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1.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Virtual surgical planning (VSP) has contributed to technical advancements in free fibula flap mandible reconstruction. We present the largest comparative study on the latest modification of this technology: the use of patient-specific, preoperatively customized reconstruction plates for fixation. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients undergoing mandibular reconstruction with virtually planned free fibula flaps at a single institution between 2008 and 2018. Patient demographics, perioperative characteristics and postoperative outcomes were reviewed. Reconstructions utilizing traditional fixation methods were compared to those utilizing pre-fabricated, patient-specific reconstruction plates. RESULTS: A total of 126 patients (mean age 48.5 ± 20.3 years; 61.1% male) underwent mandibular reconstruction with free fibula flap. Mean follow-up time was 23.5 months. A customized plate was used in 43.7% of cases. Reconstructions with patient-specific plates had significantly shorter total operative times compared to non-customized fixation methods (643.0 vs. 741.7 minutes, p=0.001). Hardware complications occurred in 11.1% of patients, with a trend towards a lower rate in the customized plate group (5.5% vs. 15.5%, p=0.091). Multivariate regression showed that the use of customized plates was a significant independent predictor of less overall complications (p=0.03), shorter operative time (p=0.014), and shorter length of stay (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Compared to traditional fixation methods, patient-specific plates are associated with less complications, shorter operative times, and reduced length of stay. The use of customized reconstruction plates increases efficiency and represents the latest technological innovation in mandibular reconstruction.

2.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 162(6): 993-995, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393106

RESUMO

We describe the use of the medial sural artery musculocutaneous perforator (MSAP) flap at our institution. It is a relatively new flap, originally described in 2001 for lower extremity defects, that has become increasingly popular for head and neck reconstruction due to its versatility, thinness, pliability, long pedicle, and particularly favorable donor site. It has been described for reconstruction of oral defects, but there is little published on its use in pharyngeal reconstruction. We suggest that the MSAP is an ideal flap for addressing defects caused by pharyngoesophageal stenosis, pharyngeal fistulas, or laryngopharyngectomies. We review 5 cases at our institution from June 2016 to November 2017.


Assuntos
Artérias/transplante , Esôfago/cirurgia , Músculo Esquelético/transplante , Retalho Perfurante/irrigação sanguínea , Faringe/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Transplante de Pele/métodos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Arch Plast Surg ; 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252207

RESUMO

The medial sural artery perforator (MSAP) flap is a versatile fasciocutaneous flap that has been used successfully in the reconstruction of defects across the body. In specific cases, it may prove superior to more commonly used options (e.g., anterolateral thigh flap and radial forearm free flap). Historically, a disadvantage of the MSAP flap is the relatively small surface area it provides for reconstruction. We recently encountered a patient with extensive pelvic injuries from prior trauma resulting in significant scarring and contracture of the groin, tethering of the penis, and loss of the scrotum and one testicle. The patient was unable to achieve erection from tethering and his remaining testicle had been buried in the thigh. In considering the reconstructive options, he was not a suitable candidate for a thigh-based or forearmbased flap. An extended MSAP flap measuring 25 cm×10 cm was used for resurfacing of the groin and pelvis as well as for the formation of a neoscrotum. This report is the first to document an MSAP flap utilized for simultaneous groin resurfacing and scrotoplasty. Additionally, the dimensions of this flap make it the largest recorded MSAP flap to date.

5.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(4): 1059-1067, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Simultaneous ventral hernia repair and panniculectomy (SVHRP) is a procedure that is more commonly being offered to patients with excess skin and subcutaneous tissue in need of a ventral hernia repair; however, there are concerns about surgical-site complications and uncertainty regarding the durability of repair. SVHRP outcomes vary within the literature. This study assessed the durability, complication profile, and safety of SVHRP through a large data-driven repository of SVHRP cases.360 METHODS:: The current SVHRP literature was queried using the MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane databases. Predefined selection criteria resulted in 76 relevant titles yielding 16 articles for analysis. Meta-analysis was used to analyze primary outcomes, identified as surgical-site occurrence and hernia recurrence. Secondary outcomes included review of techniques used and systemic complications, which were analyzed with pooled weighted mean analysis from the collected data. RESULTS: There were 917 patients who underwent an SVHRP (mean age, 52.2 ± 7.0 years; mean body mass index, 36.1 ± 5.8 kg/m; mean pannus weight, 3.2 kg). The mean surgical-site occurrence rate was 27.9 percent (95 percent CI, 15.6 to 40.2 percent; I = 70.9 percent) and the mean hernia recurrence rate was 4.9 percent (95 percent CI, 2.4 to 7.3 percent; I = 70.1 percent). Mean follow-up was 17.8 ± 7.7 months. The most common complications were superficial surgical-site infection (15.8 percent) and seroma formation (11.2 percent). Systemic complications were less common (7.8 percent), with a thromboembolic event rate of 1.2 percent. The overall mortality rate was 0.4 percent. CONCLUSIONS: SVHRP is associated with a high rate of surgical-site occurrence, but surgical-site infection seems to be less prominent than previously anticipated. The low hernia recurrence rate and the safety of this procedure support its current implementation in abdominal wall reconstruction.


Assuntos
Abdominoplastia/métodos , Hérnia Ventral/cirurgia , Herniorrafia/métodos , Abdominoplastia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Herniorrafia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(4): 1071-1076, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221236

RESUMO

Osteocutaneous reconstruction can be challenging because of concomitant injuries and limited donor sites. There is a paucity of data on limb salvage outcomes following combined soft-tissue reconstruction and bone transport or Masquelet procedures. The authors reviewed a consecutive series of open tibia fracture patients undergoing soft-tissue reconstruction with either distraction osteogenesis or Masquelet technique. Endpoints were perioperative flap complications and bone union. Fourteen patients with Gustilo type IIIB open tibia fractures were included. Half of the group received muscle flaps and the remaining half received fasciocutaneous flaps. Ten patients (71.4 percent) underwent distraction osteogenesis and the remaining patients underwent Masquelet technique. Average bone gap length was 65.7 ± 31.3 mm (range, 20 to 120 mm). In the bone transport group, the average external fixation duration was 245 days (range, 47 to 686 days). In the Masquelet group, the average duration of the first stage of this two-stage procedure (i.e., time from cement spacer placement to bone grafting) was 95 days (range, 42 to 181 days). Bone union rate, as determined by radiographic evidence, was 85.7 percent. There was one complete flap failure (7.1 percent). One patient underwent below-knee amputation after failing bone transport and developing chronic osteomyelitis and subsequent infected nonunion. Our case series demonstrates that nonosteocutaneous flap methods of limb reconstruction are a viable option in patients with segmental long bone defects, with a bone union rate of 85 percent and a limb salvage rate over 90 percent in patients with Gustilo type IIIB fractures. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: Therapeutic, IV.


Assuntos
Fraturas Expostas/cirurgia , Retalhos de Tecido Biológico , Salvamento de Membro/métodos , Osteogênese por Distração/métodos , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transplante Ósseo/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Surg Res ; 248: 165-170, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microsurgical free tissue transfer is an important treatment option for nonhealing lower extremity diabetic wounds. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect flap survival and wound complications. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of 806 lower extremity free-flap reconstructions performed from 1979 to 2016. A total of 33 free flaps were used for coverage of nonhealing lower-extremity diabetic ulcers. Primary outcome measures were perioperative complications and long-term wound breakdown. RESULTS: The average age was 54 ± 12.3 y. 15.2% of patients were smokers, 12.1% had coronary artery disease and 12.1% had end-stage renal disease. Muscle flaps predominated (75.8%) compared to fasciocutaneous flaps (24.2%). There were 7 patients (21.2%) that underwent a revascularization procedure before (71.4%) or at the same time (28.6%) as the free flap. Immediate complications occurred in 7 flaps (21.2%) with 4 partial losses (12.1%) and 3 total flap failures (9.1%). Major wound complications occurred in 18.2% of patients. An end-to-side (E-S) anastomosis for the artery was used in 63.6% (n = 22) of flaps compared with an end-to-end (E-E) anastomosis. E-S anastomosis was associated with a significantly lower risk of wound complications compared with an arterial E-E anastomosis (0% versus 45.5%, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The use of microvascular free flaps can be used successfully to cover lower-extremity diabetic wounds. E-E arterial anastomosis should be avoided if possible as it is associated with higher rates of wound breakdown, likely by impairing perfusion to a distal limb with an already compromised vasculature. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III.

9.
J Reconstr Microsurg ; 36(4): 289-293, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are many different variables to consider in lower extremity microvascular soft tissue reconstruction including flap choice. Our aim is to objectively evaluate recipient complications related to lower extremity donor flap laterality. METHODS: A total of 77 lower extremity soft tissue reconstructions utilizing microvascular free tissue transfers for Gustilo type III between 1979 and 2016 were collected. We compared complication rates between ipsilateral and contralateral donor sites relative to the injured leg. The following parameters were analyzed: overall complications, total flap failure, partial flap failure, major complications, operative takebacks, and salvage rates. RESULTS: In this study, 25 ipsilateral reconstructions were performed, while 52 cases utilized the contralateral leg. Overall complication rates were higher in the ipsilateral group (40.0%) compared with the contralateral side (23.1%) but were not statistically significant (p = 0.12). The ipsilateral group was four times as likely to experience vascular compromise (24.0 vs. 5.8%; p = 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in complications, flap failures or flap survival. Mean operative time was significantly greater in the same side group as compared with the contralateral group (11.3 vs. 7.5 hours; p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Although there is a higher risk of anastomotic thrombosis, particularly venous thrombosis, associated with ipsilateral donor-site group, there were no significant differences in complications or flap survival. Flaps can be harvested from a traumatized leg with acceptable complication rates while avoiding the morbidity of operating on an uninjured limb.

10.
Microsurgery ; 40(4): 473-478, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Free flap reconstruction after lower extremity trauma remains challenging with various factors affecting overall success. Increasing defect and flap size have been demonstrated to be a surrogate for overall injury severity and correlated with complications. In addition, larger free flaps that encompass more tissue theoretically possess high metabolic demand, and may be more susceptible to ischemic insult. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to determine how flap size affects microsurgical outcomes in the setting of lower extremity trauma reconstruction. METHODS: Retrospective review of 806 lower extremity free flap reconstructions performed from 1979 to 2016 among three affiliated hospitals: a private university hospital, Veterans Health Administration Hospital (VA), and a large, public hospital serving as a level 1 trauma center for the city. Soft tissue free flaps used for below the knee reconstructions of traumatic injuries were included. A receiver operating curve (ROC) was generated and Youden index was used to determine the optimal flap size for predicting flap success. Based on this, flaps were divided into those smaller than 250 cm2 and larger than 250 cm2 . Partial flap failure, total flap failure, takebacks, and overall major complications (defined as events involving flap compromise) were compared between these two groups. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine whether flap size independently predicts complications and flap failures, controlling for injury-related and operative factors. RESULTS: A total of 393 patients underwent lower extremity free tissue transfer. There were 229 flaps (58.2%) with size <250 cm2 and 164 flaps (41.7%) ≥ 250 cm2 . ROC analysis and Youden index calculation demonstrated 250 cm2 (AUC 0.651) to be the cutoff free flap for predicting increasing flap failure. Compared to flaps with less than 250 cm2 , larger flaps were associated with increased major complications (33.6% vs. 50.0%, p = .001), any flap failure (11.8% vs. 25.0%, p = .001) and partial flap failure (4.8% vs. 14.6%, p = .001). Logistic regression analysis controlling for age, flap type, era of reconstruction, number of venous anastomoses, presence of associated injuries, presence of a bone gap, vessel runoff, and flap size identified increasing flap size to be independently predictive of major complications (p = .05), any flap failure (p = .001), partial flap failure (p < .001), and takebacks (p = .03). Subset analysis by flap type demonstrated that when flap size exceeded 250 cm2 , use of muscle flaps was associated with significantly increased flap failure rates (p = .008) while for smaller flap size, there was no significant difference in complications between muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps. CONCLUSION: Increasing flap size is independently predictive of flap complications. In particular, a flap size cutoff value of 250 cm2 was associated with significantly increased flap failure and complications particularly among muscle-based flaps. Therefore, we suggest that fasciocutaneous flaps be utilized for injuries requiring large surface area of soft tissue reconstruction.

11.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 57(5): 656-659, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Alexis retractor is a device that provides simultaneous radial retraction and wound protection during surgical procedures. Although typically used in abdominal and pelvic surgeries, there has been increased development of novel operative techniques utilizing the Alexis retractors in head and neck surgeries. METHODS: We describe 2 cases of utilizing the Alexis retractor to attain transoral exposure in the setting of free flap reconstruction of intraoral defects. RESULTS: In both cases, the Alexis retractor provided improved retraction, decreasing the number of instruments required for adequate exposure. Additionally, the polyurethane sheath component acted as a protective membrane over the lips and mucosa. CONCLUSIONS: The Alexis retractor can be a powerful retraction tool for certain surgical procedures involving the head and neck regions.

13.
J Reconstr Microsurg ; 36(3): 171-176, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lateral femoral circumflex artery (LFCA) system, which supplies the anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap territory, offers a plethora of tissue types for composite, functional reconstruction. However, the ability to include a reliable and flexible osseous component is limited. Based on cadaveric dissections, we describe an isolated LFCA branch to the femur separate from the vastus intermedius that can be included in ALT flap harvest in cases requiring bony reconstruction. METHODS: Cadaveric dissection was undertaken to define the LFCA vascular system with specific dissection of the proximal branches of the descending branch of the LFCA (db-LFCA) to define any muscular, periosteal, and/or osseous branches to the femur. RESULTS: Six thighs in four cadavers were dissected. Consistent in all specimens, there was an isolated branch extending distally, medially, and posteriorly from the proximal LFCA and entering the periosteum of the femur. In five specimens, the identified branch to the femur was located approximately 1-cm distal to the rectus femoris branch of the LFCA and approximately 1-cm proximal to a separate branch entering and supplying the vastus intermedius. In one specimen, there was a common trunk. The length of this branch from the origin at the LFCA to insertion into the femoral periosteum was approximately 6 to 8 cm. CONCLUSION: There appears to be a consistent and reliable branch to the femur based on the proximal LFCA that may be included in ALT flap harvest, adding even more versatility, as another option in complex cases requiring composite reconstruction, including bone.

14.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(1): 235-240, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the surgical microscope remains the most common tool used for visual magnification for microsurgical anastomoses in free tissue transfer, loupe-only magnification for free flap breast reconstruction has been demonstrated to be safe and effective. To evaluate the loupe-only technique in lower extremity free flap reconstruction, the authors compared perioperative outcomes between microsurgical anastomoses performed with loupe magnification versus a surgical microscope. METHODS: The authors conducted a two-institution retrospective study of soft-tissue free flaps for traumatic below-knee reconstruction. Optimal subgroup matching was performed using patient age, defect location, flap type (muscle versus fasciocutaneous), and time from injury (acute, <30 days; remote, >30 days) for conditional logistic regression analysis of perioperative outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 373 flaps met inclusion criteria for direct matched comparison of anastomoses performed with loupe magnification (n = 150) versus a surgical microscope (n = 223). Overall major complication rates were 15.3 percent: take-back for vascular compromise, 7.8 percent; partial flap failure, 7.8 percent; and total flap loss, 5.4 percent. No differences were observed between the loupe and microscope groups regarding major complications (14.0 percent versus 16.1 percent; OR, 0.78; 95 percent CI, 0.38 to 1.59), take-back for vascular compromise (5.3 percent versus 9.4 percent; OR, 0.51; 95 percent CI, 0.19 to 1.39), any flap failure (13.3 percent versus 13.0 percent; OR, 1.21; 95 percent CI, 0.56 to 2.64), partial flap failure (7.3 percent versus 8.1 percent; OR, 1.04; 95 percent CI, 0.43 to 2.54), and total flap loss (6.0 percent versus 4.9 percent; OR, 1.63; 95 percent CI, 0.42 to 6.35). CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative complication rates, take-backs for vascular compromise, partial flap losses, and total flap failure rates were not significantly different between the matched loupe and microscope groups. Overall microsurgical success rates in traumatic lower extremity free flap reconstruction appear to be independent of the microsurgical technique used for visual magnification. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III.

15.
Microsurgery ; 40(1): 44-50, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30675735

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is a dearth of literature dedicated to specifically evaluating the use of free flap reconstruction in pediatric lower extremity traumas. This study aims to identify specific risk factors for flap failure in pediatric lower extremity trauma reconstruction. METHODS: Retrospective review of 53 free flaps in our lower extremity database (1979-2017) identified all free flaps performed for traumatic reconstruction in children <18 years of age at our institution. RESULTS: Fifty-three free flaps (11.1%) were performed in 49 pediatric patients. The majority of patients were male (69.8%). Arterial injury was present in 19 patients (35.8%) and was associated with significantly higher flap failure rates compared to patients without arterial injury (36.8% vs 8.8%, P = 0.020) with RR = 6.0. This was again found to be true on multivariable logistic regression controlling for age, sex, flap type, and degree of arterial or venous mismatch (RR = 53, P = 0.016). Analysis of anastomotic vessel sizes revealed significantly increased risk of flap failure with increasing degree of arterial size mismatch on logistic regression (RR = 6.1, p = .02). Similar analysis for venous data was performed and revealed trending towards similar findings without reaching statistical significance (P = .086); however, the presence of any venous size mismatch was associated with significantly increased risk of flap failure on χ2 analysis (P = 0.041). CONCLUSION: Free flap reconstruction in the pediatric trauma population is safe with similar survival outcomes when compared to the adult population. Arterial injury and vessel size mismatch were associated with significantly higher flap failure rates in this population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III.

17.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 144(4): 982-987, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gustilo type IIIC open tibia fractures are characterized by an ischemic limb requiring immediate arterial repair. In this patient population, the decision between primary amputation and limb salvage can be challenging. This study aims to evaluate the reconstructive outcomes of patients with Gustilo type IIIC injuries. METHODS: A single-center retrospective review of 806 lower extremity free flaps from 1976 to 2016 was performed. Flap loss and salvage rates for patients with Gustilo type IIIC injuries were determined. To determine the utility of performing salvage in this group, outcomes of the IIIC reconstructions were compared to those of similar patients with Gustilo I type IIB injuries with only a single patent vessel. RESULTS: A total of 32 patients with Gustilo type IIIC injuries underwent reconstruction after traumatic injury. Ten patients (31.3 percent) experienced a perioperative complication, including seven unplanned returns to the operating room (21.9 percent), three partial flap losses (9.4 percent), and five complete flap losses (15.6 percent). When type IIIC injuries were compared with single-vessel Gustilo type IIIB injuries, no statistically significant differences were noted with respect to major perioperative complications (p = 0.527), unplanned return to the operating room (p = 0.06), partial flap loss (p = 0.209), complete flap loss (p = 0.596), or salvage rate (p = 0.368). Although this result was not statistically significant, Gustilo type IIIC injuries trended toward lower take-back rates and higher salvage rates compared with single-vessel Gustilo type IIIB injuries. CONCLUSION: Patients with Gustilo type IIIC open tibia fractures should be considered candidates for limb salvage, as flap loss and reconstruction of these injuries are comparable to those of the routinely reconstructed single-vessel runoff type IIIB injuries. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.


Assuntos
Retalhos de Tecido Biológico , Isquemia/cirurgia , Traumatismos da Perna/cirurgia , Perna (Membro)/irrigação sanguínea , Perna (Membro)/cirurgia , Salvamento de Membro/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Fraturas Expostas/classificação , Fraturas Expostas/complicações , Humanos , Isquemia/etiologia , Traumatismos da Perna/classificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas da Tíbia/classificação , Fraturas da Tíbia/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Surg Res ; 243: 509-514, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of our study was to evaluate risk factors for wound complications in patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing transmetatarsal amputations (TMAs), given the paucity of research on this subject. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. In this retrospective analysis, all surgical cases with a primary Current Procedural Terminology code for TMA from 2009 to 2015 were reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 2316 patients with diabetes mellitus who underwent TMA were identified. Overall wound complications occurred in 276 (11.9%) of patients. Univariate analysis showed that the operative time was significantly longer in patients who developed complications than those who did not (58.3 ± 39.5 versus 50.6 ± 39.4; P = 0.003). Furthermore, the rate of obesity was significantly higher among patients who developed wound complications than those who did not (47.1% versus 41.5%; P = 0.04). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that a longer operative time (odds ratio = 1.02; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.04; P = 0.01) and obesity (odds ratio = 1.60; 95% confidence interval: 1.06-2.40; P = 0.03) were independent risk factors for wound complications in our cohort. CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasize the importance of having heightened clinical vigilance in obese patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing this procedure, close postoperative follow-up, and limiting operative time when possible.


Assuntos
Amputação/efeitos adversos , Pé Diabético/cirurgia , Ossos do Metatarso/cirurgia , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Pé Diabético/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/etiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 144(3): 759-767, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marko Godina, in his landmark paper in 1986, established the principle of early flap coverage for reconstruction of traumatic lower extremity injuries. The aim of this study was to determine how timing influences outcomes in lower extremity traumatic free flap reconstruction based on Godina's original findings. METHODS: A retrospective review identified 358 soft-tissue free flaps from 1979 to 2016 for below knee trauma performed within 1 year of injury. Patients were stratified based on timing of coverage: 3 days or less (early), 4 to 90 days (delayed), and more than 90 days (late). The delayed group was further divided into two groups: 4 to 9 days and 10 to 90 days. Flap outcomes were examined based on timing of reconstruction. RESULTS: Flaps performed within 3 days after injury compared with between 4 to 90 days had decreased risk of major complications (OR, 0.40, p = 0.04). A receiver operating curve demonstrated day 10 to be the optimal day for predicting flap success. Flaps performed less than or equal to 3 days versus 4 to 9 days had no differences in any flap outcomes. In contrast, flaps performed within 4 to 9 days of injury compared to within 10 to 90 days were associated with significantly lower total flap failure rates (relative risk, 0.29, p = 0.025) and major complications (relative risk, 0.37, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Early free flap reconstruction performed within 3 days of injury had superior outcomes compared with the delayed (4 to 90 day) group, consistent with Godina's original findings. However, as an update to his paradigm, this ideal early period of reconstruction can be safely extended to within 10 days of injury without an adverse effect on outcomes. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III.


Assuntos
Microcirurgia/métodos , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/terapia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Retalhos de Tecido Biológico/transplante , História do Século XX , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Masculino , Microcirurgia/história , Microcirurgia/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/história , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/história , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 144(2): 264e-283e, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Facial transplantation introduced a paradigm shift in the reconstruction of extensive facial defects. Although the feasibility of the procedure is well established, new challenges face the field in its second decade. METHODS: The authors' team has successfully treated patients with extensive thermal and ballistic facial injuries with allotransplantation. The authors further validate facial transplantation as a reconstructive solution for irreparable facial injuries. Following informed consent and institutional review board approval, a partial face and double jaw transplantation was performed in a 25-year-old man who sustained ballistic facial trauma. Extensive team preparations, thorough patient evaluation, preoperative diagnostic imaging, three-dimensional printing technology, intraoperative surgical navigation, and the use of dual induction immunosuppression contributed to the success of the procedure. RESULTS: The procedure was performed on January 5 and 6, 2018, and lasted nearly 25 hours. The patient underwent hyoid and genioglossus advancement for floor-of-mouth dehiscence, and palate wound dehiscence repair on postoperative day 11. Open reduction and internal fixation of left mandibular nonunion were performed on postoperative day 108. Nearly 1 year postoperatively, the patient demonstrates excellent aesthetic outcomes, intelligible speech, and is tolerating an oral diet. He remains free from acute rejection. CONCLUSIONS: The authors validate facial transplantation as the modern answer to the classic reconstructive challenge imposed by extensive facial defects resulting from ballistic injury. Relying on a multidisciplinary collaborative approach, coupled with innovative emerging technologies and immunosuppression protocols, can overcome significant challenges in facial transplantation and reinforce its position as the highest rung on the reconstructive ladder. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, V.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Faciais/cirurgia , Transplante de Face/métodos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Impressão Tridimensional , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Adulto , Traumatismos Faciais/diagnóstico , Transplante de Face/efeitos adversos , Seguimentos , Balística Forense , Rejeição de Enxerto , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
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