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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393465

RESUMO

Assessment of GFR is central to clinical practice, research, and public health. Current Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend measurement of serum creatinine to estimate GFR as the initial step in GFR evaluation. Serum creatinine is influenced by creatinine metabolism as well as GFR; hence, all equations to estimate GFR from serum creatinine include surrogates for muscle mass, such as age, sex, race, height, or weight. The guideline-recommended equation in adults (the 2009 Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation) includes a term for race (specified as black versus nonblack), which improves the accuracy of GFR estimation by accounting for differences in non-GFR determinants of serum creatinine by race in the study populations used to develop the equation. In that study, blacks had a 16% higher average measured GFR compared with nonblacks with the same age, sex, and serum creatinine. The reasons for this difference are only partly understood, and the use of race in GFR estimation has limitations. Some have proposed eliminating the race coefficient, but this would induce a systematic underestimation of measured GFR in blacks, with potential unintended consequences at the individual and population levels. We propose a more cautious approach that maintains and improves accuracy of GFR estimates and avoids disadvantaging any racial group. We suggest full disclosure of use of race in GFR estimation, accommodation of those who decline to identify their race, and shared decision making between health care providers and patients. We also suggest mindful use of cystatin C as a confirmatory test as well as clearance measurements. It would be preferable to avoid specification of race in GFR estimation if there was a superior, evidence-based substitute. The goal of future research should be to develop more accurate methods for GFR estimation that do not require use of race or other demographic characteristics.

2.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 69, 2020 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385586

RESUMO

Bisphosphonates are the most common treatment for osteoporosis but there are concerns regarding its use in CKD. We evaluated the frequency of BSP by eGFR categories among patients with osteoporosis from two healthcare systems. Our results show that 56% of patients were treated, with reduced odds in those with lower eGFR. INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Bisphosphonates (BSP) are the most common treatment but there are concerns regarding its efficacy and toxicity in CKD. We evaluated the frequency of BSP use by level of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with osteoporosis. METHODS: We assessed BSP use in patients with incident osteoporosis from the SCREAM-Cohort, Stockholm-Sweden, and Geisinger Healthcare, PA, USA. Osteoporosis was defined as the first encountered ICD diagnosis, and BSP use was defined as the dispensation or prescription of any BSP from 6 months prior to 3 years after the diagnosis. Multinomial logistic regression was used to account for the competing risk of death. RESULTS: A total of 15,719 women and 3011 men in SCREAM and 17,325 women and 3568 men in Geisinger with incident osteoporosis were included. Overall, 56% of individuals used BSP in both studies, with a higher proportion in women. After adjustments, the odds of BSP was lower across lower eGFR in SCREAM, ranging from 0.90 (0.81-0.99) for eGFR 75-89 mL/min/1.73m2 to 0.56 (0.46-0.68) for eGFR 30-44 mL/min/1.73m2 in women and from 0.72 (0.54-0.97) for eGFR of 60-74 to 0.42 (0.25-0.70) for eGFR 30-44 mL/min/1.73m2 in men. In Geisinger, odds were lower for eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73m2 in both sexes and the frequency of BSP use dropped over time. CONCLUSION: In the two healthcare systems, approximately half of the people diagnosed with osteoporosis received BSP. Practices of prescription in relation to eGFR varied, but those with lower eGFR were less likely to receive BSP.

4.
Kidney Int ; 97(6): 1117-1129, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409237

RESUMO

The worldwide burden of kidney disease is rising, but public awareness remains limited, underscoring the need for more effective communication by stakeholders in the kidney health community. Despite this need for clarity, the nomenclature for describing kidney function and disease lacks uniformity. In June 2019, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) convened a Consensus Conference with the goal of standardizing and refining the nomenclature used in the English language to describe kidney function and disease, and of developing a glossary that could be used in scientific publications. Guiding principles of the conference were that the revised nomenclature should be patient-centered, precise, and consistent with nomenclature used in the KDIGO guidelines. Conference attendees reached general consensus on the following recommendations: (i) to use "kidney" rather than "renal" or "nephro-" when referring to kidney disease and kidney function; (ii) to use "kidney failure" with appropriate descriptions of presence or absence of symptoms, signs, and treatment, rather than "end-stage kidney disease"; (iii) to use the KDIGO definition and classification of acute kidney diseases and disorders (AKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI), rather than alternative descriptions, to define and classify severity of AKD and AKI; (iv) to use the KDIGO definition and classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) rather than alternative descriptions to define and classify severity of CKD; and (v) to use specific kidney measures, such as albuminuria or decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), rather than "abnormal" or "reduced" kidney function to describe alterations in kidney structure and function. A proposed 5-part glossary contains specific items for which there was general agreement. Conference attendees acknowledged limitations of the recommendations and glossary, but they considered standardization of scientific nomenclature to be essential for improving communication.

5.
Transpl Int ; 2020 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337774

RESUMO

A primary obligation of medical journals is the responsible, professional, and expeditious delivery of knowledge from researchers and practitioners to the wider community.1 The task of journal editors, therefore, rests not merely in selecting what to publish, but in large measure judging how it might best be communicated. The challenge of improving descriptions of kidney function and disease in medical publishing was the impetus for a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Consensus Conference held in June 2019. The conference goals included standardizing and refining kidney-related nomenclature used in English-language scientific articles and developing a glossary that could be used by journals.2.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276946

RESUMO

The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2017 "Clinical Practice Guideline on the Evaluation and Care of Living Kidney Donors" was developed to assist medical professionals who evaluate living kidney donor candidates and provide care before, during, and after donation. This guideline Work Group concluded that a comprehensive approach to donor candidate risk assessment should replace eligibility decisions on the basis of assessments of single risk factors in isolation. To address all issues important to living donors in a pragmatic and comprehensive guideline, many of the guideline recommendations were on the basis of expert consensus opinion even when no direct evidence was available. To advance available evidence, original data analyses were also undertaken to produce a "proof-of-concept" risk projection model for kidney failure. This was done to illustrate how the community can advance a new quantitative framework of risk that considers each candidate's profile of demographic and health characteristics. A public review by stakeholders and subject matter experts as well as industry and professional organizations informed the final formulation of the guideline. This review highlights the guideline framework, key concepts, and recommendations, and uses five patient scenarios and 12 guideline statements to illustrate how the guideline can be applied to support living donor evaluation and care in clinical practice.

9.
Perit Dial Int ; 40(1): 84-92, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis guidelines recommend to routinely monitor the total measured clearance (mCl) of small solutes such as creatinine; however, collection of 24-h urine and peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluid is burdensome to patients and prone to errors. We hypothesized that equations could be developed to estimate mCl (estimated clearance (eCl)) using endogenous filtration markers. METHODS: In the Guangzhou PD Study (n = 980), we developed eCl equations using linear regression in two-third and validated them in the remaining one-third. Reference tests were mCl for urea nitrogen (UN) (mClUN, ml/min) and average mCl for UN and creatinine (mClUN-cr, ml/min/1.73 m2). Index tests were various eCl equations using UN, creatinine, low-molecular-weight proteins (LMWPs) (beta-trace protein (BTP), beta-2 microglobulin (B2M), and cystatin C), demographic variables, and body size. After reexpression of the equations in the combined data set, we analyzed accuracy (eCl within ± 2.0 units of mCl) and the predictive value of eCl to detect a weekly total standard Kt/V (weekly mClUN indexed for total body water) > 1.7 using receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: Mean age of the cohort was 50 ± 15 years, 53% were male; mClUN was 6.9 ± 1.8 and mClUN-cr was 7.5 ± 2.8. Creatinine but not UN contributed to eCl for both mCl. LMWP did not improve accuracy for mClUN (range 88-89%). BTP and B2M improved the accuracy for mClUN-cr (82% vs. 80%); however, differences were small. The area under the curve for predicting a weekly Kt/V > 1.7 was similar for all equations (range 0.79-0.80). CONCLUSIONS: Total small solute clearance can be estimated moderately well in continuous ambulatory PD patients using serum creatinine and demographic variables without urine and dialysate collection.

11.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 75(1): 84-104, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473020

RESUMO

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) are currently willing to consider a 30% to 40% glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline as a surrogate end point for kidney failure for clinical trials of kidney disease progression under appropriate conditions. However, these end points may not be practical for early stages of kidney disease. In March 2018, the National Kidney Foundation sponsored a scientific workshop in collaboration with the FDA and EMA to evaluate changes in albuminuria or GFR as candidate surrogate end points. Three parallel efforts were presented: meta-analyses of observational studies (cohorts), meta-analyses of clinical trials, and simulations of trial design. In cohorts, after accounting for measurement error, relationships between change in urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) or estimated GFR (eGFR) slope and the clinical outcome of kidney disease progression were strong and consistent. In trials, the posterior median R2 of treatment effects on the candidate surrogates with the clinical outcome was 0.47 (95% Bayesian credible interval [BCI], 0.02-0.96) for early change in UACR and 0.72 (95% BCI, 0.05-0.99) when restricted to baseline UACR>30mg/g, and 0.97 (95% BCI, 0.78-1.00) for total eGFR slope at 3 years and 0.96 (95% BCI, 0.63-1.00) for chronic eGFR slope (ie, the slope excluding the first 3 months from baseline, when there might be acute changes in eGFR). The magnitude of the relationships of changes in the candidate surrogates with risk for clinical outcome was consistent across cohorts and trials: a UACR reduction of 30% or eGFR slope reduction by 0.5 to 1.0mL/min/1.73m2 per year were associated with an HR of ∼0.7 for the clinical outcome in cohorts and trials. In simulations, using GFR slope as an end point substantially reduced the required sample size and duration of follow-up compared with the clinical end point when baseline eGFR was high, treatment effects were uniform, and there was no acute effect of the treatment. We conclude that both early change in albuminuria and GFR slope fulfill criteria for surrogacy for use as end points in clinical trials for chronic kidney disease progression under certain conditions, with stronger support for change in GFR than albuminuria. Implementation requires understanding conditions under which each surrogate is likely to perform well and restricting its use to those settings.

12.
J Urol ; 203(3): 475-485, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063051

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We sought to provide a contemporary understanding of chronic kidney disease and its relevance to kidney cancer surgery. Another purpose was to resolve points of discrepancy regarding the survival benefits of partial vs radical nephrectomy by critically evaluating the results of prospective and retrospective studies in the urological literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a comprehensive literature search for relevant articles listed in MEDLINE® from 2002 to 2018 using the key words radical nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy, glomerular filtration rate, kidney function and chronic kidney disease. We also assessed select review articles and society guidelines about chronic kidney disease pertinent to urology and nephrology. RESULTS: Complete evaluation of the potential consequences of chronic kidney disease involves assessment of the cause, the glomerular filtration rate level and the degree of albuminuria. Chronic kidney disease is commonly defined in the urological literature solely as a glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/minute/1.73 m2. This ignores the significance of the cause of chronic kidney disease, and the presence and degree of albuminuria. Although this glomerular filtration rate is relevant for preoperative assessment of patients who undergo surgery of kidney tumors, recent studies suggest that a glomerular filtration rate less than 45 ml/minute/1.73 m2 represents a more discerning postoperative prognostic threshold. Reported survival benefits of partial over radical nephrectomy in retrospective studies were likely influenced by selection bias. The lack of survival benefit in the partial nephrectomy cohort in the only randomized trial of partial vs radical nephrectomy was consistent with data demonstrating that patients in each study arm were at relatively low risk for mortality due to chronic kidney disease when accounting for the chronic kidney disease etiology and the postoperative glomerular filtration rate. CONCLUSIONS: The prognostic risk of chronic kidney disease in patients with kidney cancer is increased when the preoperative glomerular filtration rate is less than 60 ml/minute/1.73 m2 or the postoperative rate is less than 45 ml/minute/1.73 m2. Additional factors, including nonsurgical causes of chronic kidney disease and the degree of albuminuria, can also dramatically alter the consequences of chronic kidney disease after kidney cancer surgery. Urologists must have a comprehensive knowledge of chronic kidney disease to assess the risks and benefits of partial vs radical nephrectomy when managing tumors with increased complexity and/or oncologic aggressiveness.

13.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 16(1): 51-64, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527790

RESUMO

Evaluation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is central to the assessment of kidney function in medical practice, research and public health. Measured GFR (mGFR) remains the reference standard, but the past 20 years have seen major advances in estimated GFR (eGFR). Both eGFR and mGFR are associated with error compared with true GFR. eGFR is now recommended by clinical practice guidelines, regulatory agencies and public health agencies for the initial evaluation of GFR, with measured GFR (mGFR) typically considered an important confirmatory test, depending on how accurate the assessment of GFR needs to be for application to the clinical, research or public health setting. Our approach is to use initial and confirmatory tests as needed to develop a final assessment of true GFR. We suggest that GFR evaluation might be improved by more complete implementation of current recommendations and by further research to improve the accuracy of mGFR and eGFR.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Creatinina/metabolismo , Cistatina C/metabolismo , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo
14.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879216

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation based on creatinine or cystatin C level is currently the standard method for assessing GFR in epidemiologic research and clinical trials despite several important and well-known limitations. Plasma iohexol clearance has been proposed as an inexpensive method for measuring GFR that could replace estimated GFR in many research projects. However, lack of standardization for iohexol assays and the use of different protocols such as single- and multiple-sample methods could potentially hamper comparisons across studies. We compared iohexol assays and GFR measurement protocols in 3 population-based European cohorts. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional investigation. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Participants in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Kidney Study (AGES-Kidney; n=805), the Berlin Initiative Study (BIS, n=570), and the Renal Iohexol Clearance Survey Follow-up Study (RENIS-FU; n=1,324). TESTS COMPARED: High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of iohexol. Plasma iohexol clearance calculated using single- versus multiple-sample protocols. OUTCOMES: Measures of agreement between methods. RESULTS: Frozen samples from the 3 studies were obtained and iohexol concentrations were remeasured in the laboratory at the University Hospital of North Norway. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient ρ was>0.96 and Cb (accuracy) was>0.99 for remeasured versus original serum iohexol concentrations in all 3 cohorts, and Passing-Bablok regression did not find differences between measurements, except for a slope of 1.025 (95% CI, 1.006-1.046) for the log-transformed AGES-Kidney measurements. The multiple-sample iohexol clearance measurements in AGES-Kidney and BIS were compared with single-sample GFRs derived from the same iohexol measurements. Mean bias for multiple-sample relative to single-sample GFRs in AGES-Kidney and BIS were-0.25 and-0.15mL/min, and 99% and 97% of absolute differences were within 10% of the multiple-sample result, respectively. LIMITATIONS: Lack of comparison with an independent gold-standard method. CONCLUSIONS: Agreement between the iohexol assays and clearance protocols in the 3 investigated cohorts was substantial. Our findings indicate that plasma iohexol clearance measurements can be compared across these studies.

15.
Metabolomics ; 15(12): 149, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720858

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health challenge given its high global prevalence and associated risks of cardiovascular disease and progression to end stage renal disease. Although it is known that numerous metabolic changes occur in CKD patients, identifying novel metabolite associations with kidney function may enhance our understanding of the physiologic pathways relating to CKD. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to elucidate novel metabolite associations with kidney function among participants of two community-based cohorts with carefully ascertained metabolomics, kidney function, and covariate data. METHODS: Untargeted ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to detect and quantify blood metabolites. We used multivariate adjusted linear regression to examine associations between single metabolites and creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcr) among 1243 Bogalusa Heart Study (BHS) participants (median eGFRcr: 94.4, 5th-95th percentile: 66.0-119.6 mL/min/1.73 m2). Replication, determined by statistical significance and consistent effect direction, was tested using gold standard measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) among 260 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants (median mGFR: 72.0, 5th-95th percentile: 43.5-105.0 mL/min/1.73 m2). All analyses used Bonferroni-corrected alpha thresholds. RESULTS: Fifty-one novel metabolite associations with kidney function were identified, including 12 from previously unrelated sub-pathways: N6-carboxymethyllysine, gulonate, quinolinate, gamma-CEHC-glucuronide, retinol, methylmalonate, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarate, 3-aminoisobutyrate, N-methylpipecolate, hydroquinone sulfate, and glycine conjugates of C10H12O2 and C10H14O2(1). Significant metabolites were generally inversely associated with kidney function and smaller in mass-to-charge ratio than non-significant metabolites. CONCLUSION: The 51 novel metabolites identified may serve as early, clinically relevant, kidney function biomarkers.

17.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(9): 1735-1745, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surrogate end points are needed to assess whether treatments are effective in the early stages of CKD. GFR decline leads to kidney failure, but regulators have not approved using differences in the change in GFR from the beginning to the end of a randomized, controlled trial as an end point in CKD because it is not clear whether small changes in the GFR slope will translate to clinical benefits. METHODS: To assess the use of GFR slope as a surrogate end point for CKD progression, we performed a meta-analysis of 47 RCTs that tested 12 interventions in 60,620 subjects. We estimated treatment effects on GFR slope (mean difference in GFR slope between the randomized groups), for the total slope starting at baseline, chronic slope starting at 3 months after randomization, and on the clinical end point (doubling of serum creatinine, GFR<15 ml/min per 1.73 m2, or ESKD) for each study. We used Bayesian mixed-effects analyses to describe the association of treatment effects on GFR slope with the clinical end point and to test how well the GFR slope predicts a treatment's effect on the clinical end point. RESULTS: Across all studies, the treatment effect on 3-year total GFR slope (median R 2=0.97; 95% Bayesian credible interval [BCI], 0.78 to 1.00) and on the chronic slope (R 2 0.96; 95% BCI, 0.63 to 1.00) accurately predicted treatment effects on the clinical end point. With a sufficient sample size, a treatment effect of 0.75 ml/min per 1.73 m2/yr or greater on total slope over 3 years or chronic slope predicts a clinical benefit on CKD progress with at least 96% probability. CONCLUSIONS: With large enough sample sizes, GFR slope may be a viable surrogate for clinical end points in CKD RCTs.

18.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(9): 1756-1769, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized trials of CKD treatments traditionally use clinical events late in CKD progression as end points. This requires costly studies with large sample sizes and long follow-up. Surrogate end points like GFR slope may speed up the evaluation of new therapies by enabling smaller studies with shorter follow-up. METHODS: We used statistical simulations to identify trial situations where GFR slope provides increased statistical power compared with the clinical end point of doubling of serum creatinine or kidney failure. We simulated GFR trajectories based on data from 47 randomized treatment comparisons. We evaluated the sample size required for adequate statistical power based on GFR slopes calculated from baseline and from 3 months follow-up. RESULTS: In most scenarios where the treatment has no acute effect, analyses of GFR slope provided similar or improved statistical power compared with the clinical end point, often allowing investigators to shorten follow-up by at least half while simultaneously reducing sample size. When patients' GFRs are higher, the power advantages of GFR slope increase. However, acute treatment effects within several months of randomization can increase the risk of false conclusions about therapies based on GFR slope. Care is needed in study design and analysis to avoid such false conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Use of GFR slope can substantially increase statistical power compared with the clinical end point, particularly when baseline GFR is high and there is no acute effect. The optimum GFR-based end point depends on multiple factors including the rate of GFR decline, type of treatment effect and study design.

19.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(9): 1746-1755, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decline in eGFR is a biologically plausible surrogate end point for the progression of CKD in clinical trials. However, it must first be tested to ensure strong associations with clinical outcomes in diverse populations, including patients with higher eGFR. METHODS: To investigate the association between 1-, 2-, and 3-year changes in eGFR (slope) with clinical outcomes over the long term, we conducted a random effects meta-analysis of 3,758,551 participants with baseline eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and 122,664 participants with eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 from 14 cohorts followed for an average of 4.2 years. RESULTS: Slower eGFR decline by 0.75 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year over 2 years was associated with lower risk of ESKD in participants with baseline eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.72) and eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (0.71; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.74). The relationship was stronger with 3-year slope. For a rapidly progressing population with predicted 5-year risk of ESKD of 8.3%, an intervention that reduced eGFR decline by 0.75 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year over 2 years would reduce the ESKD risk by 1.6%. For a hypothetical low-risk population with a predicted 5-year ESKD risk of 0.58%, the same intervention would reduce the risk by only 0.13%. CONCLUSIONS: Slower decline in eGFR was associated with lower risk of subsequent ESKD, even in participants with eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, but those with the highest risk would be expected to benefit the most.

20.
Kidney Int ; 96(2): 280-282, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331467

RESUMO

All methods used to measure and estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are associated with systematic or random error, which leads to differences in measured GFR (mGFR) and estimated GFR (eGFR) from "true GFR." In this issue of Kidney International, Rowe et al. evaluate time-to-time variability using repeated assessments of mGFR and eGFR within a short time frame. They show that biological variability is larger for mGFR than eGFR, and the magnitude of reference change values when interpreting changes in mGFR and eGFR.

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