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1.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 18(3): 295-308, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30689467

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High-dose trivalent, inactivated, split-virus influenza vaccine (IIV3-HD) has been available in the US since 2009 for adults aged ≥ 65 years. To better understand how IIV3-HD provides improved protection against influenza, we systematically reviewed clinical studies comparing immune responses to IIV3-HD and standard-dose trivalent vaccine (IIV3-SD). AREAS COVERED: The primary objective was to determine the relative hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody response of IIV3-HD vs. IIV3-SD in adults aged ≥ 65 years. Based on seven randomized studies including more than 18,500 adults aged ≥ 65 years, combined HAI geometric mean titer (GMT) ratios (95% confidence interval) approximately 1 month post-vaccination were 1.74 (1.65-1.83) for influenza A/H1N1, 1.84 (1.73-1.95) for influenza A/H3N2, and 1.47 (1.36-1.58) for influenza B. HAI GMT ratios in these studies were similar irrespective of sex, older age (≥ 75 years), frailty, and underlying conditions. Trends were similar for A/H3N2 neutralization and anti-neuraminidase antibody titers. In immunocompromised individuals, HAI GMT ratios were mostly > 1. EXPERT OPINION: In agreement with its improved efficacy and effectiveness, IIV3-HD is consistently more immunogenic than IIV3-SD in adults aged ≥ 65 years. IIV3-HD also appears more immunogenic in immunocompromised individuals.


Assuntos
Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vacinação
2.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 17(1): 1-11, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29157068

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: VaxigripTetra™ (IIV4; Sanofi Pasteur) is a quadrivalent split-virion influenza vaccine approved in Europe in 2016 for individuals ≥ 3 years of age. IIV4 builds on the well-established record of the trivalent split-virion influenza vaccine (Vaxigrip®). Areas covered: This literature review summarizes the rationale for developing quadrivalent influenza vaccines and discusses the phase III clinical trial results supporting the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of IIV4. Expert commentary: IIV4 is immunogenic and well tolerated. Adding a second B strain to the trivalent split-virion influenza vaccine provides a superior immune response for the additional strain but does not reduce the immune response for the three other strains or negatively affect the safety profile. By offering broader protection against co-circulating influenza B lineages, IIV4 has the potential to further reduce influenza-related morbidity and mortality beyond that achieved with trivalent vaccines.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza B/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/efeitos adversos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia
3.
Dermatol Surg ; 43(7): 959-966, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28375973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IncobotulinumtoxinA is a botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) indicated for temporary improvement in the appearance of upper facial lines with well-established efficacy and safety profiles. Whether incobotulinumtoxinA and other BoNTAs are equipotent is subject of debate. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of incobotulinumtoxinA and other BoNTAs for aesthetic applications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed and Embase were systematically searched for prospective clinical trials comparing incobotulinumtoxinA with onabotulinumtoxinA, abobotulinumtoxinA, or placebo for aesthetic applications. RESULTS: Fifteen articles met the selection criteria. Two studies found that incobotulinumtoxinA was noninferior or equivalent to onabotulinumtoxinA for the treatment of glabellar frown lines (GFLs). Eight studies found no difference in efficacy between incobotulinumtoxinA and other BoNTAs. One study suggested differences in response rates at certain time points between incobotulinumtoxinA and onabotulinumtoxinA for GFLs, and one suggested differences for dynamic horizontal forehead lines but not for GFLs or lateral periorbital lines, but both had study design issues limiting the ability to draw conclusions. Finally, 3 placebo-controlled studies demonstrated the efficacy of incobotulinumtoxinA for treating GFLs and upper facial lines. CONCLUSION: The weight of the evidence from comparative clinical trials indicates that incobotulinumtoxinA, onabotulinumtoxinA, and abobotulinumtoxinA have similar efficacy for aesthetic applications.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/farmacologia , Técnicas Cosméticas , Face , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27877059

RESUMO

Skin aging is primarily due to alterations in the dermal extracellular matrix, especially a decrease in collagen I content, fragmentation of collagen fibrils, and accumulation of amorphous elastin material, also known as elastosis. Growth factors and cytokines are included in several cosmetic products intended for skin rejuvenation because of their ability to promote collagen synthesis. Matrikines and matrikine-like peptides offer the advantage of growth factor-like activities but better skin penetration due to their much smaller molecular size. In this review, we summarize the commercially available products containing growth factors, cytokines, and matrikines for which there is evidence that they promote skin rejuvenation.

5.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 236(5): 535-9, 2010 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20187817

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of feeding a diet supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on carprofen dosage in dogs with osteoarthritis. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, multisite clinical trial. ANIMALS: 131 client-owned dogs with stable chronic osteoarthritis examined at 33 privately owned veterinary hospitals in the United States. PROCEDURES: In all dogs, the dosage of carprofen was standardized over a 3-week period to approximately 4.4 mg/kg/d (2 mg/lb/d), PO. Dogs were then randomly assigned to receive a food supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids or a control food with low omega-3 fatty acid content, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks later, investigators made decisions regarding increasing or decreasing the carprofen dosage on the basis of investigator assessments of 5 clinical signs and owner assessments of 15 signs. RESULTS: Linear regression analysis indicated that over the 12-week study period, carprofen dosage decreased significantly faster among dogs fed the supplemented diet than among dogs fed the control diet. The distribution of changes in carprofen dosage for dogs in the control group was significantly different from the distribution of changes in carprofen dosage for dogs in the test group. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis receiving carprofen because of signs of pain, feeding a diet supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids may allow for a reduction in carprofen dosage.


Assuntos
Carbazóis/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos de Peixe/uso terapêutico , Osteoartrite/veterinária , Animais , Carbazóis/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Masculino , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico
6.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 236(1): 59-66, 2010 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20043800

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of food containing high concentrations of fish oil omega-3 fatty acids and a low omega-6-omega-3 fatty acid ratio on clinical signs of osteoarthritis in dogs. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blinded, controlled clinical trial. ANIMALS: 127 client-owned dogs with osteoarthritis in 1 or more joints from 18 privately owned veterinary clinics. PROCEDURES: Dogs were randomly assigned to be fed for 6 months with a typical commercial food or a test food containing a 31-fold increase in total omega-3 fatty acid content and a 34-fold decrease in omega-6-omega-3 ratio, compared with the control food. Dog owners completed a questionnaire about their dog's arthritic condition, and investigators performed a physical examination and collected samples for a CBC and serum biochemical analyses (including measurement of fatty acids concentration) at the onset of the study and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks afterward. RESULTS: Dogs fed the test food had a significantly higher serum concentration of total omega-3 fatty acids and a significantly lower serum concentration of arachidonic acid at 6, 12, and 24 weeks. According to owners, dogs fed the test food had a significantly improved ability to rise from a resting position and play at 6 weeks and improved ability to walk at 12 and 24 weeks, compared with control dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Ingestion of the test food raised blood concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids and appeared to improve the arthritic condition in pet dogs with osteoarthritis.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Doenças do Cão/dietoterapia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Peixe , Osteoartrite/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Peixe/química , Alimentos Fortificados , Masculino , Osteoartrite/sangue , Osteoartrite/dietoterapia , Osteoartrite/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 236(1): 67-73, 2010 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20043801

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a food supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on weight bearing in dogs with osteoarthritis. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blinded, controlled clinical trial. ANIMALS: 38 client-owned dogs with osteoarthritis examined at 2 university veterinary clinics. PROCEDURES: Dogs were randomly assigned to receive a typical commercial food (n = 16) or a test food (22) containing 3.5% fish oil omega-3 fatty acids. On day 0 (before the trial began) and days 45 and 90 after the trial began, investigators conducted orthopedic evaluations and force-plate analyses of the most severely affected limb of each dog, and owners completed questionnaires to characterize their dogs' arthritis signs. RESULTS: The change in mean peak vertical force between days 90 and 0 was significant for the test-food group (5.6%) but not for the control-food group (0.4%). Improvement in peak vertical force values was evident in 82% of the dogs in the test-food group, compared with 38% of the dogs in the control-food group. In addition, according to investigators' subjective evaluations, dogs fed the test food had significant improvements in lameness and weight bearing on day 90, compared with measurements obtained on day 0. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: At least in the short term, dietary supplementation with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids resulted in an improvement in weight bearing in dogs with osteoarthritis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/dietoterapia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Coxeadura Animal/dietoterapia , Osteoartrite/veterinária , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Peixe/química , Coxeadura Animal/patologia , Masculino , Osteoartrite/dietoterapia , Osteoartrite/patologia , Osteoartrite/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Invest Dermatol ; 130(3): 804-15, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19865100

RESUMO

Adult mastocytosis is an incurable clonal disease associated with c-KIT mutations, mostly in exon 17 (D816V). In contrast, pediatric mastocytosis often spontaneously regresses and is considered a reactive disease. Previous studies on childhood mastocytosis assessed only a few patients and focused primarily on codon 816 mutations, with various results. In this study, we analyzed the entire c-KIT sequence from cutaneous biopsies of 50 children with mastocytosis (ages 0-16 years). A mutation of codon 816 (exon 17) was found in 42% of cases, and mutations outside exon 17 were observed in 44%. Unexpectedly, half of the mutations were located in the fifth Ig loop of c-KIT's extracellular domain, which is encoded by exons 8 and 9. All mutations identified in this study were somatic and caused a constitutive activation of c-KIT. There was no clear phenotype-genotype correlation, no clear relationship between the mutations and familial versus spontaneous disease, and no significant change in the relative expression of the c-KIT GNNK+ and GNNK isoforms. These findings strongly support the idea that, although pediatric mastocytosis can spontaneously regress, it is a clonal disease most commonly associated with activating mutations in c-KIT.


Assuntos
Mastócitos/patologia , Mastocitose Cutânea/genética , Mastocitose Cutânea/patologia , Mutação Puntual , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Animais , Biópsia , Células COS , Cercopithecus aethiops , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Células Clonais , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mastócitos/fisiologia , Fenótipo
9.
PLoS One ; 4(9): e7258, 2009 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19789626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The stem cell factor receptor, KIT, is a target for the treatment of cancer, mastocytosis, and inflammatory diseases. Here, we characterise the in vitro and in vivo profiles of masitinib (AB1010), a novel phenylaminothiazole-type tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets KIT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vitro, masitinib had greater activity and selectivity against KIT than imatinib, inhibiting recombinant human wild-type KIT with an half inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 200+/-40 nM and blocking stem cell factor-induced proliferation and KIT tyrosine phosphorylation with an IC(50) of 150+/-80 nM in Ba/F3 cells expressing human or mouse wild-type KIT. Masitinib also potently inhibited recombinant PDGFR and the intracellular kinase Lyn, and to a lesser extent, fibroblast growth factor receptor 3. In contrast, masitinib demonstrated weak inhibition of ABL and c-Fms and was inactive against a variety of other tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. This highly selective nature of masitinib suggests that it will exhibit a better safety profile than other tyrosine kinase inhibitors; indeed, masitinib-induced cardiotoxicity or genotoxicity has not been observed in animal studies. Molecular modelling and kinetic analysis suggest a different mode of binding than imatinib, and masitinib more strongly inhibited degranulation, cytokine production, and bone marrow mast cell migration than imatinib. Furthermore, masitinib potently inhibited human and murine KIT with activating mutations in the juxtamembrane domain. In vivo, masitinib blocked tumour growth in mice with subcutaneous grafts of Ba/F3 cells expressing a juxtamembrane KIT mutant. CONCLUSIONS: Masitinib is a potent and selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting KIT that is active, orally bioavailable in vivo, and has low toxicity.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/metabolismo , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Tiazóis/farmacologia
10.
11.
Mol Cancer Res ; 6(7): 1137-45, 2008 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18644978

RESUMO

In the current study, we examined the types and frequency of KIT mutations in mast cell tumors from 191 dogs. Sequencing of reverse transcription-PCR products revealed alterations in 50 (26.2%) of the dogs. Most mutations were in exon 11 (n = 32), and of these, most were internal tandem duplications (n = 25) between residues 571 and 590. Within exon 11, there were two hotspots for mutations at codons 555-559 and 571-590. In addition, nine dogs had mutations in exon 8 and eight had mutations in exon 9. We selected the two most common mutants and two representative exon 11 mutants for further analysis. When expressed in Ba/F3 cells, they were constitutively tyrosine phosphorylated and induced growth factor-independent cell proliferation. AG1296, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, dose dependently inhibited both the tyrosine phosphorylation of these mutants and their induction of growth factor-independent proliferation. This study shows that activating mutations in not only exon 11 but also exons 8 and 9 are common in canine mast cell tumors. These results also show that Ba/F3 cells can be used for the direct characterization of canine KIT mutants, eliminating the need to make equivalent mutations in the mouse or human genes.


Assuntos
Espaço Extracelular/química , Mastocitose/genética , Mastocitose/veterinária , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/farmacologia , Ligantes , Masculino , Mastocitose/patologia , Camundongos , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfotirosina/metabolismo , Polimorfismo Genético , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Tirfostinas/farmacologia
12.
PLoS One ; 3(5): e2266, 2008 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18509466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indolent forms of mastocytosis account for more than 90% of all cases, but the types and type and severity of symptoms and their impact on the quality of life have not been well studied. We therefore performed a case-control cohort study to examine self-reported disability and impact of symptoms on the quality of life in patients with mastocytosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2004, 363 mastocytosis patients and 90 controls in France were asked to rate to their overall disability (OPA score) and the severity of 38 individual symptoms. The latter was used to calculate a composite score (AFIRMM score). Of the 363 respondents, 262 were part of an ongoing pathophysiological study so that the following data were available: World Health Organization classification, standard measures of physical and psychological disability, existence of the D816V KIT mutation, and serum tryptase level. The mean OPA and AFIRMM scores and the standard measures of disability indicated that most mastocytosis patients suffer from disabilities due to the disease. Surprisingly, the patient's measurable and perceived disabilities did not differ according to disease classification or presence or absence of the D816V KIT mutation or an elevated (> or = 20 ng/mL) serum tryptase level. Also, 32 of the 38 AFIRMM symptoms were more common in patients than controls, but there were not substantial differences according to disease classification, presence of the D816V mutation, or the serum tryptase level. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of these results and for the purposes of treatment, we propose that mastocytosis be first classified as aggressive or indolent and that indolent mastocytosis then be categorized according to the severity of patients' perceived symptoms and their impact on the quality of life. In addition, it appears that mastocytosis patients suffer from more symptoms and greater disability than previously thought, that mastocytosis may therefore be under-diagnosed, and that the symptoms of the indolent forms of mastocytosis might be due more to systemic release of mediators than mast cell burden.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Mastocitose/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Mastocitose/psicologia , Mutação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Org Lett ; 6(21): 3715-8, 2004 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15469331

RESUMO

[structure: see text] The synthesis of a photoaffinity probe for EGFR is described. O-Alkylation of 4-(meta-azidoanilino)-6-methoxy-7-hydroxy-quinazoline with a protected tetraethyleneglycol linker followed by the attachment of tetramethylrhodamine yielded the fluorescent probe AX7593. Photoaffinity labeling of EGFR by AX7593 (K(b) = 280 nM) was shown to have an efficiency of 34% and to be competitive with the EGFR inhibitors PP2 and AG1478.


Assuntos
Receptores ErbB/química , Marcadores de Fotoafinidade/síntese química , Quinazolinas/química , Marcadores de Fotoafinidade/química , Quinazolinas/síntese química
14.
Bioconjug Chem ; 15(4): 790-8, 2004 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15264866

RESUMO

The design and synthesis of AX7574, a microcystin-derived probe for serine/threonine phosphatases, is described. A key step in the synthesis was the conjugation under basic conditions of a tetramethylrhodamine 1,3-diketone derivative to the arginine side chain present in microcystin-LR. The resulting conjugate specifically labeled the active site of protein phosphatases 1 (PP-1) with a 1:1 stoichiometry and IC50 of 4.0 nM. AX7574 was used to isolate and identify PP-1, PP-2A, PP-4, and PP-6 in Jurkat cells. Finally, AX7574 was able to record changes in the phosphatase activity levels of calyculin A treated Jurkat cells versus untreated control cells.


Assuntos
Desenho de Drogas , Sondas Moleculares/análise , Sondas Moleculares/síntese química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/análise , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/síntese química , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Células Jurkat , Cinética , Espectrometria de Massas , Microcistinas , Sondas Moleculares/antagonistas & inibidores , Sondas Moleculares/química , Estrutura Molecular , Oxazóis/farmacologia , Peptídeos Cíclicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/análise , Proteoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteoma/metabolismo , Coloração e Rotulagem
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