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2.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e28036, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Complicated lymphatic anomalies (CLAs) are chronic, progressive, and debilitating conditions that share clinical features, yet key elements for optimal evaluation and management have not been established. We aimed to formulate expert opinion consensus-based guidelines for comprehensive evaluation of CLAs. STUDY DESIGN: Patient support groups dedicated to CLAs organized an international conference for vascular anomaly experts from 16 specialties to address the objective. Participants received a set of questions before the meeting and reviewed the literature. Data extracted from international lymphatic anomaly registries were presented and the group separated for panel discussions during the conference. The recommendations achieving consensus within the panel were presented to the entire audience. Open debate occurred until majority approval was achieved. RESULTS: The expert group was composed of 52 physicians who defined the clinical elements required to evaluate and diagnose a CLA. The radiology panel established the preferred anatomical and functional imaging methods for diagnosis and the elements required to be described during interpretation. Two medical panels compiled the metabolic and hematologic tests at diagnosis and also recommended functional studies. The surgical group recommended precautions for biopsy and the pathology panel provided biopsy specimen processing guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CLAs require a comprehensive and targeted diagnostic plan for appropriate management, prevention of complications, and conservation of resources. As this population is managed by diverse medical and surgical specialties, we offer an expert multidisciplinary consensus-based opinion on the current literature and on data extracted from international lymphatic anomaly registries.

3.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(10): 4683-4694, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393556

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The endocannabinoid system uses tissue-specific lipid ligands and G protein‒coupled transmembrane receptors to regulate neurologic, metabolic, and immune responses. Recent studies demonstrate that the endocannabinoid system influences bone metabolism. With the increasing use of endocannabinoid mimetics (e.g., tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol), the involvement of endocannabinoids in bone growth and remodeling has become clinically relevant. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: This literature review is based on a search of PubMed and Google Scholar databases as of June 2019 for all English-language publications relating to cannabinoids and bone. We evaluated retrieved articles for relevance, experimental design, data acquisition, statistical analysis, and conclusions. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Preclinical studies establish a role for endocannabinoids in bone metabolism. These studies yield complex and often contradictory results attributed to differences in the specific experimental model examined. Studies using human cells or subjects are limited. CONCLUSIONS: In vitro and animal models document that endocannabinoids are involved in bone biology. The relevance of these observations to humans is not clear. The increasing long-term use of medical and recreational cannabis underscores the need to better understand the role of endocannabinoids in human bone metabolism. Moreover, it is important to evaluate the role of endocannabinoids as a therapeutic target to prevent and treat disorders associated with bone loss.

4.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(11): 5136-5147, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369089

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Conventional hypoparathyroidism treatment with oral calcium and active vitamin D is aimed at correcting hypocalcemia but does not address other physiologic defects caused by PTH deficiency. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate long-term safety and tolerability of recombinant human PTH (1-84) [rhPTH(1-84)]. DESIGN: Open-label extension study; 5-year interim analysis. SETTING: 12 US centers. PATIENTS: Adults (N = 49) with chronic hypoparathyroidism. INTERVENTION(S): rhPTH(1-84) 25 or 50 µg/d initially, with 25-µg adjustments permitted to a 100 µg/d maximum. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Safety parameters; composite efficacy outcome was the proportion of patients with ≥50% reduction in oral calcium (or ≤500 mg/d) and calcitriol (or ≤0.25 µg/d) doses, and albumin-corrected serum calcium normalized or maintained compared with baseline, not exceeding upper limit of normal. RESULTS: Forty patients completed 60 months of treatment. Mean albumin-corrected serum calcium levels remained between 8.2 and 8.7 mg/dL. Between baseline and month 60, levels ± SD of urinary calcium, serum phosphorus, and calcium-phosphorus product decreased by 101.2 ± 236.24 mg/24 hours, 1.0 ± 0.78 mg/dL, and 8.5 ± 8.29 mg2/dL2, respectively. Serum creatinine level and estimated glomerular filtration rate were unchanged. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) were reported in 48 patients (98.0%; hypocalcemia, 36.7%; muscle spasms, 32.7%; paresthesia, 30.6%; sinusitis, 30.6%; nausea, 30.6%) and serious AEs in 13 (26.5%). At month 60, 28 patients (70.0%) achieved the composite efficacy outcome. Bone turnover markers increased, peaked at ∼12 months, and then declined to values that remained above baseline. CONCLUSION: Treatment with rhPTH(1-84) for 5 years demonstrated a safety profile consistent with previous studies and improved key biochemical parameters.

5.
Nat Med ; 25(7): 1116-1122, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263281

RESUMO

The treatment of lymphatic anomaly, a rare devastating disease spectrum of mostly unknown etiologies, depends on the patient manifestations1. Identifying the causal genes will allow for developing affordable therapies in keeping with precision medicine implementation2. Here we identified a recurrent gain-of-function ARAF mutation (c.640T>C:p.S214P) in a 12-year-old boy with advanced anomalous lymphatic disease unresponsive to conventional sirolimus therapy and in another, unrelated, adult patient. The mutation led to loss of a conserved phosphorylation site. Cells transduced with ARAF-S214P showed elevated ERK1/2 activity, enhanced lymphangiogenic capacity, and disassembly of actin skeleton and VE-cadherin junctions, which were rescued using the MEK inhibitor trametinib. The functional relevance of the mutation was also validated by recreating a lymphatic phenotype in a zebrafish model, with rescue of the anomalous phenotype using a MEK inhibitor. Subsequent therapy of the lead proband with a MEK inhibitor led to dramatic clinical improvement, with remodeling of the patient's lymphatic system with resolution of the lymphatic edema, marked improvement in his pulmonary function tests, cessation of supplemental oxygen requirements and near normalization of daily activities. Our results provide a representative demonstration of how knowledge of genetic classification and mechanistic understanding guides biologically based medical treatments, which in our instance was life-saving.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Linfáticas/genética , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas A-raf/genética , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinonas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Anormalidades Linfáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Peixe-Zebra
7.
8.
J Hepatol ; 71(2): 366-370, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a multifactorial condition and the most common liver disease worldwide, affecting more than one-third of the population. So far there have been no reports on mendelian inheritance in families with NAFLD. METHODS: We performed whole-exome or targeted next-generation sequencing on patients with autosomal dominant NAFLD. RESULTS: We report a heritable form of NAFLD and/or dyslipidemia due to monoallelic ABHD5 mutations, with complete clinical expression after the fourth decade of life, in 7 unrelated multiplex families encompassing 39 affected individuals. The prevalence of ABHD5-associated NAFLD was estimated to be 1 in 1,137 individuals in a normal population. CONCLUSION: We associate a Mendelian form of NAFLD and/or dyslipidemia with monoallelic ABHD5 mutations. LAY SUMMARY: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common multifactorial disorder with a strong genetic component. Inherited forms of NAFLD have been suspected but, their molecular pathogenesis has not been disclosed. Here we report a heritable form of NAFLD with clinical expression after 40 years of age, associated with monoallelic ABHD5 mutations.

10.
J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol ; 11(3): 220-226, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759962

RESUMO

Reports suggesting that vitamin D may have extraskeletal roles have renewed interest in vitamin D research and stimulated publication of an increasing number of new studies each year. These studies typically assess vitamin D status by measuring the blood concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the principal circulating metabolite of vitamin D. Unfortunately, variations in assay format, inconsistency in interpreting 25(OH)D concentrations, cohort bias (age, body mass index, race, season of measurements etc.) and failure to measure critical variables needed to interpret study results, makes interpreting results and comparing studies difficult. Further, variation in reporting results (reporting mean values vs. percent of the cohort that is deficient, no clear statement as to clinical relevance of effect size, etc.) further limits interstudy analyses. In this paper, we discuss many common pitfalls in vitamin D research. We also provide recommendations on avoiding these pitfalls and suggest guidelines to enhance consistency in reporting results.

11.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(6): 1068-1073, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790351

RESUMO

Normal vitamin D homeostasis is critical for optimal health; nevertheless, vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide public health problem. Vitamin D insufficiency is most commonly due to inadequate cutaneous synthesis of cholecalciferol and/or insufficient intake of vitamin D, but can also arise as a consequence of pathological states such as obesity. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D (calcidiol) are low in obesity, and fail to increase appropriately after vitamin D supplementation. Although sequestration of vitamin D in adipose tissues or dilution of ingested or cutaneously synthesized vitamin D in the large fat mass of obese patients has been proposed to explain these findings, here we investigate the alternative mechanism that reduced capacity to convert parent vitamin D to 25(OH)D due to decreased expression of CYP2R1, the principal hepatic vitamin D 25-hydroxylase. To test this hypothesis, we isolated livers from female mice of 6 to 24 weeks of age, weaned onto either a normal chow diet or a high-fat diet, and determined the abundance of Cyp2r1 mRNA using digital droplet-quantitative PCR. We observed a significant (p < 0.001) decrease in Cyp2r1 mRNA in the liver of high-fat diet-fed mice relative to lean-chow-fed female mice. Moreover, there was a significant (p < 0.01) relationship between levels of Cyp2r1 mRNA and serum 25(OH)D concentrations as well as between Cyp2R1 mRNA and the ratio of circulating 25(OH)D3 to cholecalciferol (p < 0.0001). Using linear regression we determined a curve with 25(OH)D3/cholecalciferol versus normalized Cyp2R1 mRNA abundance with an R2 value of 0.85. Finally, we performed ex vivo activity assays of isolated livers and found that obese mice generated significantly less 25(OH)D3 than lean mice (p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that expression of CYP2R1 is reduced in obesity and accounts in part for the decreased circulating 25(OH)D. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

12.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am ; 47(4): 809-823, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390815

RESUMO

Hypoparathyroidism is characterized by hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia and is due to insufficient levels of circulating parathyroid hormone. Hypoparathyroidism may be an isolated condition or a component of a complex syndrome. Although genetic disorders are not the most common cause of hypoparathyroidism, molecular analyses have identified a growing number of genes that when defective result in impaired formation of the parathyroid glands, disordered synthesis or secretion of parathyroid hormone, or postnatal destruction of the parathyroid glands.

13.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am ; 47(4): 865-888, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390819

RESUMO

Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) refers to a heterogeneous group of uncommon, yet related metabolic disorders that are characterized by impaired activation of the Gsα/cAMP/PKA signaling pathway by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and other hormones that interact with Gsa-coupled receptors. Proximal renal tubular resistance to PTH and thus hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, frequently in presence of brachydactyly, ectopic ossification, early-onset obesity, or short stature are common features of PHP. Registries and large cohorts of patients are needed to conduct clinical and genetic research, to improve the still limited knowledge regarding the underlying disease mechanisms, and allow the development of novel therapies.

15.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2018 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130617

RESUMO

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a prototype of heritable ectopic mineralization disorders, is caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene encoding a putative efflux transporter ABCC6. It was recently shown that the absence of ABCC6-mediated adenosine triphosphate release from the liver and, consequently, reduced inorganic pyrophosphate levels underlie the pathogenesis of PXE. Given that tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), encoded by ALPL, is the enzyme responsible for degrading inorganic pyrophosphate, we hypothesized that reducing TNAP levels either by genetic or pharmacological means would lead to amelioration of the ectopic mineralization phenotype in the Abcc6-/- mouse model of PXE. Thus, we bred Abcc6-/- mice to heterozygous Alpl+/- mice that display approximately 50% plasma TNAP activity. The Abcc6-/-Alpl+/- double-mutant mice showed 52% reduction of mineralization in the muzzle skin compared with the Abcc6-/-Alpl+/+ mice. Subsequently, oral administration of SBI-425, a small molecule inhibitor of TNAP, resulted in 61% reduction of plasma TNAP activity and 58% reduction of mineralization in the muzzle skin of Abcc6-/- mice. By contrast, SBI-425 treatment of Enpp1 mutant mice, another model of ectopic mineralization associated with reduced inorganic pyrophosphate, failed to reduce muzzle skin mineralization. These results suggest that inhibition of TNAP might provide a promising treatment strategy for PXE, a currently intractable disease.

16.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(11): 4023-4032, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137364

RESUMO

Context: Most cases of autosomal dominant isolated hypoparathyroidism are caused by gain-of-function mutations in CASR or GNA11 or dominant negative mutations in GCM2 or PTH. Objective: To identify the genetic etiology for dominantly transmitted isolated hypoparathyroidism in two multigenerational families with 14 affected family members. Methods: We performed whole exome sequencing of DNA from two families and examined the consequences of mutations by minigene splicing assay. Results: We discovered disease-causing mutations in both families. A splice-altering mutation in TBX1 (c.1009+1G>C) leading to skipping of exon 8 (101 bp) was identified in 10 affected family members and five unaffected subjects of family A, indicating reduced penetrance for this point mutation. In a second family from France (family B), we identified another splice-altering mutation (c.1009+2T>C) adjacent to the mutation identified in family A that results in skipping of the same exon; two subjects in family B had isolated hypoparathyroidism, whereas a third subject manifested the clinical triad of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, indicative of variable expressivity. Conclusions: We report evidence that heterozygous TBX1 mutations can cause isolated hypoparathyroidism. This study adds knowledge to the increasingly expanding list of causative and candidate genes in isolated hypoparathyroidism.

17.
Oncotarget ; 9(56): 30721-30730, 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30112102

RESUMO

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) and generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) are heritable disorders manifesting with ectopic tissue mineralization. Most cases of PXE and some cases of GACI are caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene, resulting in reduced plasma pyrophosphate (PPi) levels. There is no effective treatment for these disorders. It has been suggested that administration of bisphosphonates, stable and non-hydrolyzable PPi analogs, could counteract ectopic mineralization in these disorders. In this study we tested the potential efficacy of etidronate, a first generation bisphosphonate, on ectopic mineralization in the muzzle skin of Abcc6-/- mice, a model of PXE. The Abcc6-/- mice received subcutaneous injections of etidronate, 0.283 and 3.40 mg/kg per injection (0.01× and 0.12×), twice a week, in both prevention and reversal studies. Ectopic mineralization in the dermal sheath of vibrissae in muzzle skin was determined by histopathologic analysis and by direct chemical assay for calcium content. Subcutaneous injection of etidronate prevented ectopic mineralization but did not reverse existing mineralization. The effect of etidronate was accompanied by alterations in the trabecular bone microarchitecture, determined by micro-computed tomography. The results suggest that etidronate may offer a potential treatment modality for PXE and GACI caused by ABCC6 mutations. Etidronate therapy should be initiated in PXE patients as soon as the diagnosis is made, with careful monitoring of potential side effects.

18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(9): 3124-3130, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30032172

RESUMO

Context: Gestational gigantomastia is an uncommon condition characterized by abnormal and excessive growth of breast tissue during an otherwise uncomplicated pregnancy. Gestational gigantomastia may be accompanied by hypercalcemia, which in some cases has been associated with elevated serum levels of PTHrP. The source of the PTHrP in these cases has been suggested to be the enlarged breasts. Objective: To describe the rapid resolution of hypercalcemia and normalization of serum PTHrP after elective termination of pregnancy, indicating that the placenta was the source of the PTHrP. Design: A retrospective analysis of clinical and biochemical data over a 2-year interval and review of literature. Setting: An academic medical center. Patient: A 33-year-old G8P4 female who presented at week 8 of pregnancy with gestational gigantomastia and subsequently developed marked hypercalcemia at week 13. Serum levels of PTH were suppressed but circulating PTHrP was elevated. There was no history of hypercalcemia or significant breast growth during previous pregnancies. Intervention: Hypercalcemia was poorly responsive to IV saline, prednisone, calcitonin, and cinacalcet. She requested termination of pregnancy at week 20. Results: Serum levels of calcium, PTH, and PTHrP normalized within 48 hours of termination of pregnancy. Conclusion: The rapid resolution of hypercalcemia after termination of pregnancy, despite persistent gigantomastia, provides evidence for a pathologic role of the placenta in the excess production of PTHrP, possibly through an as yet uncharacterized placenta-breast hormonal axis.

19.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 14(8): 476-500, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29959430

RESUMO

This Consensus Statement covers recommendations for the diagnosis and management of patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) and related disorders, which comprise metabolic disorders characterized by physical findings that variably include short bones, short stature, a stocky build, early-onset obesity and ectopic ossifications, as well as endocrine defects that often include resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH) and TSH. The presentation and severity of PHP and its related disorders vary between affected individuals with considerable clinical and molecular overlap between the different types. A specific diagnosis is often delayed owing to lack of recognition of the syndrome and associated features. The participants in this Consensus Statement agreed that the diagnosis of PHP should be based on major criteria, including resistance to PTH, ectopic ossifications, brachydactyly and early-onset obesity. The clinical and laboratory diagnosis should be confirmed by a molecular genetic analysis. Patients should be screened at diagnosis and during follow-up for specific features, such as PTH resistance, TSH resistance, growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadism, skeletal deformities, oral health, weight gain, glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, as well as subcutaneous and/or deeper ectopic ossifications and neurocognitive impairment. Overall, a coordinated and multidisciplinary approach from infancy through adulthood, including a transition programme, should help us to improve the care of patients affected by these disorders.

20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(18): 3233-3245, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29905864

RESUMO

Central conducting lymphatic anomaly (CCLA) is one of the complex lymphatic anomalies characterized by dilated lymphatic channels, lymphatic channel dysmotility and distal obstruction affecting lymphatic drainage. We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) of DNA from a four-generation pedigree and examined the consequences of the variant by transfection of mammalian cells and morpholino and rescue studies in zebrafish. WES revealed a heterozygous mutation in EPHB4 (RefSeq NM_004444.4; c.2334 + 1G>C) and RNA-Seq demonstrated that the EPHB4 mutation destroys the normal donor site, which leads to the use of a cryptic splice donor that results in retention of the intervening 12-bp intron sequence. Transient co-expression of the wild-type and mutant EPHB4 proteins showed reduced phosphorylation of tyrosine, consistent with a loss-of-function effect. Zebrafish ephb4a morpholino resulted in vessel misbranching and deformities in the lymphatic vessel development, indicative of possible differentiation defects in lymphatic vessels, mimicking the lymphatic presentations of the patients. Immunoblot analysis using zebrafish lysates demonstrated over-activation of mTORC1 as a consequence of reduced EPHB4 signaling. Strikingly, drugs that inhibit mTOR signaling or RAS-MAPK signaling effectively rescued the misbranching phenotype in a comparable manner. Moreover, knock-in of EPHB4 mutation in HEK293T cells also induced mTORC1 activity. Our data demonstrate the pathogenicity of the identified EPHB4 mutation as a novel cause of CCLA and suggesting that ERK inhibitors may have therapeutic benefits in such patients with complex lymphatic anomalies.

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