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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445355

RESUMO

Recently, lithium nitride (Li3N) has been proposed as a chemical warfare agent (CWA) neutralization reagent for its ability to produce nucleophilic ammonia molecules and hydroxide ions in aqueous solution. Quantum chemical calculations can provide insight into the Li3N neutralization process that has been studied experimentally. Here, we calculate reaction-free energies associated with the Li3N-based neutralization of the CWA VX using quantum chemical density functional theory and ab initio methods. We find that alkaline hydrolysis is more favorable to either ammonolysis or neutral hydrolysis for initial P-S and P-O bond cleavages. Reaction-free energies of subsequent reactions are calculated to determine the full reaction pathway. Notably, products predicted from favorable reactions have been identified in previous experiments.


Assuntos
Descontaminação , Compostos de Lítio/química , Compostos Organotiofosforados/química , Água/química , Amônia/química , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/química , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/farmacologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Hidrólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinética , Lítio/química , Modelos Moleculares , Compostos Organotiofosforados/farmacologia , Teoria Quântica
2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(24): 10375-10381, 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236915

RESUMO

Molecular diffusion coefficients calculated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suffer from finite-size (i.e., finite box size and finite particle number) effects. Results from finite-sized MD simulations can be upscaled to infinite simulation size by applying a correction factor. For self-diffusion of single-component fluids, this correction has been well-studied by many researchers including Yeh and Hummer (YH); for binary fluid mixtures, a modified YH correction was recently proposed for correcting MD-predicted Maxwell-Stephan (MS) diffusion rates. Here we use both empirical and machine learning methods to identify improvements to the finite-size correction factors for both self-diffusion and MS diffusion of binary Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluid mixtures. Using artificial neural networks (ANNs), the error in the corrected LJ fluid diffusion is reduced by an order of magnitude versus existing YH corrections, and the ANN models perform well for mixtures with large dissimilarities in size and interaction energies where the YH correction proves insufficient.

3.
JBMR Plus ; 3(6): e10135, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346566

RESUMO

Being predictors of the mechanical properties of human cortical bone, bound and pore water measurements by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are being developed for the clinical assessment of fracture risk. While pore water is a surrogate of cortical bone porosity, the determinants of bound water are unknown. Manipulation of organic matrix properties by oxidative deproteinization, thermal denaturation, or nonenzymatic glycation lowers bone toughness. Because bound water contributes to bone toughness, we hypothesized that each of these matrix manipulations affect bound water fraction (Vbw/Vbone). Immersing cadaveric bone samples in sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) for 96 hours did not affect tissue mineral density or cortical porosity, but rather decreased Vbw/Vbone and increased short-T2 pore water signals as determined by 1H nuclear MR relaxometry (1H NMR). Moreover, the post treatment Vbw/Vbone linearly correlated with the remaining weight fraction of the organic matrix. Heating bone samples at 110°C, 120°C, 130°C, and then 140°C (∼24 hours per temperature and rehydration for ∼24 hours before 1H NMR analysis) did not affect Vbw/Vbone. After subsequently heating them at 200°C, Vbw/Vbone increased. Boiling bone samples followed by heating at 110°C, 120°C, and then 130°C in water under pressure (8 hours per temperature) had a similar effect on Vbw/Vbone. Raman spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the increase in Vbw/Vbone coincided with an increase in an Amide I subpeak ratio that is sensitive to changes in the helical structure of collagen I. Glycation of bone by ribose for 4 weeks, but not in glucose for 16 weeks, decreased Vbw/Vbone, although the effect was less pronounced than that of oxidative deproteinization or thermal denaturation. We propose that MR measurements of bound water reflect the amount of bone organic matrix and can be modulated by collagen I helicity and by sugar-derived post translational modifications of the matrix. © 2019 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

4.
Opt Lett ; 43(21): 5238-5241, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382976

RESUMO

Here we report a simple and scalable electrostatics-assisted colloidal self-assembly technology for fabricating monolayer nanoparticle antireflection coatings on geometrically complex optical surfaces. By using a surface-modified glass volumetric flask with a long neck as a proof-of-concept demonstration, negatively charged silica nanoparticles with 110 nm diameter are electrostatically adsorbed on both the interior and exterior surfaces of the flask possessing positive surface charges. The self-assembled monolayer nanoparticle antireflection coatings can significantly improve light transmission through different regions of the flask with varied curvatures, as revealed by optical transmission measurements and numerical simulations using a simplified thin-film multilayer model.

5.
J Biophotonics ; 11(8): e201700352, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29575566

RESUMO

Establishing a non-destructive method for spatially assessing advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) is a potentially useful step toward investigating the mechanistic role of AGEs in bone quality. To test the hypothesis that the shape of the amide I in the Raman spectroscopy (RS) analysis of bone matrix changes upon AGE accumulation, we incubated paired cadaveric cortical bone in ribose or glucose solutions and in control solutions for 4 and 16 weeks, respectively, at 37°C. Acquiring 10 spectra per bone with a 20X objective and a 830 nm laser, RS was sensitive to AGE accumulation (confirmed by biochemical measurements of pentosidine and fluorescent AGEs). Hyp/Pro ratio increased upon glycation using either 0.1 M ribose, 0.5 M ribose or 0.5 M glucose. Glycation also decreased the amide I sub-peak ratios (cm-1 ) 1668/1638 and 1668/1610 when directly calculated using either second derivative spectrum or local maxima of difference spectrum, though the processing method (eg, averaged spectrum vs individual spectra) to minimize noise influenced detection of differences for the ribose-incubated bones. Glycation however did not affect these sub-peak ratios including the matrix maturity ratio (1668/1690) when calculated using indirect sub-band fitting. The amide I sub-peak ratios likely reflected changes in the collagen I structure.


Assuntos
Osso Cortical/metabolismo , Análise Espectral Raman , Amidas/química , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Arginina/química , Arginina/metabolismo , Feminino , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/química , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Humanos , Cinética , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Lisina/química , Lisina/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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