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1.
Blood ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430500

RESUMO

Secondary acute myeloid leukemias (AML) evolving from an antecedent myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) are characterized by a unique set of cytogenetic and molecular features distinct from de novo AML. Given the high frequency of poor-risk cytogenetic and molecular features, malignant clones are frequently insensitive to traditional AML chemotherapeutic agents. Allogeneic stem cell transplant, the only treatment modality shown to have any beneficial long-term outcome, is often not possible given the advanced age of patients at time of diagnosis and frequent presence of competing co-morbidities. Even in this setting, relapse rates remain high. As a result, outcomes are generally poor and there remains a significant unmet need for novel therapeutic strategies. While advances in cancer genomics have dramatically enhanced our understanding of the molecular events governing clonal evolution in MPNs, the cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic mechanisms driving leukemic transformation at this level remain poorly understood. Here, we review known risk factors for the development of leukemic transformation in MPNs, recent progress made in our understanding of the molecular features associated with leukemic transformation, current treatment strategies, and emerging therapeutic options for this high-risk myeloid malignancy.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398288

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by attenuation of lineage differentiation trajectories that results in impaired hematopoiesis and enhanced self-renewal. To date, sequencing studies have provided a rich landscape of information on the somatic mutations that contribute to AML pathogenesis. These studies show that most AML genomes harbor relatively fewer mutations, which are acquired in a stepwise manner. Our understanding of the genetic basis of leukemogenesis informs a broader understanding of what initiates and maintains the AML clone and informs the development of prognostic models and mechanism-based therapeutic strategies. Here, we explore the current knowledge of genetic and epigenetic aberrations in AML pathogenesis and how recent studies are expanding our knowledge of leukemogenesis and using this to accelerate therapeutic development for AML patients.

3.
Cell Rep ; 30(10): 3397-3410.e5, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160545

RESUMO

Defective cholesterol efflux pathways in mice promote the expansion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and a bias toward the myeloid lineage, as observed in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). Here, we identify 5 somatic missense mutations in ABCA1 in 26 patients with CMML. These mutations confer a proliferative advantage to monocytic leukemia cell lines in vitro. In vivo inactivation of ABCA1 or expression of ABCA1 mutants in hematopoietic cells in the setting of Tet2 loss demonstrates a myelosuppressive function of ABCA1. Mechanistically, ABCA1 mutations impair the tumor-suppressor functions of WT ABCA1 in myeloproliferative neoplasms by increasing the IL-3Rß signaling via MAPK and JAK2 and subsequent metabolic reprogramming. Overexpression of a human apolipoprotein A-1 transgene dampens myeloproliferation. These findings identify somatic mutations in ABCA1 that subvert its anti-proliferative and cholesterol efflux functions and permit the progression of myeloid neoplasms. Therapeutic increases in HDL bypass these defects and restore normal hematopoiesis.

4.
Nat Genet ; 52(4): 378-387, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203468

RESUMO

Mutations in genes involved in DNA methylation (DNAme; for example, TET2 and DNMT3A) are frequently observed in hematological malignancies1-3 and clonal hematopoiesis4,5. Applying single-cell sequencing to murine hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, we observed that these mutations disrupt hematopoietic differentiation, causing opposite shifts in the frequencies of erythroid versus myelomonocytic progenitors following Tet2 or Dnmt3a loss. Notably, these shifts trace back to transcriptional priming skews in uncommitted hematopoietic stem cells. To reconcile genome-wide DNAme changes with specific erythroid versus myelomonocytic skews, we provide evidence in support of differential sensitivity of transcription factors due to biases in CpG enrichment in their binding motif. Single-cell transcriptomes with targeted genotyping showed similar skews in transcriptional priming of DNMT3A-mutated human clonal hematopoiesis bone marrow progenitors. These data show that DNAme shapes the topography of hematopoietic differentiation, and support a model in which genome-wide methylation changes are transduced to differentiation skews through biases in CpG enrichment of the transcription factor binding motif.

5.
Cell Rep ; 30(10): 3280-3295.e6, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160537

RESUMO

Genome editing technologies have transformed our ability to engineer desired genomic changes within living systems. However, detecting precise genomic modifications often requires sophisticated, expensive, and time-consuming experimental approaches. Here, we describe DTECT (Dinucleotide signaTurE CapTure), a rapid and versatile detection method that relies on the capture of targeted dinucleotide signatures resulting from the digestion of genomic DNA amplicons by the type IIS restriction enzyme AcuI. DTECT enables the accurate quantification of marker-free precision genome editing events introduced by CRISPR-dependent homology-directed repair, base editing, or prime editing in various biological systems, such as mammalian cell lines, organoids, and tissues. Furthermore, DTECT allows the identification of oncogenic mutations in cancer mouse models, patient-derived xenografts, and human cancer patient samples. The ease, speed, and cost efficiency by which DTECT identifies genomic signatures should facilitate the generation of marker-free cellular and animal models of human disease and expedite the detection of human pathogenic variants.

6.
Science ; 367(6477): 586-590, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001657

RESUMO

The initiating mutations that contribute to cancer development are sometimes present in premalignant cells. Whether therapies targeting these mutations can eradicate premalignant cells is unclear. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an attractive system for investigating the effect of preventative treatment because this disease is often preceded by a premalignant state (clonal hematopoiesis or myelodysplastic syndrome). In Npm1c/Dnmt3a mutant knock-in mice, a model of AML development, leukemia is preceded by a period of extended myeloid progenitor cell proliferation and self-renewal. We found that this self-renewal can be reversed by oral administration of a small molecule (VTP-50469) that targets the MLL1-Menin chromatin complex. These preclinical results support the hypothesis that individuals at high risk of developing AML might benefit from targeted epigenetic therapy in a preventative setting.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética/métodos , Leucemia Experimental/prevenção & controle , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Pré-Leucemia/terapia , Animais , Cromatina/metabolismo , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Leucemia Experimental/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Mutantes , Mutação , Células Progenitoras Mieloides/patologia , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/metabolismo , Pré-Leucemia/genética , Pré-Leucemia/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo
7.
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am ; 34(2): 357-367, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089215

RESUMO

The acquisition of mutations in hematologic stem cells (clonal hematopoiesis) is common with normal aging and can be identified as an incidental finding through clinical genetic testing. Clonal hematopoiesis is associated with a heightened risk of developing hematologic neoplasms (especially myeloid) and accelerated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This article discusses a multidisciplinary clinical approach to the management of patients with clonal hematopoiesis. Key areas of research needed to establish evidence-based clinical care guidelines and intervention strategies for individuals with clonal hematopoiesis are discussed.

8.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 34(2): 145-152, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increased myelopoiesis has been linked to risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACD). Excessive myelopoiesis can be driven by dyslipidemia and cholesterol accumulation in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) and may involve increased signaling via Janus kinase 2 (JAK2). Constitutively activating JAK2 mutants drive biased myelopoiesis and promote development of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) or clonal hematopoiesis, conditions associated with increased risk of ACD. JAK2 inhibitors have been developed as a therapy for MPNs. The potential for JAK2 inhibitors to protect against atherosclerosis has not been tested. We therefore assessed the impact of JAK2 inhibition on atherogenesis. METHODS: A selective JAK2 inhibitor TG101348 (fedratinib) or vehicle was given to high-fat high-cholesterol Western diet (WD)-fed wild-type (WT) or Apoe-/- mice. Hematopoietic cell profiles, cell proliferation, and atherosclerosis in WT or Apoe-/- mice were assessed. RESULTS: TG101348 selectively reversed neutrophilia, monocytosis, HSPC, and granulocyte-macrophage progenitor (GMP) expansion in Apoe-/- mice with decreased cellular phosphorylated STAT5 and ERK1/2 and reduced cell cycling and BrdU incorporation in HSPCs, indicating inhibition of JAK/STAT signaling and cell proliferation. Ten-week WD feeding allowed the development of marked aortic atherosclerosis in Apoe-/- mice which was substantially reduced by TG101348. CONCLUSIONS: Selective JAK2 inhibition reduces atherogenesis by suppressing excessive myelopoiesis in hypercholesterolemic Apoe-/- mice. These findings suggest selective JAK2 inhibition as a potential therapeutic approach to decrease ACD risk in patients with increased myelopoiesis and leukocytosis.

9.
Nat Genet ; 52(2): 198-207, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932695

RESUMO

Mutations in ARID1A, a subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, are the most common alterations of the SWI/SNF complex in estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. We identify that ARID1A inactivating mutations are present at a high frequency in advanced endocrine-resistant ER+ breast cancer. An epigenome CRISPR-CAS9 knockout (KO) screen identifies ARID1A as the top candidate whose loss determines resistance to the ER degrader fulvestrant. ARID1A inactivation in cells and in patients leads to resistance to ER degraders by facilitating a switch from ER-dependent luminal cells to ER-independent basal-like cells. Cellular plasticity is mediated by loss of ARID1A-dependent SWI/SNF complex targeting to genomic sites of the luminal lineage-determining transcription factors including ER, forkhead box protein A1 (FOXA1) and GATA-binding factor 3 (GATA3). ARID1A also regulates genome-wide ER-FOXA1 chromatin interactions and ER-dependent transcription. Altogether, we uncover a critical role for ARID1A in maintaining luminal cell identity and endocrine therapeutic response in ER+ breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/genética , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/metabolismo , Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
Curr Opin Hematol ; 27(2): 49-57, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972687

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The mutational landscape of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has revised diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic schemata over the past decade. Recurrently mutated AML genes have functional consequences beyond typical oncogene-driven growth and loss of tumor suppresser function. RECENT FINDINGS: Large-scale genomic sequencing efforts have mapped the complexity of AML and trials of mutation-based targeted therapy has led to several FDA-approved drugs for mutant-specific AML. However, many recurrent mutations have been identified across a spectrum from clonal hematopoiesis to myelodysplasia to overt AML, such as effectors of DNA methylation, chromatin modifiers, and spliceosomal machinery. The functional effects of these mutations are the basis for substantial discovery. SUMMARY: Understanding the molecular and pathophysiologic functions of key genes that exert leukemogenic potential is essential towards translating these findings into better treatment for AML.

12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(1): 107-110, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504684

RESUMO

Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the foundations of adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer. As a complication of cytotoxic regimens, breast cancer patients are at risk for therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs). These t-MNs are commonly refractory to antileukemic therapies and result in poor patient outcomes. We previously demonstrated that somatic mutations in leukemia-related genes are present in the tumor-infiltrating leukocytes (TILeuks) of a subset of early breast cancers. Here, we performed genomic analysis of microdissected breast cancer tumor cells and TILeuks from seven breast cancer patients who subsequently developed leukemia. In four patients, mutations present in the leukemia were detected in breast cancer TILeuks. This finding suggests that TILeuks in the primary breast cancer may harbor the ancestor of the future leukemogenic clone. Additional research is warranted to ascertain whether infiltrating mutant TILeuks could constitute a biomarker for the development of t-MN and to determine the functional consequences of mutant TILeuks.

13.
Blood ; 135(3): 191-207, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750881

RESUMO

Protein acetylation is an important contributor to cancer initiation. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) controls JAK2 translation and protein stability and has been implicated in JAK2-driven diseases best exemplified by myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). By using novel classes of highly selective HDAC inhibitors and genetically deficient mouse models, we discovered that HDAC11 rather than HDAC6 is necessary for the proliferation and survival of oncogenic JAK2-driven MPN cells and patient samples. Notably, HDAC11 is variably expressed in primitive stem cells and is expressed largely upon lineage commitment. Although Hdac11is dispensable for normal homeostatic hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell differentiation based on chimeric bone marrow reconstitution, Hdac11 deficiency significantly reduced the abnormal megakaryocyte population, improved splenic architecture, reduced fibrosis, and increased survival in the MPLW515L-MPN mouse model during primary and secondary transplantation. Therefore, inhibitors of HDAC11 are an attractive therapy for treating patients with MPN. Although JAK2 inhibitor therapy provides substantial clinical benefit in MPN patients, the identification of alternative therapeutic targets is needed to reverse MPN pathogenesis and control malignant hematopoiesis. This study establishes HDAC11 as a unique type of target molecule that has therapeutic potential in MPN.

15.
Blood Adv ; 3(24): 4228-4237, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869410

RESUMO

Patients with therapy-related acute lymphoblastic leukemia (t-ALL) represent a small subset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients who received genotoxic therapy (ie, chemotherapy or radiation) for a prior malignancy. These patients should be distinguished from patients with de novo ALL (dn-ALL) and ALL patients who have a history of prior malignancy but have not received cytotoxic therapies in the past (acute lymphoblastic leukemia with prior malignancy [pm-ALL]). We report a retrospective multi-institutional study of patients with t-ALL (n = 116), dn-ALL (n = 100), and pm-ALL (n = 20) to investigate the impact of prior cytotoxic therapies on clinical outcomes. Compared with patients with pm-ALL, t-ALL patients had a significantly shorter interval between the first malignancy and ALL diagnosis and a higher frequency of poor-risk cytogenetic features, including KMT2A rearrangements and myelodysplastic syndrome-like abnormalities (eg, monosomal karyotype). We observed a variety of mutations among t-ALL patients, with the majority of patients exhibiting mutations that were more common with myeloid malignancies (eg, DNMT3A, RUNX1, ASXL1), whereas others had ALL-type mutations (eg, CDKN2A, IKZF1). Median overall survival was significantly shorter in the t-ALL cohort compared with patients with dn-ALL or pm-ALL. Patients who were eligible for hematopoietic cell transplantation had improved long-term survival. Collectively, our results support t-ALL as a distinct entity based on its biologic and clinical features.

16.
Nature ; 574(7777): 273-277, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578525

RESUMO

Transcription and pre-mRNA splicing are key steps in the control of gene expression and mutations in genes regulating each of these processes are common in leukaemia1,2. Despite the frequent overlap of mutations affecting epigenetic regulation and splicing in leukaemia, how these processes influence one another to promote leukaemogenesis is not understood and, to our knowledge, there is no functional evidence that mutations in RNA splicing factors initiate leukaemia. Here, through analyses of transcriptomes from 982 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, we identified frequent overlap of mutations in IDH2 and SRSF2 that together promote leukaemogenesis through coordinated effects on the epigenome and RNA splicing. Whereas mutations in either IDH2 or SRSF2 imparted distinct splicing changes, co-expression of mutant IDH2 altered the splicing effects of mutant SRSF2 and resulted in more profound splicing changes than either mutation alone. Consistent with this, co-expression of mutant IDH2 and SRSF2 resulted in lethal myelodysplasia with proliferative features in vivo and enhanced self-renewal in a manner not observed with either mutation alone. IDH2 and SRSF2 double-mutant cells exhibited aberrant splicing and reduced expression of INTS3, a member of the integrator complex3, concordant with increased stalling of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Aberrant INTS3 splicing contributed to leukaemogenesis in concert with mutant IDH2 and was dependent on mutant SRSF2 binding to cis elements in INTS3 mRNA and increased DNA methylation of INTS3. These data identify a pathogenic crosstalk between altered epigenetic state and splicing in a subset of leukaemias, provide functional evidence that mutations in splicing factors drive myeloid malignancy development, and identify spliceosomal changes as a mediator of IDH2-mutant leukaemogenesis.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Epigênese Genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Masculino , Mutação/genética , RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , Fatores de Processamento de Serina-Arginina/genética , Transcriptoma
17.
Leukemia ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628430

RESUMO

RAS-pathway mutations are recurrent events in myeloid malignancies. However, there is limited data on the significance of RAS-pathway mutations in patients with myelofibrosis (MF). We analyzed next-generation sequencing data of 16 genes, including RAS-pathway genes, from 723 patients with primary and secondary MF across three international centers and evaluated their significance. N/KRAS variants were present in 6% of patients and were typically sub-clonal (median VAF = 20%) relative to other genes variants. RAS variants were associated with advanced MF features including leukocytosis (p = 0.02), high somatic mutation burden (p < 0.01) and the presence of established "molecular high-risk" (MHR) mutations. MF patients with N/KRAS mutations had shorter 3-year overall survival (OS) (34% vs 58%, p < 0.001) and higher incidence of acute myeloid leukemia at 3 years (18% vs 11%, p = 0.03). In a multivariate Cox model, RAS mutations were associated with decreased OS (HR 1.93, p < 0.001). We created a novel score to predict OS incorporating RAS mutations, and it predicted OS across training and validation cohorts. Patients with intermediate risk/high-risk DIPSS with RAS mutations who received ruxolitinib had a nonsignificant longer 2-year OS relative to those who did not receive ruxolitinib. These data demonstrate the importance of identifying RAS mutations in MF patients.

18.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(508)2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484791

RESUMO

Targeted inhibitors to oncogenic kinases demonstrate encouraging clinical responses early in the treatment course; however, most patients will relapse because of target-dependent mechanisms that mitigate enzyme-inhibitor binding or through target-independent mechanisms, such as alternate activation of survival and proliferation pathways, known as adaptive resistance. Here, we describe mechanisms of adaptive resistance in FMS-like receptor tyrosine kinase (FLT3)-mutant acute myeloid leukemia (AML) by examining integrative in-cell kinase and gene regulatory network responses after oncogenic signaling blockade by FLT3 inhibitors (FLT3i). We identified activation of innate immune stress response pathways after treatment of FLT3-mutant AML cells with FLT3i and showed that innate immune pathway activation via the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 and 4 (IRAK1/4) complex contributes to adaptive resistance in FLT3-mutant AML cells. To overcome this adaptive resistance mechanism, we developed a small molecule that simultaneously inhibits FLT3 and IRAK1/4 kinases. The multikinase FLT3-IRAK1/4 inhibitor eliminated adaptively resistant FLT3-mutant AML cells in vitro and in vivo and displayed superior efficacy as compared to current targeted FLT3 therapies. These findings uncover a polypharmacologic strategy for overcoming adaptive resistance to therapy in AML by targeting immune stress response pathways.

20.
Cell Stem Cell ; 25(5): 682-696.e8, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495782

RESUMO

Transcriptional regulators, including the cohesin complex member STAG2, are recurrently mutated in cancer. The role of STAG2 in gene regulation, hematopoiesis, and tumor suppression remains unresolved. We show that Stag2 deletion in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) results in altered hematopoietic function, increased self-renewal, and impaired differentiation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing revealed that, although Stag2 and Stag1 bind a shared set of genomic loci, a component of Stag2 binding sites is unoccupied by Stag1, even in Stag2-deficient HSPCs. Although concurrent loss of Stag2 and Stag1 abrogated hematopoiesis, Stag2 loss alone decreased chromatin accessibility and transcription of lineage-specification genes, including Ebf1 and Pax5, leading to increased self-renewal and reduced HSPC commitment to the B cell lineage. Our data illustrate a role for Stag2 in transformation and transcriptional dysregulation distinct from its shared role with Stag1 in chromosomal segregation.

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