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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210069

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to conduct in-depth individual interviews with 30 African American adolescents with overweight and obesity and their families (caregiver/adolescent dyads) to gain a better understanding of how to integrate stress and coping essential elements into an existing family-based health promotion program for weight loss. Interview data from 30 African American adolescents with overweight and obesity (Mage = 15.30 ± 2.18; MBMI%-ile = 96.7 ± 3.90) were transcribed and coded for themes using inductive and deductive approaches by two independent coders. Inter-rater reliability was acceptable (r = 0.70-0.80) and discrepancies were resolved to 100% agreement. The themes were guided by the Relapse Prevention Model, which focuses on assessing barriers of overall coping capacity in high stress situations that may undermine health behavior change (physical activity, diet, weight loss). Prominent themes included feeling stressed primarily in response to relationship conflicts within the family and among peers, school responsibilities, and negative emotions (anxiety, depression, anger). A mix of themes emerged related to coping strategies ranging from cognitive reframing and distraction to avoidant coping. Recommendations for future programs include addressing sources of stress and providing supportive resources, as well as embracing broader systems such as neighborhoods and communities. Implications for future intervention studies are discussed.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Terapia Comportamental , Criança , Dieta/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Programas de Redução de Peso
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(42): 26158-26169, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008885

RESUMO

To explain why an action is wrong, we sometimes say, "What if everybody did that?" In other words, even if a single person's behavior is harmless, that behavior may be wrong if it would be harmful once universalized. We formalize the process of universalization in a computational model, test its quantitative predictions in studies of human moral judgment, and distinguish it from alternative models. We show that adults spontaneously make moral judgments consistent with the logic of universalization, and report comparable patterns of judgment in children. We conclude that, alongside other well-characterized mechanisms of moral judgment, such as outcome-based and rule-based thinking, the logic of universalizing holds an important place in our moral minds.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Julgamento/fisiologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Desenvolvimento Moral , Princípios Morais , Percepção Social , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
iScience ; 23(9): 101515, 2020 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920489

RESUMO

The recent sale of an artificial intelligence (AI)-generated portrait for $432,000 at Christie's art auction has raised questions about how credit and responsibility should be allocated to individuals involved and how the anthropomorphic perception of the AI system contributed to the artwork's success. Here, we identify natural heterogeneity in the extent to which different people perceive AI as anthropomorphic. We find that differences in the perception of AI anthropomorphicity are associated with different allocations of responsibility to the AI system and credit to different stakeholders involved in art production. We then show that perceptions of AI anthropomorphicity can be manipulated by changing the language used to talk about AI-as a tool versus agent-with consequences for artists and AI practitioners. Our findings shed light on what is at stake when we anthropomorphize AI systems and offer an empirical lens to reason about how to allocate credit and responsibility to human stakeholders.

4.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(2): 134-143, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659321

RESUMO

When an automated car harms someone, who is blamed by those who hear about it? Here we asked human participants to consider hypothetical cases in which a pedestrian was killed by a car operated under shared control of a primary and a secondary driver and to indicate how blame should be allocated. We find that when only one driver makes an error, that driver is blamed more regardless of whether that driver is a machine or a human. However, when both drivers make errors in cases of human-machine shared-control vehicles, the blame attributed to the machine is reduced. This finding portends a public under-reaction to the malfunctioning artificial intelligence components of automated cars and therefore has a direct policy implication: allowing the de facto standards for shared-control vehicles to be established in courts by the jury system could fail to properly regulate the safety of those vehicles; instead, a top-down scheme (through federal laws) may be called for.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Automação , Condução de Veículo , Automóveis , Sistemas Homem-Máquina , Segurança , Percepção Social , Acidentes de Trânsito/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Automação/ética , Automação/legislação & jurisprudência , Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência , Automóveis/ética , Automóveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Pedestres/legislação & jurisprudência , Segurança/legislação & jurisprudência
5.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 147(11): 1728-1747, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372115

RESUMO

The presumption of innocence is not only a bedrock principle of American law, but also a fundamental human right. The psychological underpinnings of this presumption, however, are not well understood. To make progress, one important task is to explain how adults and children infer the goals and intentional structure of complex actions, especially when a single action has more than one salient effect. Many theories of moral judgment have either ignored this intention inference problem or have simply assumed a particular solution without empirical support. We propose that this problem may be solved by appealing to domain-specific prior knowledge that is either built-up over the probability of prior intentions or built-in as part of core cognition. We further propose a specific solution to this problem in the moral domain: a good intention prior, which entails a rebuttable presumption that if an action has both good and bad effects, the actor intends the good effects and not the bad effects. Finally, in a series of novel experiments we provide the first empirical support - from both adults and preschool children - for the existence of this good intention prior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Intenção , Julgamento , Princípios Morais , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Compreensão , Feminino , Objetivos , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Cogn Sci ; 42(4): 1229-1264, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29785732

RESUMO

Various theories of moral cognition posit that moral intuitions can be understood as the output of a computational process performed over structured mental representations of human action. We propose that action plan diagrams-"act trees"-can be a useful tool for theorists to succinctly and clearly present their hypotheses about the information contained in these representations. We then develop a methodology for using a series of linguistic probes to test the theories embodied in the act trees. In Study 1, we validate the method by testing a specific hypothesis (diagrammed by act trees) about how subjects are representing two classic moral dilemmas and finding that the data support the hypothesis. In Studies 2-4, we explore possible explanations for discrete and surprising findings that our hypothesis did not predict. In Study 5, we apply the method to a less well-studied case and show how new experiments generated by our method can be used to settle debates about how actions are mentally represented. In Study 6, we argue that our method captures the mental representation of human action better than an alternative approach. A brief conclusion suggests that act trees can be profitably used in various fields interested in complex representations of human action, including law, philosophy, psychology, linguistics, neuroscience, computer science, robotics, and artificial intelligence.


Assuntos
Cognição , Intenção , Julgamento , Princípios Morais , Humanos
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