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1.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470692

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recent trends in male breast cancer have been inadequately studied. We updated mortality trends in selected countries and regions worldwide using most recent available data and we predicted figures for 2020. METHODS: We extracted official death certification data for male breast cancer and population estimates from the WHO and the Pan American Health Organization databases, from 2000 to 2017. We computed age-standardized (world population) death rates for selected countries and regions worldwide. We used joinpoint regression analysis to identify significant changes in trends and to predict death numbers and rates for 2020. RESULTS: In 2015-2017, Central-Eastern Europe had a rate of 2.85/1 000 000, and Russia of 2.22, ranking among the highest. North-Western and Southern Europe, the European Union as a whole and the USA showed rates ranging between 1.5 and 2.0. Lower rates were observed in most Latin American countries, with values below 1.35/1 000 000, in Australia, 1.22, and Japan, 0.58. Between 2000-2004 and 2015-2017, age-adjusted death rates decreased between 10 and 40% in North-Western Europe, Russia, and the USA, and between 1.5 and 25% in the other areas under study, except Latin America (+0.8%). Except for Central-Eastern Europe, predicted rates for 2020 were favourable. CONCLUSION: Advancements in management are likely the main drivers of the favourable trends in male breast cancer death rates over the last decades. Delayed diagnosis and limited access to effective care explain the higher mortality in some areas.

3.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 30(1): 1-14, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Predicted cancer mortality figures are useful for public health planning. We predicted cancer mortality rates in Israel, Hong Kong, Japan, the Philippines, Korea, Australia, Russia and Ukraine for the year 2020 using the most recent available data. We focused on breast cancer. METHODS: We obtained cancer death certification and population data from the WHO and the United Nations Population Division databases. We derived figures for 10 major cancer sites and total cancers over 1970-2017. We predicted numbers of deaths and age-standardized mortality rates for 2020 through joinpoint regression models. We calculated the number of avoided deaths from 1994-2020. RESULTS: Overall, total cancer mortality is predicted to decline. Russia had the highest all cancers rates in 2020, 151.9/100 000 men and 79.6 women; the Philippines had the lowest rate in men, 78.0/100 000, Korea in women, 47.5. Stomach cancer rates declined over the whole period in all countries considered, colorectal cancer since the late 1990s. Trends for pancreas were inconsistent. Predicted rates for lung and breast cancer were favourable; women from Hong Kong, Korea and Australia had lung cancer death rates higher than breast ones. Predicted rates for uterine, ovarian, prostate and bladder cancers and leukaemias were downward for most countries. Between 1994 and 2020, over 3.3 million cancer deaths were avoided in the considered countries, except for the Philippines where no reduction was observed. CONCLUSION: Predicted cancer rates were lower than in the European Union and the USA, even though falls started later and were less marked.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The considerable differences in food consumption across countries pose major challenges to the research on diet and cancer, due to the difficulty to generalise and reproduce the dietary patterns identified in a specific population. METHODS: We analysed data from a multicentric case-control study on oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) carried out between 1992 and 2009 in three Italian areas and in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland, which included 505 cases and 1259 hospital controls. Dietary patterns were derived applying LCA on 24 food groups, controlling for country membership, and non-alcoholic energy intake. A multiple logistic regression model was used to derive odds ratio (ORs) and corresponding 95% CIs for ESCC according to the dietary patterns identified, correcting for classification error. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We identified three dietary patterns. The 'Prudent' pattern was distinguished by a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. The 'Western' pattern was characterised by low consumption of these food groups and higher intakes of sugar. The 'Lower consumers-combination pattern' exhibited a diet poor in most of the nutrients, preferences for fish, potatoes, meat and a few specific types of vegetables. Differences between Italy and Switzerland emerged for pattern sizes and for specific single food preferences. Compared to the 'Prudent' pattern, the 'Western' and the 'Lower consumers-combination' patterns were associated with an increased risk of ESCC (OR=3.04, 95% CI=2.12-4.38 and OR=2.81, 95% CI=1.65-4.76).

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105052

RESUMO

A full-term pregnancy is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk; however, whether the effect of additional pregnancies is independent of age at last pregnancy is unknown. The associations between other pregnancy-related factors and endometrial cancer risk are less clear. We pooled individual participant data from 11 cohort and 19 case-control studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) including 16 986 women with endometrial cancer and 39 538 control women. We used one- and two-stage meta-analytic approaches to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between exposures and endometrial cancer risk. Ever having a full-term pregnancy was associated with a 41% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared to never having a full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.63). The risk reduction appeared the greatest for the first full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), with a further ~15% reduction per pregnancy up to eight pregnancies (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.28) that was independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. Incomplete pregnancy was also associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (7%-9% reduction per pregnancy). Twin births appeared to have the same effect as singleton pregnancies. Our pooled analysis shows that, while the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater for a full-term pregnancy than an incomplete pregnancy, each additional pregnancy is associated with further reduction in endometrial cancer risk, independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the very high progesterone level in the last trimester of pregnancy is not the sole explanation for the protective effect of pregnancy.

6.
Br J Cancer ; 123(9): 1456-1463, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a well-established risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). This study aims to explore the effect of alcohol intensity and duration, as joint continuous exposures, on HNC risk. METHODS: Data from 26 case-control studies in the INHANCE Consortium were used, including never and current drinkers who drunk ≤10 drinks/day for ≤54 years (24234 controls, 4085 oral cavity, 3359 oropharyngeal, 983 hypopharyngeal and 3340 laryngeal cancers). The dose-response relationship between the risk and the joint exposure to drinking intensity and duration was investigated through bivariate regression spline models, adjusting for potential confounders, including tobacco smoking. RESULTS: For all subsites, cancer risk steeply increased with increasing drinks/day, with no appreciable threshold effect at lower intensities. For each intensity level, the risk of oral cavity, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers did not vary according to years of drinking, suggesting no effect of duration. For oropharyngeal cancer, the risk increased with durations up to 28 years, flattening thereafter. The risk peaked at the higher levels of intensity and duration for all subsites (odds ratio = 7.95 for oral cavity, 12.86 for oropharynx, 24.96 for hypopharynx and 6.60 for larynx). CONCLUSIONS: Present results further encourage the reduction of alcohol intensity to mitigate HNC risk.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To illustrate trends in sex ratios in epithelial cancer mortality in the EU, USA, and Japan, with a focus on age-specific and cohort patterns. METHODS: We obtained certified deaths and resident populations from the World Health Organisation for the period of 1970-2014 for the USA, Japan, and the EU for 12 epithelial cancer sites. From these, we calculated both the age-specific and age-standardised male-to-female mortality sex ratios. We applied an age-period-cohort model to the sex ratios in order to disentangle the effects of age, period of death, and birth cohort. RESULTS: Age-standardised mortality sex ratios were found to be unfavourable to males, apart from thyroid cancer. The highest standardised rates were in laryngeal cancer: 7·7 in the 1970s in the USA, 17·4 in the 1980s in the EU, and 16·8 in the 2000s in Japan. Cohort patterns likely to be due to excess smoking (1890 cohort) and drinking (1940 cohort) in men were identified in the USA, and were present but less defined in the EU and Japan for the oral cavity, oesophagus, liver, pancreas, larynx, lung, bladder, and kidney. CONCLUSION: Mortality sex ratio patterns are partly explained by the differences in exposure to known and avoidable risk factors. These are mostly tobacco, alcohol, and obesity/overweight, as well as other lifestyle-related factors.


Assuntos
Razão de Masculinidade , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mortalidade , Neoplasias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 67: 101768, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593162

RESUMO

AIM: To monitor trends in childhood cancer mortality in Europe. METHODS: We calculated age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 children (age 0-14 years) from 1990 to the last available calendar year, for all neoplasms and six main cancers in childhood, in selected European countries and geographic areas, plus the European Union (EU), using data from the World Health Organization database. We carried out a joinpoint regression analysis of mortality trends for all neoplasms, leukaemia and tumours of the nervous system. Results of the joinpoint regression were summarized through annual percent change (APC) for each identified linear segment, and weighted average APC (AAPC) over the whole period. RESULTS: From 1990 to 2015, childhood total cancer mortality rates dropped by 2.8% per year in the EU, to reach 2.6/100,000 in the latest available calendar years. The greatest declines were in central-eastern countries (AAPCs -3% to -4%). Recent rates ranged between 1.7 and 4.3 deaths/100,000, with the highest values in central-eastern Europe. Leukaemia mortality rates in the EU decreased from 1.6 to 0.6/100,000 in the latest calendar years (AAPC -4%). The deepest declines were registered in central-eastern countries, though they still showed the highest rates (0.9). The lowest leukaemia mortality rates were in northern-western Europe (0.5/100,000), but also in the Czech Republic and Poland. Southern European countries showed comparatively high rates (0.8). Nervous system tumours showed relatively modest falls (AAPC: -1.7% in the EU). CONCLUSIONS: Childhood cancer mortality continued to decline steady in Europe, though geographic differences persist. Further efforts are required to fill the gap, by promoting widespread and rational adoption of currently available treatment protocols.

9.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110887

RESUMO

The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) introduced in 2007, and updated in 2018, nutrition-related recommendations for cancer prevention. Previous studies generally reported inverse associations of breast cancer with the 2007 recommendations, while no study has yet evaluated the association with the 2018 guidelines. We investigated the association between adherence to the 2018 WCRF/AICR recommendations and breast cancer risk in a case-control study from Italy and Switzerland (1991-2008) including 3034 incident histologically-confirmed breast cancer cases and 3392 hospital controls. Adherence to the 2018 guidelines was summarized through a score incorporating eight recommendations (body fatness, physical activity, consumption of wholegrains/vegetables/fruit/beans, "fast foods" and other processed foods high in fat, starches, or sugars, red/processed meat, sugar-sweetened drinks, alcohol, breastfeeding), with higher scores indicating higher adherence. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. We also conducted a meta-analysis including 15 additional studies using random-effects models. In our case-control study, adherence to the 2018 WCRF/AICR guidelines was inversely associated with breast cancer, with ORs of 0.60 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.51-0.70) for a score ≥5.5 vs. ≤4.25, and of 0.83 (95% CI, 0.79-0.88) for a 1-point increment. In our study, 25% of breast cancers were attributable to low-to-moderate guideline adherence. In the meta-analysis, the pooled relative risks (RRs) were 0.73 (95% CI, 0.65-0.82, p heterogeneity among studies< 0.001) for the highest vs. the lowest WCRF/AICR score category, and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.88-0.94, p heterogeneity < 0.001) for a 1-point increment. This work provides quantitative evidence that higher adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations reduces the risk of breast cancer, thus opening perspectives for prevention.

10.
Br J Cancer ; 122(6): 745-748, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929514

RESUMO

High dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) may increase cancer risk. However, limited information was available on GI and/or GL and head and neck cancer (HNC) risk. We conducted a pooled analysis on 8 case-control studies (4081 HNC cases; 7407 controls) from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of HNC, and its subsites, from fixed- or mixed-effects logistic models including centre-specific quartiles of GI or GL. GI, but not GL, had a weak positive association with HNC (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.02-1.31). In subsites, we found a positive association between GI and laryngeal cancer (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.30-1.96) and an inverse association between GL and oropharyngeal cancer (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.63-0.97). This pooled analysis indicates a modest positive association between GI and HNC, mainly driven by laryngeal cancer.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 147(3): 619-632, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637709

RESUMO

We estimated mortality figures for 2019 in seven Latin American countries, with focus on breast cancer. We retrieved cancer death certification and population data from the WHO and PAHO databases. We obtained mortality statistics for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico and Venezuela for 1970-2015. We predicted current death numbers and age-standardised (world population) mortality rates using joinpoint regression models. Total cancer mortality is predicted to decline in all countries and both sexes, except Argentinian women. Cuba had the highest all cancer rates for 2019, 136.9/100,000 men and 90.4 women, while Mexico showed the lowest ones, 63.8/100,000 men and 61.9 women. Stomach cancer showed favourable trends over the whole period, while colorectal cancer only recently. Lung cancer rates declined in men, while in women they decreased slightly over the most recent years, only. In Cuban women, lung cancer rates overtook breast cancer ones. Breast cancer showed overall favourable trends, but rates are rising in young women. Prostate and uterine cancer had favourable trends. Pancreas, ovary, bladder and leukaemias showed slightly decreasing trends. Between 1990 and 2019, mortality from all neoplasms is predicted to fall by about 18% in Argentina, 26% in Chile, 14% in Colombia, 17% in Mexico and 13% in Venezuela, corresponding to almost 0.5 million avoided cancer deaths. No decline was observed in Brazil and Cuba. Of concern, the persisting high rates of (cervix) uterus cancer, the high lung cancer rates in Cuba, the possible increases in breast cancer in young women, and the lack of overall declines in Brazil, Cuba and Venezuelan men.

12.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 63: 101615, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is a well-established risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). However, less is known about the potential impact of exposure to tobacco at an early age on HNC risk. METHODS: We analyzed individual-level data on ever tobacco smokers from 27 case-control studies (17,146 HNC cases and 17,449 controls) in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using random-effects logistic regression models. RESULTS: Without adjusting for tobacco packyears, we observed that younger age at starting tobacco use was associated with an increased HNC risk for ever smokers (OR<10 years vs. ≥30 years: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.35, 1.97). However, the observed association between age at starting tobacco use and HNC risk became null after adjusting for tobacco packyears (OR<10 years vs. ≥30 years: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.80, 1.19). In the stratified analyses on HNC subsites by tobacco packyears or years since quitting, no difference in the association between age at start and HNC risk was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this pooled analysis suggest that increased HNC risks observed with earlier age at starting tobacco smoking are largely due to longer duration and higher cumulative tobacco exposures.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etiologia , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
13.
Nutrients ; 10(3)2018 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29518016

RESUMO

The Mediterranean diet has been related to a reduced risk of several common cancers but its role on breast cancer has not been quantified yet. We investigated the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and breast cancer risk by means of a hospital-based case-control study conducted in Italy and Switzerland. 3034 breast cancer cases and 3392 controls admitted to the same network of hospitals for acute, non-neoplastic and non-gynaecologic diseases were studied. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was quantitatively measured through a Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), summarizing the major characteristics of the Mediterranean dietary pattern and ranging from 0 (lowest adherence) to 9 (highest adherence). We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) of breast cancer for the MDS using multiple logistic regression models, adjusting for several covariates. Compared to a MDS of 0-3, the ORs for breast cancer were 0.86 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.76-0.98) for a MDS of 4-5 and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.71-0.95) for a MDS of 6-9 (p for trend = 0.008). The exclusion of the ethanol component from the MDS did not materially modify the ORs (e.g., OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.70-0.95, for MDS ≥ 6). Results were similar in pre- and post-menopausal women. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with a reduced breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Dieta Mediterrânea , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Suíça/epidemiologia
14.
Cancer Med ; 6(8): 1998-2007, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28707400

RESUMO

Due to lower female incidence, estimates of exogenous and endogenous hormonal factors in head and neck cancers (HNCs, comprising cancers of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx) among women have been inconsistent and unable to account for key HNC risk factors. We pooled data from 11 studies from Europe, North America, and Japan. Analysis included 1572 HNC female cases and 4343 controls. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) estimates and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression models adjusting for tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. Lower risk was observed in women who used hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (OR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.34-0.77). Pregnancy (OR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.42-0.90) and giving birth (OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.38-0.90) at <35 years of age were inversely associated with HNCs. An inverse association with HNC was observed with age at start of HRT use (OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.39-0.90) for each additional 10 years and with duration of use (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76-0.99 for every 3 years). Exogenous female hormone use is associated with a nearly twofold risk reduction in female HNCs. The lower female HNC incidence may, in part, be explained by endogenous and exogenous estrogen exposures.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etiologia , Hormônios/metabolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Hormônios/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Menopausa , Ciclo Menstrual , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , História Reprodutiva , Risco , Fumar
15.
Int J Cancer ; 141(9): 1811-1821, 2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28710831

RESUMO

The possible role of dietary fiber in the etiology of head neck cancers (HNCs) is unclear. We used individual-level pooled data from ten case-control studies (5959 cases and 12,248 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium, to examine the association between fiber intake and cancer of the oral cavity/pharynx and larynx. Odds Ratios (ORs) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression applied to quintile categories of non-alcohol energy-adjusted fiber intake and adjusted for tobacco and alcohol use and other known or putative confounders. Fiber intake was inversely associated with oral and pharyngeal cancer combined (OR for 5th vs. 1st quintile category = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.40-0.59; p for trend <0.001) and with laryngeal cancer (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.54-0.82, p for trend <0.001). There was, however, appreciable heterogeneity of the estimated effect across studies for oral and pharyngeal cancer combined. Nonetheless, inverse associations were consistently observed for the subsites of oral and pharyngeal cancers and within most strata of the considered covariates, for both cancer sites. Our findings from a multicenter large-scale pooled analysis suggest that, although in the presence of between-study heterogeneity, a greater intake of fiber may lower HNC risk.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/dietoterapia , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/dietoterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Laríngeas/dietoterapia , Neoplasias Laríngeas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Faríngeas/dietoterapia , Neoplasias Faríngeas/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Tabaco/efeitos adversos
16.
Am J Cardiol ; 119(6): 862-871, 2017 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28139222

RESUMO

Until the past century, mortality trends from coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) were less favorable in Latin than in North America. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates using data from the World Health Organization database over the period 1980 to 2013. To identify significant changes in trends, we performed joinpoint analysis. Since the early 2000's, CHD mortality rates decreased by about 35% in the USA and Canada in both genders; similar decreases were observed in some Latin American countries (i.e., Ecuador, Puerto Rico, and Chile), whereas the decreases were smaller in the other countries. In 2011 to 2013, the highest rates were in Venezuela (114.4/100,000 men) and Colombia (86.1/100,000 men) and the lowest ones (apart from Ecuador) in Panama, Chile, and Argentina (from 41 to 46/100,000 men and 18 to 19/100,000 women). For CVD mortality, a decrease by about 30% was observed in Argentina, Panama, and Uruguay plus Colombia for women, in addition to the USA and Canada. Smaller declines were observed in the other Latin American countries (from 23% in Colombian men to 5% in Venezuelan men). Throughout the period, rates in Latin America remained appreciably higher than those in North America. The highest CVD rates were observed in Brazil (51.6/100,000 men) and the lowest ones in Canada (12.9/100,000 women). In conclusion, trends in CHD and CVD mortality continue to be less favorable in Latin America than in Canada and the USA. The marked excess of CVD mortality is partly or largely attributable to inadequate control of dyslipidemia and hypertension.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidade , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , América do Sul/epidemiologia
17.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 26(5): 411-417, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27749495

RESUMO

Switzerland, particularly its western region, has the highest incidence of melanoma in Europe. Although the risk of melanoma increases with sun overexposure during childhood, sun-related knowledge and attitudes of Swiss children are scarcely documented. We report the first investigation of the knowledge of the danger of ultraviolet radiation, attitudes towards a suntan and parental influence of schoolchildren in western Switzerland. All fifth, eighth and eleventh graders (average ages of 9, 12 and 15, respectively) in the 18 primary (fifth grade, n=431) and secondary (eighth and eleventh grades, n=837) public schools of La Chaux-de-Fonds were surveyed during regular school classes. The response rate was 91% (1154/1268). Sun-related knowledge was high overall. Eight out of 10 children knew about the risk of skin cancer and recognized the most susceptible phototype. Knowledge increased significantly with age. Girls, older children, fair-skinned participants and those who preferred a tanned skin obtained the highest knowledge score. The main source of information on ultraviolet radiation and sun protection was their parents (76%), followed by the school (11%) and the media (9%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified higher sun-related knowledge, lower familial socioprofessional status and skin phototypes III-IV to be associated with a tan-seeking attitude. Parental sensitization (56%) and encouragement (61%) towards sun protection were more common among fair-skinned children and those of higher familial socioprofessional status. The high awareness of the risk of skin cancer among Swiss schoolchildren does not translate into appropriate attitudes. Community-wide intervention programmes involving parents, teachers, peers and primary care clinicians could be considered for Swiss prevention campaigns to improve children's sun behaviour and change their current pro-tan attitude.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Roupa de Proteção , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Pigmentação da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Banho de Sol/psicologia , Banho de Sol/tendências , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça/epidemiologia
18.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 146: w14370, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27878788

RESUMO

AIMS OF THE STUDY: Although solar overexposure during childhood and adolescence increases the risk of melanoma, determinants of sunburn and sun protective behaviours of Swiss children have scarcely been explored. We investigated sunburn occurrence and sun protective behaviours of schoolchildren in western Switzerland, the region with the highest incidence of melanoma in Europe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Self-reported questionnaires were administered during regular classes to pupils in 5th (primary school, n = 431), 8th and 11th grades (secondary school, n = 837) in the 18 public schools of La Chaux-de-Fonds. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess predictors of sunburns and of three sun protective behaviours (sunscreen, shade, wear of covering clothes). RESULTS: Response rate was 91%. Sunburn prevalence over the preceding year was high (60% at least one sunburn, 30% at least two, 43% at least one severe sunburn). Younger age, fair skin, regular sunscreen use, higher sun-related knowledge and preference for a tanned skin were predictors of sunburn. Sunscreen was the most used protective measure (69%), followed by seeking shade (33%) and wearing long-sleeved shirts (32%). Decline in all protective measures was observed in older pupils and those with pro-tan attitudes. The wear of covering clothes was significantly associated with sunscreen use and seeking shade. Parental encouragement favoured sunscreen use and wearing of protective clothes. CONCLUSIONS: Sunscreen use as a last protective barrier against ultraviolet radiation should be better emphasised in prevention campaigns targeting children and adolescents. Multi-faceted interventions, including role models, parents and peers should help to improve children's sun protective behaviours.


Assuntos
Roupa de Proteção , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Queimadura Solar/epidemiologia , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Melanoma/terapia , Pais/educação , Prevalência , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
19.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 31(4): 385-93, 2016 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25855002

RESUMO

The synergistic effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the risk of head and neck cancers has been mainly investigated as a cross-product of categorical exposure, thus leading to loss of information. We propose a bi-dimensional logistic spline model to investigate the interacting dose-response relationship of two continuous exposures (i.e., ethanol intake and tobacco smoking) on the risk of head and neck cancers, representing results through three-dimensional graphs. This model was applied to a pool of hospital-based case-control studies on head and neck cancers conducted in Italy and in the Vaud Swiss Canton between 1982 and 2000, including 1569 cases and 3147 controls. Among never drinkers and for all levels of ethanol intake, the risk of head and neck cancers steeply increased with increasing smoking intensity, starting from 1 cigarette/day. The risk associated to ethanol intake increased with incrementing exposure among smokers, and a threshold effect at approximately 50 g/day emerged among never smokers. Compared to abstainers from both tobacco and alcohol consumption, the combined exposure to ethanol and/or cigarettes led to a steep increase of cancer risk up to a 35-fold higher risk (95 % confidence interval 27.30-43.61) among people consuming 84 g/day of ethanol and 10 cigarettes/day. The highest risk was observed at the highest levels of alcohol and tobacco consumption. Our findings confirmed a combined effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on head and neck cancers risk, providing evidence that bi-dimensional spline models could be a feasible and flexible method to explore the pattern of risks associated to two interacting continuous-exposure variables.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/induzido quimicamente , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Razão de Chances , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Suíça/epidemiologia
20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 45(3): 835-45, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26228584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). To our knowledge, low cigarette smoking (<10 cigarettes per day) has not been extensively investigated in fine categories or among never alcohol drinkers. METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of individual participant data from 23 independent case-control studies including 19 660 HNC cases and 25 566 controls. After exclusion of subjects using other tobacco products including cigars, pipes, snuffed or chewed tobacco and straw cigarettes (tobacco product used in Brazil), as well as subjects smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day, 4093 HNC cases and 13 416 controls were included in the analysis. The lifetime average frequency of cigarette consumption was categorized as follows: never cigarette users, >0-3, >3-5, >5-10 cigarettes per day. RESULTS: Smoking >0-3 cigarettes per day was associated with a 50% increased risk of HNC in the study population [odds ratio (OR) = 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.21, 1.90). Smoking >3-5 cigarettes per day was associated in each subgroup from OR = 2.01 (95% CI: 1.22, 3.31) among never alcohol drinkers to OR = 2.74 (95% CI: 2.01, 3.74) among women and in each cancer site, particularly laryngeal cancer (OR = 3.48, 95% CI: 2.40, 5.05). However, the observed increased risk of HNC for low smoking frequency was not found among smokers with smoking duration shorter than 20 years. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a public health message that low frequency of cigarette consumption contributes to the development of HNC. However, smoking duration seems to play at least an equal or a stronger role in the development of HNC.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco
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