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1.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724626

RESUMO

In 2016, diarrheal disease was the eighth leading cause of mortality globally accounting for over 1.6 million deaths with the majority of deaths in adults and children over 5 years. This study aims to investigate the clinical, sociodemographic, and environmental risk factors associated with common bacterial acute diarrhea among adults and children over 5. Data were collected from March 2019 to March 2020 in patients over 5 years presenting with acute gastroenteritis at icddr,b. Stool samples were collected from each patient for culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Bivariate associations between independent variables and stool-testing indicating bacterial etiology were calculated. This analysis included 2,133 diarrheal patients of whom a bacterial enteropathogen was identified in 1,537 (72%). Detection of bacteria was associated with: younger age (OR 0.92; 95% CI: 0.88-0.96), lower mean arterial pressure (OR 0.84; 95% CI: 0.79-0.89), heart rate (OR 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01-1.10), percentage dehydration (OR 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13-1.55), respiration rate (OR 1.23; 95% CI: 1.04-1.46), lower mid-upper arm circumference (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94-0.99), confused/lethargic mental status (OR 1.85; 95% CI: 1.11-3.25), rice watery stool (OR 1.92; 95% CI: 1.54-2.41), and vomiting more than three times in the past 24 hours (OR 1.30; 95% CI: 1.06-1.58). Higher monthly income (OR 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86-0.98), > 8 years of education (OR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63-1.00), and having more than five people living at home (OR 0.80; 95% CI: 0.66-0.98) were associated with lower odds of bacterial diarrhea. These findings may help guide the development of predictive tools to aid in identifying patients with bacterial diarrhea for timely and appropriate use of antibiotics.

2.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(6): 1374-1378, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787565

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Traumatic injuries disproportionately affect populations in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) where head injuries predominate. The Rwandan Ministry of Health (MOH) has dramatically improved access to emergency services by rebuilding its health infrastructure. The MOH has strengthened the nation's acute emergency response by renovating emergency departments (ED), developing the field of emergency medicine as a specialty, and establishing a prehospital care service: Service d'Aide Medicale Urgente (SAMU). Despite the prevalence of traumatic injury in LMIC and the evolving emergency service in Rwanda, data regarding head trauma epidemiology is lacking. METHODS: We conducted this retrospective cohort study at the University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (UTH-K) and used a linked prehospital database to investigate the demographics, mechanism, and degree of acute medical interventions amongst prehospital patients with head injury. RESULTS: Of the 2,426 patients transported by SAMU during the study period, 1,669 were found to have traumatic injuries. Data from 945 prehospital patients were accrued, with 534 (56.5%) of these patients diagnosed with a head injury. The median age was 30 years, with most patients being male (80.3%). Motor vehicle collisions accounted for almost 78% of all head injuries. One in six head injuries were due to a pedestrian struck by a vehicle. Emergency department interventions included intubations (6.7%), intravenous fluids (2.4%), and oxygen administration (4.9%). Alcohol use was not evaluated or could not be confirmed in 81.3% of head injury cases. The median length of stay (LOS) in the ED was two days (interquartile range: 1,3). A total of 184 patients were admitted, with 13% requiring craniotomies; their median in-hospital care duration was 13 days. CONCLUSION: In this cohort of Rwandan trauma patients, head injury was most prevalent amongst males and pedestrians. Alcohol use was not evaluated in the majority of patients. These traumatic patterns were predominantly due to road traffic injury, suggesting that interventions addressing the prevention of this mechanism, and treatment of head injury, may be beneficial in the Rwandan setting.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown if probiotics exert pathogen-specific effects in children with diarrhea secondary to acute gastroenteritis. METHODS: Analysis of patient-level data from two multi-center randomized, placebo controlled, trials conducted in pediatric emergency departments in Canada and the U.S.. Participants were 3-48 months with >3 diarrheal episodes in the preceding 24 hours, and were symptomatic for <72 hours and <7 days in the Canadian and U.S. studies, respectively. Participants received either placebo or probiotic preparation (Canada-Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011/L. helveticus R0052; U.S.-L. rhamnosus GG). The primary outcome was post-intervention moderate-to-severe disease [i.e. ≥9 on the Modified Vesikari Scale (MVS)]. RESULTS: Pathogens were identified in specimens from 59.3% (928/1565) children. No pathogen groups were less likely to experience an MVS ≥9 based on treatment allocation (test for interaction=0.35). No differences between groups were identified for adenovirus (aRR: 1.42; 95%CI: 0.62, 3.23), norovirus (aRR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.56, 1.74), rotavirus (aRR: 0.86; 95%CI: 0.43, 1.71) or bacteria (aRR: 1.19; 95%CI: 0.41, 3.43). At pathogen-group and among individual pathogens there were no differences in diarrhea duration or the total number of diarrheal stools between treatment groups, regardless of intervention allocation or among probiotic sub-groups. Among adenovirus-infected children, those administered the Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011/L. helveticus R0052 product experienced fewer diarrheal episodes (aRR: 0.65; 95%CI: 0.47 to 0.90). CONCLUSIONS: Neither probiotic product resulted in less severe disease compared to placebo across a range of the most common etiologic pathogens. Clarifying the etiology of diarrhea among those without pathogens identified is warranted.

4.
Trop Med Health ; 49(1): 70, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Episodes of acute diarrhea lead to dehydration, and existing care algorithms base treatment around categorical estimates for fluid resuscitation. This study aims to develop models for the percentage dehydration (fluid deficit) in individuals with acute diarrhea, to better target treatment and avoid the potential sequelae of over or under resuscitation. METHODS: This study utilizes data from two prospective cohort studies of patients with acute diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were collected on patient arrival, including weight, clinical signs and symptoms, and demographic information. Consecutive weights were obtained to determine the true volume deficit of each patient. Data were entered into two distinct forward stepwise regression logistic models (DHAKA for under 5 years and NIRUDAK for 5 years and over). RESULTS: A total of 782 patients were included in the final analysis of the DHAKA data set, and 2139 were included in the final analysis of the NIRUDAK data set. The best model for the DHAKA data achieved an R2 of 0.27 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 3.7 (compared to R2 of 0.06 and RMSE of 5.5 with the World Health Organization child care algorithm) and selected 6 predictors. The best performance model for the NIRUDAK data achieved an R2 of 0.28 and a RMSE of 2.6 (compared to R2 of 0.08 and RMSE of 4.3 with the World Health Organization adolescent/adult care algorithm) and selected 7 predictors with 2 interactions. CONCLUSIONS: These are the first mathematical models for patients with acute diarrhea that allow for the calculation of a patient's percentage dehydration (fluid deficit) and subsequent targeted treatment with fluid resuscitation. These findings are an improvement on existing World Health Organization care algorithms.

5.
Trop Med Int Health ; 26(11): 1512-1525, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Accurately assessing dehydration severity is a critical step in reducing mortality from diarrhoea, but is complicated by cholera and undernutrition. This study seeks to assess the accuracy of two clinical diagnostic models for dehydration among patients over five years with cholera and undernutrition and compare their respective performance to the World Health Organization (WHO) algorithm. METHODS: In this secondary analysis of data collected from the NIRUDAK study, accuracy of the full and simplified NIRUDAK models for predicting severe and any dehydration was measured using the area under the Receiver Operator Characteristic curve (AUC) among patients over five with/without cholera and with/without wasting. Bootstrap with 1000 iterations was used to compare the m-index for each NIRUDAK model to that of the WHO algorithm. RESULTS: A total of 2,139 and 2,108 patients were included in the nutrition and cholera subgroups respectively with an overall median age of 35 years (IQR = 42) and 49.6% female. All subgroups had acceptable discrimination in diagnosing severe or any dehydration (AUC > 0.60); though the full NIRUDAK model performed best among patients without cholera, with an AUC of 0.82 (95%CI:0.79, 0.85) and among patients without wasting, with an AUC of 0.79 (95%CI:0.76, 0.81). Compared with the WHO's algorithm, both the full and simplified NIRUDAK models performed significantly better in terms of their m-index (p < 0.001) for all comparisons, except for the simplified NIRUDAK model in the wasting group. CONCLUSIONS: Both the full and simplified NIRUDAK models performed less well in patients over five years with cholera and/or wasting; however, both performed better than the WHO algorithm.

6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398821

RESUMO

Diarrheal disease accounts for more than one million deaths annually in patients over 5 years of age. Although most patients can be managed with oral rehydration solution, patients with severe dehydration require resuscitation with intravenous fluids. Scoring systems to assess dehydration have been empirically derived and validated in children under 5 years, but none have been validated for patients over 5 years. In this study, a prospective cohort of 2,172 patients over 5 years presenting with acute diarrhea to International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka Hospital, Bangladesh, were assessed for clinical signs of dehydration. The percent difference between presentation and posthydration stable weight determined severe (≥ 9%), some (3-9%), or no (< 3%) dehydration. An ordinal regression model was derived using clinical signs and demographics and was then converted to a 13-point score to predict none (score of 0-3), some (4-6), or severe (7-13) dehydration. The Novel, Innovative Research for Understanding Dehydration in Adults and Kids (NIRUDAK) Score developed by our team included age, sex, sunken eyes, radial pulse, respiration depth, skin turgor, and vomiting episodes in 24 hours. Accuracy of the NIRUDAK Score for predicting severe dehydration, as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, was 0.76 (95% confidence interval = 0.73-0.78), with a sensitivity of 0.78 and a specificity of 0.61. Reliability was also robust, with an Inter-Class Correlation Coefficient of 0.88 (95% confidence interval = 0.84-0.91). This study represents the first empirically derived and internally validated scoring system for assessing dehydration in children ≥ 5 years and adults with acute diarrhea in a resource-limited setting.

7.
Ann Emerg Med ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389195

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore oral ondansetron usage and impact on outcomes in clinical practice. METHODS: This observational study was a planned secondary analysis of 2 trials conducted in 10 US and 6 Canadian institutions between 2014 and 2017. Children 3 to 48 months old with gastroenteritis and ≥3 episodes of vomiting in the 24 hours preceding emergency department (ED) presentation were included. Oral ondansetron was administered at the discretion of the provider. The principal outcomes were intravenous fluid administration and hospitalization at the index visit and during the subsequent 72 hours and diarrhea and vomiting frequency during the 24 hours following the ED visit. RESULTS: In total, 794 children were included. The median age was 16.0 months (interquartile range 10.0 to 26.0), and 50.1% (398/794) received oral ondansetron. In propensity-adjusted analysis (n=528), children administered oral ondansetron were less likely to receive intravenous fluids at the index visit (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29 to 0.88). There were no differences in the frequencies of intravenous fluid administration within the first 72 hours (aOR 0.65; 95% CI 0.39 to 1.10) or hospitalization at the index visit (aOR 0.31; 95% CI 0.09 to 1.10) or the subsequent 72 hours (aOR 0.52; 95% CI 0.21 to 1.28). Episodes of vomiting (aRR 0.86; 95% CI 0.63 to 1.19) and diarrhea (aRR 1.11; 95% CI 0.93 to 1.32) during the 24 hours following ED discharge also did not differ. CONCLUSION: Among preschool-aged children with gastroenteritis seeking ED care, oral ondansetron administration was associated with a reduction in index ED visit intravenous fluid administration; it was not associated with intravenous fluids administered within 72 hours, hospitalization, or vomiting and diarrhea in the 24 hours following discharge.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113721

RESUMO

Background: Migration of Venezuelan citizens to other South American countries has increased in recent years. While the prevalence, morbidity, and mortality of infectious diseases in Venezuelan migrants across South America appears to be well described, the non-communicable disease (NCD) and maternal and child health needs in this population is less clear. A scoping review of existing peer-reviewed primary research and grey literature describing the epidemiology of NCDs and maternal and child health needs in Venezuelan migrants in major South American host countries was performed in order to highlight important gaps in knowledge. Methods: A scoping review was performed of peer-reviewed research and grey literature for NCD and maternal and child health needs among Venezuelan migrants living in the following host South American countries with greater than 100,000 migrants: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. A total of 47 electronic databases were searched for primary research published between 2017 and 2020 in either English or Spanish. Results: Out of 1,098 initial articles retrieved, 17 records met inclusion criteria, with the majority identified from the grey literature. Most studies were published in 2019 and most were either primary reports published by non-governmental organizations within the grey literature search or cross-sectional qualitative studies. Studies came from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, and Peru, with three records offering a regional perspective. Most studies provided broad data on NCDs and maternal and child health needs but lacked granular statistics. Our analysis found the rate of chronic disease among Venezuelan migrants to range from 9-14% within countries who reported this data. Significant rates of psychiatric conditions such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder were reported. Other conditions described were ophthalmologic diseases, diabetes, chronic pain, asthma, cough, dyslipidemia, hypertension, arthritis, malnutrition, and obstetric complications, although exact statistics were limited. Obstacles to care included lack of healthcare access and affordability. Conclusions: Existing reports discuss important needs related to NCDs and maternal and child health in Venezuelan migrants in South American countries, but there are significant gaps in knowledge. Further research must describe in greater detail the prevalence, morbidity, and mortality of NCDs and maternal and child health needs in Venezuelan migrants in this region in order to assist local governments and international humanitarian organizations with providing strategic and unified responses.

9.
Pediatrics ; 147(6)2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Between-country variation in health care resource use and its impact on outcomes in acute care settings have been challenging to disentangle from illness severity by using administrative data. METHODS: We conducted a preplanned analysis employing patient-level emergency department (ED) data from children enrolled in 2 previously conducted clinical trials. Participants aged 3 to <48 months with <72 hours of gastroenteritis were recruited in pediatric EDs in the United States (N = 10 sites; 588 participants) and Canada (N = 6 sites; 827 participants). The primary outcome was an unscheduled health care provider visit within 7 days; the secondary outcomes were intravenous fluid administration and hospitalization at or within 7 days of the index visit. RESULTS: In adjusted analysis, unscheduled revisits within 7 days did not differ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50 to 1.02). At the index ED visit, although participants in Canada were assessed as being more dehydrated, intravenous fluids were administered more frequently in the United States (aOR: 4.6; 95% CI: 2.9 to 7.1). Intravenous fluid administration rates did not differ after enrollment (aOR: 1.4; 95% CI: 0.7 to 2.8; US cohort with Canadian as referent). Overall, intravenous rehydration was higher in the United States (aOR: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.5 to 5.7). Although hospitalization rates during the 7 days after enrollment (aOR: 1.1; 95% CI: 0.4 to 2.6) did not differ, hospitalization at the index visit was more common in the United States (3.9% vs 2.3%; aOR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.6 to 6.8). CONCLUSIONS: Among children with gastroenteritis and similar disease severity, revisit rates were similar in our 2 study cohorts, despite lower rates of intravenous rehydration and hospitalization in Canadian-based EDs.

10.
Trop Med Health ; 49(1): 34, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health threat and is increasingly prevalent among enteric pathogens in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, the burden of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in older children, adults, and elderly patients with acute diarrhea in LMICs is poorly understood. This study's aim was to characterize the prevalence of MDR enteric pathogens isolated from patients with acute diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and assess a wide range of risk factors associated with MDR. METHODS: This study was a secondary analysis of data collected from children over 5 years, adults, and elderly patients with acute diarrhea at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh Dhaka Hospital between March 2019 and March 2020. Clinical, historical, socio-environmental information, and a stool sample for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were collected from each patient. Univariate statistics and multiple logistic regression were used to assess the prevalence of MDR among enteric pathogens and the association between independent variables and presence of MRDOs among culture-positive patients. RESULTS: A total of 1198 patients had pathogens isolated by stool culture with antimicrobial susceptibility results. Among culture-positive patients, the prevalence of MDR was 54.3%. The prevalence of MDR was highest in Aeromonas spp. (81.5%), followed by Campylobacter spp. (72.1%), Vibrio cholerae (28.1%), Shigella spp. (26.2%), and Salmonella spp. (5.2%). Factors associated with having MDRO in multiple logistic regression included longer transport time to hospital (>90 min), greater stool frequency, prior antibiotic use prior to hospital presentation, and non-flush toilet use. However, pseudo-R2 was low 0.086, indicating that other unmeasured variables need to be considered to build a more robust predictive model of MDR. CONCLUSIONS: MDR enteric pathogens were common in this study population with clinical, historical, and socio-environmental risk factors associated with MDROs. These findings may help guide clinical decision-making regarding antibiotic use and selection in patients at greatest risk of complications due to MDROs. Further prospective research is urgently needed to determine what additional factors place patients at greatest risk of MDRO, and the best strategies to mitigate the spread of MDR in enteric pathogens.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e216433, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871616

RESUMO

Importance: Despite guidelines endorsing oral rehydration therapy, intravenous fluids are commonly administered to children with acute gastroenteritis in high-income countries. Objective: To identify factors associated with intravenous fluid administration and hospitalization in children with acute gastroenteritis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study is a planned secondary analysis of the Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC) and Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) probiotic trials. Participants include children aged 3 to 48 months with 3 or more watery stools in 24 hours between November 5, 2013, and April 7, 2017, for the PERC study and July 8, 2014, and June 23, 2017, for the PECARN Study. Children were from 16 pediatric emergency departments throughout Canada (6) and the US (10). Data were analyzed from November 2, 2018, to March 16, 2021. Exposures: Sex, age, preceding health care visit, distance between home and hospital, country (US vs Canada), frequency and duration of vomiting and diarrhea, presence of fever, Clinical Dehydration Scale score, oral ondansetron followed by oral rehydration therapy, and infectious agent. Main Outcomes and Measures: Intravenous fluid administration and hospitalization. Results: This secondary analysis of 2 randomized clinical trials included 1846 children (mean [SD] age, 19.1 [11.4] months; 1007 boys [54.6%]), of whom 534 of 1846 (28.9%) received oral ondansetron, 240 of 1846 (13.0%) received intravenous rehydration, and 67 of 1846 (3.6%) were hospitalized. The following were independently associated with intravenous rehydration: higher Clinical Dehydration Scale score (mild to moderate vs none, odds ratio [OR], 8.73; 95% CI, 5.81-13.13; and severe vs none, OR, 34.15; 95% CI, 13.45-86.73); country (US vs Canada, OR, 6.76; 95% CI, 3.15-14.49); prior health care visit with intravenous fluids (OR, 4.55; 95% CI, 1.32-15.72); and frequency of vomiting (per 5 episodes, OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.39-1.99). The following were independently associated with hospitalization: higher Clinical Dehydration Scale score (mild to moderate vs none, OR, 11.10; 95% CI, 5.05-24.38; and severe vs none, OR, 23.55; 95% CI, 7.09-78.25) and country (US vs Canada, OR, 3.37; 95% CI, 1.36-8.40). Oral ondansetron was associated with reduced odds of intravenous rehydration (OR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.13-0.32) and hospitalization (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.21-0.89). Conclusions and Relevance: Intravenous rehydration and hospitalization were associated with clinical evidence of dehydration and lack of an oral ondansetron-supported oral rehydration period. Strategies focusing on oral ondansetron administration followed by oral rehydration therapy in children with dehydration may reduce the reliance on intravenous rehydration and hospitalization. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT01853124 (PERC) and NCT01773967 (PECARN).


Assuntos
Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Desidratação/terapia , Hidratação/métodos , Gastroenterite/terapia , Ondansetron/uso terapêutico , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Canadá , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Gastroenterite/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Padrões de Prática Médica , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estados Unidos
12.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 15(1): 115-126, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33870882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This review systematically explores the current available evidence on the effectiveness of interventions provided to first responders to prevent and/or treat the mental health effects of responding to a disaster. METHODS: A systematic review of Medline, Scopus, PsycINFO, and gray literature was conducted. Studies describing the effectiveness of interventions provided to first responders to prevent and/or treat the mental health effects of responding to a disaster were included. Quality was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria, and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist. RESULTS: Manuscripts totaling 3869 met the initial search criteria; 25 studies met the criteria for in-depth analysis, including 22 quantitative and 3 qualitative studies; 6 were performed in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); 18 studies evaluated a psychological intervention; of these, 13 found positive impact, 4 found no impact, and 1 demonstrated worsened symptoms after the intervention. Pre-event trainings decreased psychiatric symptoms in each of the 3 studies evaluating its effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: This review demonstrates that there are likely effective interventions to both prevent and treat psychiatric symptoms in first responders in high-, medium-, and low-income countries.


Assuntos
Desastres , Socorristas , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Saúde Mental
13.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(2): 435-444, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856336

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While trauma prognostication and triage scores have been designed for use in lower-resourced healthcare settings specifically, the comparative clinical performance between trauma-specific and general triage scores for risk-stratifying injured patients in such settings is not well understood. This study evaluated the Kampala Trauma Score (KTS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), and Triage Early Warning Score (TEWS) for accuracy in predicting mortality among injured patients seeking emergency department (ED) care at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali (CHUK) in Rwanda. METHODS: A retrospective, randomly sampled cohort of ED patients presenting with injury was accrued from August 2015-July 2016. Primary outcome was 14-day mortality and secondary outcome was overall facility-based mortality. We evaluated summary statistics of the cohort. Bootstrap regression models were used to compare areas under receiver operating curves (AUC) with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Among 617 cases, the median age was 32 years and 73.5% were male. The most frequent mechanism of injury was road traffic incident (56.2%). Predominant anatomical regions of injury were craniofacial (39.3%) and lower extremities (38.7%), and the most common injury types were fracture (46.0%) and contusion (12.0%). Fourteen-day mortality was 2.6% and overall facility-based mortality was 3.4%. For 14-day mortality, TEWS had the highest accuracy (AUC = 0.88, 95% CI, 0.76-1.00), followed by RTS (AUC = 0.73, 95% CI, 0.55-0.92), and then KTS (AUC = 0.65, 95% CI, 0.47-0.84). Similarly, for facility-based mortality, TEWS (AUC = 0.89, 95% CI, 0.79-0.98) had greater accuracy than RTS (AUC = 0.76, 95% CI, 0.61-0.91) and KTS (AUC = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.53-0.83). On pairwise comparisons, RTS had greater prognostic accuracy than KTS for 14-day mortality (P = 0.011) and TEWS had greater accuracy than KTS for overall (P = 0.007) mortality. However, TEWS and RTS accuracy were not significantly different for 14-day mortality (P = 0.864) or facility-based mortality (P = 0.101). CONCLUSION: In this cohort of emergently injured patients in Rwanda, the TEWS demonstrated the greatest accuracy for predicting mortality outcomes, with no significant discriminatory benefit found in the use of the trauma-specific RTS or KTS instruments, suggesting that the TEWS is the most clinically useful approach in the setting studied and likely in other similar ED environments.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adulto , Emergências/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Triagem/métodos , Triagem/organização & administração , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009266, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690646

RESUMO

Diarrheal diseases lead to an estimated 1.3 million deaths each year, with the majority of those deaths occurring in patients over five years of age. As the severity of diarrheal disease can vary widely, accurately assessing dehydration status remains the most critical step in acute diarrhea management. The objective of this study is to empirically derive clinical diagnostic models for assessing dehydration severity in patients over five years with acute diarrhea in low resource settings. We enrolled a random sample of patients over five years with acute diarrhea presenting to the icddr,b Dhaka Hospital. Two blinded nurses independently assessed patients for symptoms/signs of dehydration on arrival. Afterward, consecutive weights were obtained to determine the percent weight change with rehydration, our criterion standard for dehydration severity. Full and simplified ordinal logistic regression models were derived to predict the outcome of none (<3%), some (3-9%), or severe (>9%) dehydration. The reliability and accuracy of each model were assessed. Bootstrapping was used to correct for over-optimism and compare each model's performance to the current World Health Organization (WHO) algorithm. 2,172 patients were enrolled, of which 2,139 (98.5%) had complete data for analysis. The Inter-Class Correlation Coefficient (reliability) was 0.90 (95% CI = 0.87, 0.91) for the full model and 0.82 (95% CI = 0.77, 0.86) for the simplified model. The area under the Receiver-Operator Characteristic curve (accuracy) for severe dehydration was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.76-0.82) for the full model and 0.73 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.76) for the simplified model. The accuracy for both the full and simplified models were significantly better than the WHO algorithm (p<0.001). This is the first study to empirically derive clinical diagnostic models for dehydration severity in patients over five years. Once prospectively validated, the models may improve management of patients with acute diarrhea in low resource settings.


Assuntos
Desidratação/diagnóstico , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Criança , Diarreia/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
15.
Afr J Emerg Med ; 11(1): 152-157, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33680737

RESUMO

Background: Injuries cause significant morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan African countries such as Rwanda. These burdens may be compounded by limited access to intravenous (IV) resuscitation fluids such as crystalloids and blood products. This study evaluates the association between emergency department (ED) intravenous volume resuscitation and mortality outcomes in adult trauma patients treated at the University Teaching Hospital-Kigali (UTH- K). Methods: Data were abstracted using a structured protocol for a random sample of ED patients treated during periods from 2012 to 2016. Patients under 15 years of age were excluded. Data collected included demographics, clinical aspects, types of IV fluid resuscitation provided and outcomes. The primary outcome was facility-based mortality. Descriptive statistics were used to explore characteristics of the population. Kampala Trauma Scores (KTS) were used to control for injury severity. Magnitudes of effects were quantified using multivariable regression models adjusted for gender, KTS, time period, clinical interventions, presence of head injury and transfer to a tertiary care centre to yield adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: From the random sample of 3609 cases, 991 trauma patients were analysed. The median age was 32 [IQR 26, 46] years and 74.3% were male. ED volume resuscitation was given to 50.1% of patients with 43.5% receiving crystalloid and 6.4% receiving crystalloid and packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions. The median KTS score was 13 [IQR 12, 13]. In multivariable regression, mortality likelihood was increased in those who received crystalloid (aOR = 4.31, 95%CI 1.24, 15.05, p = 0.022) and PRBC plus crystalloid (aOR = 9.97, 95%CI 2.15,46.17, p = 0.003) as compared to trauma patients not treated with IV resuscitation fluids. Conclusions: Injured ED patients treated with volume resuscitation had higher mortality, which may be due to unmeasured confounding or therapies provided. Further studies on fluid resuscitation in trauma populations in resource-limited settings are needed.

16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 436-441, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647514

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Few studies have evaluated determinants of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Vibrio cholerae O1 in older children and adults. This study aimed to characterize the prevalence of MDR V. cholerae O1 and associated risk factors among patients over five years of age in Bangladesh. METHODS: Stool culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed as a part of a larger study at Dhaka Hospital in Bangladesh from March 2019-March 2020. Univariate statistics and multiple logistic regression were used to assess the association between a range of variables and MDR V. cholerae O1. RESULTS: MDR was found in 175 of 623 (28.1%) V. cholerae O1 isolates. High levels of resistance were found to erythromycin (99.2%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (99.7%), and ampicillin (88.9%), while susceptibility was high to tetracyclines (99.7%), azithromycin (99.2%), ciprofloxacin (99.8%), and cephalosporins (98.6%). MDR was associated with prior antibiotic use, longer transport time to hospital, higher income, non-flush toilet use, greater stool frequency, lower blood pressure, lower mid-upper arm circumference, and lower percent dehydration. CONCLUSIONS: MDR V. cholerae O1 was common among patients over five in an urban hospital in Bangladesh. Significant factors associated with MDR may be actionable in identifying patients with a high likelihood of MDR.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Vibrio cholerae O1/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vibrio cholerae O1/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Elife ; 102021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527894

RESUMO

Traditional clinical prediction models focus on parameters of the individual patient. For infectious diseases, sources external to the patient, including characteristics of prior patients and seasonal factors, may improve predictive performance. We describe the development of a predictive model that integrates multiple sources of data in a principled statistical framework using a post-test odds formulation. Our method enables electronic real-time updating and flexibility, such that components can be included or excluded according to data availability. We apply this method to the prediction of etiology of pediatric diarrhea, where 'pre-test' epidemiologic data may be highly informative. Diarrhea has a high burden in low-resource settings, and antibiotics are often over-prescribed. We demonstrate that our integrative method outperforms traditional prediction in accurately identifying cases with a viral etiology, and show that its clinical application, especially when used with an additional diagnostic test, could result in a 61% reduction in inappropriately prescribed antibiotics.

18.
J Nutr ; 151(1): 65-72, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is a common and impactful disease in childhood. Probiotics are often used to treat acute gastroenteritis (AGE); however, in a large multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 971 children, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) was no better than placebo in improving patient outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether the effect of LGG is associated with age, weight z score and weight percentile adjusted for age and sex, or dose per kilogram administered. METHODS: This was a preplanned secondary analysis of a multicenter double-blind RCT of LGG 1 × 1010 CFU twice daily for 5 d or placebo in children 3-48 mo of age with AGE. Our primary outcome was moderate to severe gastroenteritis. Secondary outcomes included diarrhea and vomiting frequency and duration, chronic diarrhea, and side effects. We used multivariable linear and nonlinear models testing for interaction effects to assess outcomes by age, weight z score and weight percentile adjusted for age and sex, and dose per kilogram of LGG received. RESULTS: A total of 813 children (84%) were included in the analysis; 413 received placebo and 400 LGG. Baseline characteristics were similar between treatment groups. There were no differential interaction effects across ranges of age (P-interaction = 0.32), adjusted weight z score (P-interaction = 0.43), adjusted weight percentile (P-interaction = 0.45), or dose per kilogram of LGG received (P-interaction = 0.28) for the primary outcome. Whereas we found a statistical association favoring placebo at the extremes of adjusted weight z scores for the number of vomiting episodes (P-interaction = 0.02) and vomiting duration (P-interaction = 0.0475), there were no statistically significant differences in other secondary outcome measures (all P-interactions > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: LGG does not improve outcomes in children with AGE regardless of the age, adjusted weight z score, and adjusted weight percentile of participants, or the probiotic dose per kilogram received. These results further strengthen the conclusions of low risk of bias clinical trials which demonstrate that LGG provides no clinical benefit in children with AGE.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01773967.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Gastroenterite/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Lactente , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
19.
Lancet Digit Health ; 2(5): e250-e258, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhoeal disease management often requires rehydration alone without antibiotics. However, non-indicated antibiotics are frequently ordered and this is an important driver of antimicrobial resistance. The mHealth Diarrhoea Management (mHDM) trial aimed to establish whether electronic decision support improves rehydration and antibiotic guideline adherence in resource-limited settings. METHODS: A cluster randomised controlled trial was done at ten district hospitals in Bangladesh. Inclusion criteria were patients aged 2 months or older with uncomplicated acute diarrhoea. Admission orders were observed without intervention in the pre-intervention period, followed by randomisation to electronic (rehydration calculator) or paper formatted WHO guidelines for the intervention period. The primary outcome was rate of intravenous fluid ordered as a binary variable. Generalised linear mixed-effect models, accounting for hospital clustering, served as the analytical framework; the analysis was intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03154229) and is completed. FINDINGS: From March 11 to Sept 10, 2018, 4975 patients (75·6%) of 6577 screened patients were enrolled. The intervention effect for the primary outcome showed no significant differences in rates of intravenous fluids ordered as a function of decision-support type. Intravenous fluid orders decreased by 0·9 percentage points for paper electronic decision support and 4·2 percentage points for electronic decision support, with a 4·2-point difference between decision-support types in the intervention period (paper 98·7% [95% CI 91·8-99·8] vs electronic 94·5% [72·2-99·1]; pinteraction=0·31). Adverse events such as complications and mortality events were uncommon and could not be statistically estimated. INTERPRETATION: Although intravenous fluid orders did not change, electronic decision support was associated with increases in the volume of intravenous fluid ordered and decreases in antibiotics ordered, which are consistent with WHO guidelines. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões Assistida por Computador , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Atenção à Saúde , Diarreia/terapia , Hidratação/métodos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos , Bangladesh , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Atenção à Saúde/normas , Eletrônica , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Papel , Prescrições , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008677, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in lower- and middle-income countries. In such settings, access to laboratory diagnostics are often limited, and decisions for use of antimicrobials often empiric. Clinical predictors are a potential non-laboratory method to more accurately assess diarrheal etiology, the knowledge of which could improve management of pediatric diarrhea. METHODS: We used clinical and quantitative molecular etiologic data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS), a prospective, case-control study, to develop predictive models for the etiology of diarrhea. Using random forests, we screened the available variables and then assessed the performance of predictions from random forest regression models and logistic regression models using 5-fold cross-validation. RESULTS: We identified 1049 cases where a virus was the only etiology, and developed predictive models against 2317 cases where the etiology was known but non-viral (bacterial, protozoal, or mixed). Variables predictive of a viral etiology included lower age, a dry and cold season, increased height-for-age z-score (HAZ), lack of bloody diarrhea, and presence of vomiting. Cross-validation suggests an AUC of 0.825 can be achieved with a parsimonious model of 5 variables, achieving a specificity of 0.85, a sensitivity of 0.59, a NPV of 0.82 and a PPV of 0.64. CONCLUSION: Predictors of the etiology of pediatric diarrhea can be used by providers in low-resource settings to inform clinical decision-making. The use of non-laboratory methods to diagnose viral causes of diarrhea could be a step towards reducing inappropriate antibiotic prescription worldwide.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Diarreia/etiologia , Viroses/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Biológicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Viroses/virologia
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