorrhage was predictive of CMBs (OR 15.28, 95% CI 1.81 to 129.16), particularly lobar CMBs (OR 5.37, 95% CI 1.27 to 22.6). While white matter score was predictive of mixed lobar CMBs (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.5), both exposure and duration of NOAC use were not predictive of presence of CMBs. CONCLUSIONS: In Chinese patients with AF, duration of NOAC exposure did not correlate with prevalence and burden of CMBs. Further studies with follow-up MRI are needed to determine if long-term NOAC therapy can lead to development of new CMBs.

9.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 33(5): 729-734, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29292529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is psychometrically superior over the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) for cognitive screening in stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). It is free for clinical and research use. The objective of this study is to convert scores from the MMSE to MoCA and MoCA-5-minute protocol (MoCA-5 min) and to examine the ability of the converted scores in detecting cognitive impairment after stroke or TIA. METHODS: A total of 904 patients were randomly divided into training (n = 623) and validation (n = 281) samples matched for demography and cognition. MMSE scores were converted to MoCA and MoCA-5 min using (1) equipercentile method with log-linear smoothing and (2) Poisson regression adjusting for age and education. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was used to examine the ability of the converted scores in differentiating patients with cognitive impairment. RESULTS: The mean education was 5.8 (SD = 4.6; ranged 0-20) years. The entire spectrum of MMSE scores was converted to MoCA and MoCA-5 min using equipercentile method. Relationship between MMSE and MoCA scores was confounded by age and education, and a conversion equation with adjustment for age and education was derived. In the validation sample, the converted scores differentiated cognitively impaired patients with area under receiver operating characteristics curve 0.826 to 0.859. CONCLUSION: We provided 2 methods to convert scores from the MMSE to MoCA and MoCA-5 min based on a large sample of patients with stroke or TIA having a wide range of education and cognitive levels. The converted scores differentiated patients with cognitive impairment after stroke or TIA with high accuracy.

10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 27(1): 44-52, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29107636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) allows noninvasive fractional flow (FF) computation in intracranial arterial stenosis. Removal of small artery branches is necessary in CFD simulation. The consequent effects on FF value needs to be judged. METHODS: An idealized vascular model was built with 70% focal luminal stenosis. A branch with one third or one half of the radius of the parent vessel was added at a distance of 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm to the lesion. With pressure and flow rate applied as inlet and outlet boundary conditions, CFD simulations were performed. Flow distribution at bifurcations followed Murray's law. By including or removing side branches, five patient-specific intracranial artery models were simulated. Transient simulation was performed on a patient-specific model, with a larger branch for validation. Branching effect was considered trivial if the FF difference between paired models (branches included or removed) was within 5%. RESULTS: Compared with the control model without a branch, in all idealized models the relative differences of FF was within 2%. In five pairs of cerebral arteries (branches included/removed), FFs were 0.876 and 0.877, 0.853 and 0.858, 0.874 and 0.869, 0.865 and 0.858, 0.952 and 0.948. The relative difference in each pair was less than 1%. In transient model, the relative difference of FF was 3.5%. CONCLUSION: The impact of removing side branches with radius less than 50% of the parent vessel on FF measurement accuracy is negligible in static CFD simulations, and minor in transient CFD simulation.


Assuntos
Artérias Cerebrais/fisiopatologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Doenças Arteriais Intracranianas/fisiopatologia , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Modelagem Computacional Específica para o Paciente , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , Artérias Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Constrição Patológica , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Doenças Arteriais Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional
11.
Curr Opin Neurol ; 31(1): 14-22, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29084062

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Reviewing existing evidence regarding well tolerated and effective antiplatelet treatment in patients with acute or chronic, noncardioembolic ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA). RECENT FINDINGS: For patients with high-risk stroke or TIA, for instance, minor stroke or high-risk TIA, or stroke of atherosclerotic origin with evidence suggesting risk of artery-to-artery embolism or with high-grade, symptomatic arterial stenosis, early initiated, short-term dual antiplatelet (e.g. aspirin and clopidogrel) is effective in reducing the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events which does not increase the risk of severe or fatal bleeding, as compared with mono antiplatelet therapy. However, long-term application of aggressive antiplatelet therapies after a noncardioembolic stroke or TIA increases the bleeding risks. Triple antiplatelet therapy is not appropriate for noncardioembolic stroke or TIA, in view of the high bleeding risk. In addition, emerging antiplatelets such as ticagrelor and cilostazol may work better in certain subgroups of stroke patients, which warrants further investigation. SUMMARY: Antiplatelet therapies should differ in the acute and chronic phases among patients with high-risk stroke or TIA when more aggressive antiplatelet treatment is reasonable in the acute phase, but no solid evidence supports different antiplatelet strategies in acute and chronic phases in patients with low-risk noncardioembolic stroke.


Assuntos
Doença Aguda/terapia , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos
12.
Stroke ; 49(1): 215-218, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29203690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Central autonomic dysfunction increases stroke morbidity and mortality. We aimed to investigate whether poststroke autonomic dysfunction graded by Ewing battery can predict clinical outcome. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we assessed autonomic function of ischemic stroke patients within 7 days from symptom onset by Ewing battery. On the basis of the magnitude of autonomic dysfunction, we stratified patients into significant (definite, severe, or atypical) or minor (normal or early) autonomic function impairment groups and correlated the impairment with the 3-month modified Rankin Scale score (good outcome: modified Rankin Scale score 0≈2; poor outcome: modified Rankin Scale score 3≈6). RESULTS: Among the 150 patients enrolled (mean age, 66.4±9.9 years; 70.7% males), minor autonomic dysfunction was identified in 36 patients (24.0%), and significant autonomic dysfunction was identified in 114 patients (76.0%) based on Ewing battery. In 3 months, a poor functional outcome was found in 32.5% of significant group patients compared with 13.9% in the minor group (P=0.031). Crude odds ratios of the magnitude of autonomic dysfunction and 3-month unfavorable functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke were 2.979 (95% confidence interval, 1.071-8.284; P=0.036). After adjusting for confounding variables with statistical significance between the 2 functional outcome subgroups identified in univariate analysis (including sex and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on admission), the magnitude of autonomic dysfunction still independently predicted an unfavorable outcome, with an odds ratio of 3.263 (95% confidence interval, 1.141-9.335; P=0.027). CONCLUSIONS: Autonomic dysfunction gauged by Ewing battery predicts poor functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/mortalidade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) ; 14(2): 128-138, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28637237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angioplasty and stenting is a recognized treatment option for patients with intracranial atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term evolutionary luminal changes of intracranial atherosclerosis after angioplasty and stenting. METHODS: This was a retrospective study with patient consent. Eighty-two patients presenting with acute and minor cerebral ischemia due to stenosis ≥70%, who had received medical therapy with or without stenting (Wingspan), were invited. Luminal imaging was provided using 3-dimensional rotational angiography (3-DRA) at baseline and 12 mo, and cone-beam computed tomography angiography with intravenous contrast (CBCT) was provided at follow-up (median 82.4 mo [interquartile range 61.9-96.9 mo]). RESULTS: Thirty-six patients in the stenting group and 26 patients in the medical group were recruited and completed the study. There was no statistically significant difference in demographics between the 2 patient groups. The luminal gain at 12 or 80 mo as compared to baseline in the stenting group was significantly greater than that in the medical group (12 mo: median gain 30% vs 7.2%, P < .001; 80 mo: median gain 42.9% vs 7.2%, P < .0001). Luminal loss or unchanged lumen was correlated with recurrent ischemic event. The differences in the stenosis degree assessment between CBCT and 3-DRA in the same 10 patients with or without stenting were 1.2 ± 0.6% or 0.2 ± 0.06%, respectively. There was a correlation between recurrent ischemic events and luminal loss. CONCLUSION: Arterial lumen after angioplasty and stenting can probably be well maintained and delayed luminal gain does occur, long-term luminal loss is associated with recurrent ischemic events, CBCT might be useful as a less-invasive means for long-term assessment.

15.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 26(8): 1760-1765, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28522230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cortical microinfarcts (CMIs) have been correlated to cognitive decline and dementia. It was previously considered only visible on microscope, but was recently reported to be visible on 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and linked to presence of intracranial stenosis. We aimed to investigate CMIs on 3.0 Tesla MRI in patients with M1 middle cerebral artery (MCA-M1) stenosis. METHODS: Patients with a recent non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and an atherosclerotic MCA-M1 stenosis were recruited. The severity of MCA stenosis was defined as moderate (50%-69%) or severe (70%-99% or focal flow void) on time-of-flight MR angiography (MRA). The distal to proximal signal intensity ratio (SIR) of MCA stenosis was measured on time-of-flight MRA to represent its hemodynamic significance. The presence of CMI(s) in the ipsilateral hemisphere was assessed on axial T1- or T2-weighted images and T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery images. RESULTS: Overall, 86 patients (mean age: 62.8 years; 77.9% males) were analyzed, 66 (76.7%) and 20 (23.3%), respectively, having moderate and severe MCA-M1 stenoses. The median SIR was .91. Forty-five (52.3%) patients had ipsilateral CMI(s). Multivariate logistic regression showed a history of dyslipidemia (odds ratio [OR] = 6.83, P = .008), and an SIR lower than the median (OR = 4.73, P = .014) were independently associated with presence of CMI(s) in ipsilateral hemisphere to an MCA-M1 stenosis. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with stroke and intracranial stenosis had a high burden of CMI. Except for a history of dyslipidemia, the hemodynamic significance of the arterial stenosis may contribute to the presence of ipsilateral CMI(s) in these patients, which warrants further investigation in prospective, longitudinal studies.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/irrigação sanguínea , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Idoso , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Incidência , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/epidemiologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Modelos Logísticos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
Neuroepidemiology ; 48(1-2): 48-54, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28334718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, sex difference in outcomes among patients with intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS) has rarely been discussed in China as well as in the world. This study aimed to estimate the sex difference in outcomes among patients with ICAS in Chinese cerebral ischemia patients. METHODS: We analyzed 1,335 men and women with ICAS who were enrolled in the Chinese Intracranial Atherosclerosis study. They were followed-up for ischemic stroke recurrence, any cause of death, cerebral vascular events (including transient ischemic attack, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke), combined end points (including cerebral vascular events, angina or myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, peripheral vascular events), and unfavorable outcome (modified Rankin scale score of 3-6) at 1 year. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 59 (13.44%) combined end points were documented in women and 107 (11.94%) in men. Of the combined end points, 47 were recurrent ischemic stroke events (14 in women and 33 in men), and 51 other causes of deaths (24 in women and 27 in men). There were 349 unfavorable end points (117 in women and 232 in men). The cumulative probability of death was higher in women, but after adjusting for age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, family history of stroke, current smoker, heavy drinking, hyperhomocysteinemia, and heart disease, there was no significant difference. There was also a lack of difference in 1-year ischemic stroke recurrence, cerebral vascular events, combined end points, and unfavorable outcome between women and men at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest no sex difference in outcome among patients with ICAS in Chinese cerebral ischemia patients.


Assuntos
Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , China , Feminino , Humanos , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
17.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 88(1): 54-61, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27919057

RESUMO

The era of precision medicine has arrived and conveys tremendous potential, particularly for stroke neurology. The diagnosis of stroke, its underlying aetiology, theranostic strategies, recurrence risk and path to recovery are populated by a series of highly individualised questions. Moreover, the phenotypic complexity of a clinical diagnosis of stroke makes a simple genetic risk assessment only partially informative on an individual basis. The guiding principles of precision medicine in stroke underscore the need to identify, value, organise and analyse the multitude of variables obtained from each individual to generate a precise approach to optimise cerebrovascular health. Existing data may be leveraged with novel technologies, informatics and practical clinical paradigms to apply these principles in stroke and realise the promise of precision medicine. Importantly, precision medicine in stroke will only be realised once efforts to collect, value and synthesise the wealth of data collected in clinical trials and routine care starts. Stroke theranostics, the ultimate vision of synchronising tailored therapeutic strategies based on specific diagnostic data, demand cerebrovascular expertise on big data approaches to clinically relevant paradigms. This review considers such challenges and delineates the principles on a roadmap for rational application of precision medicine to stroke and cerebrovascular health.


Assuntos
Medicina de Precisão , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos
18.
Eur Neurol ; 77(1-2): 80-86, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27960165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CT perfusion (CTP) imaging provides quantitative evaluation of cerebral perfusion flow and volume. Our previous findings showed that benign oligemia caused by intracranial large artery disease may be existent in subacute stroke. AIMS: We aimed at comparing the topographic patterns and clinical outcome of stroke patients with and without persistent benign oligemia as defined by CTP imaging. METHODS: Consecutive ischemic stroke patients who were referred for CTP in 2009 were screened. The topographic patterns (cortical, borderzone or perforating artery territory infarcts) were assessed by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The clinical outcome was defined by modified Rankin score at 6 months after stroke onset. RESULTS: Totally, 26 stroke patients were recruited. Benign oligemia in subacute stage was detected in 15 patients. The occurrence of borderzone infarction was higher in stroke patients with benign oligemia than those without (p = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: The topographic pattern of DWI may be different between the intracranial arterial disease patients with and without benign oligemia on CTP in subacute stroke.


Assuntos
Infarto/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Humanos , Infarto/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem de Perfusão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Front Neurol Neurosci ; 40: 152-163, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27960179

RESUMO

The high rate of recurrent strokes in patients with intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAS) despite medical therapy prompted intracranial angioplasty and/or stenting an adjunctive treatment option. The minute calibers of cerebral arteries, the relative paucity of supporting medial and adventitia layers, the presence of end-anastomosing perforator branches, and the vascular tortuosity from groin to head all demand specialized operative skills and dedicated tools. Since the stroke mechanism of ICAS is diverse, patient selection for endovascular treatment requires a sound understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. Patients with territorial cerebral hypo-perfusion associated with a high-grade steno-occlusive lesion may benefit most from endovascular revascularization. On the other hand, patients with atheromatous branch disease may stand a higher risk of perforator stroke from 'snow plowing' effect if angioplasty or stenting is inadvertently performed. A joint evaluation on the indication, procedural risks and benefits, and an individualized peri-operative care plan by a stroke neurologist and a neuro-interventionist is crucial prior to a procedure. Currently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Wingspan for patients who have developed two or more strokes despite aggressive medical management. The treatment indication will likely evolve in parallel with the advancement of endovascular techniques and our understanding of ICAS.


Assuntos
Angioplastia/instrumentação , Angioplastia/métodos , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/cirurgia , Stents , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia , Humanos
20.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0162846, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27632159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study are 1) to examine the frequencies of neuropsychiatric symptom clusters in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) by cognitive level and stroke subtype; and 2) to evaluate effect of demographic, clinical, and neuroimaging measures of chronic brain changes and amyloid upon neuropsychiatric symptom clusters. METHODS: Hospital-based, cross-sectional study. 518 patients were administered the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) 3-6 months post index admission. NPI symptoms were classified into four symptom clusters (Behavioral Problems, Psychosis, Mood Disturbance & Euphoria) derived from a confirmatory factor analysis of the 12 NPI items. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine independent associations between demographic, clinical and neuroimaging measures of chronic brain changes (white matter changes, old infarcts, whole brain atrophy, medial temporal lobe atrophy [MTLA] and frontal lobe atrophy [FLA]) with the presence of NPI symptoms and all symptom clusters except euphoria. 11C-Pittsburg Compound B Positron Emission Tomography (11C-PiB PET) was performed in 24 patients to measure amyloid retention for Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathology. RESULTS: 50.6% of the whole sample, including 28.7% cognitively normal and 66.7% of patients with mild cognitive symptoms, had ≥1 NPI symptoms. Frequencies of symptom clusters were largely similar between stroke subtypes. Compared to patients with cardioembolic stroke and intracranial haemorrhage, those with TIA had less frequent mood disturbance. Stroke severity at admission and MTLA were the most robust correlates of symptoms. FLA was associated with behavioral problems cluster only. Frequency of symptom clusters did not differ between patients with and without significant amyloid retention. CONCLUSION: Frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms increased with level of cognitive impairment but was largely similar between stroke subtypes. Stroke severity and MTLA were associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms. AD pathology appeared to be unrelated to neuropsychiatric manifestations but further studies with larger sample size are required to substantiate this finding.


Assuntos
Amiloide/metabolismo , Vasos Sanguíneos/patologia , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Cognição , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Isquemia Encefálica/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/classificação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA