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1.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression is higher in individuals with autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the observed comorbidities are unknown. Shared genetic etiology is a plausible explanation for the overlap, and in this study we tested whether genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is associated with risk for autoimmune diseases, is also associated with risk for depression. METHODS: We fine-mapped the classical MHC (chr6: 29.6-33.1 Mb), imputing 216 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and 4 complement component 4 (C4) haplotypes in studies from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Major Depressive Disorder Working Group and the UK Biobank. The total sample size was 45,149 depression cases and 86,698 controls. We tested for association between depression status and imputed MHC variants, applying both a region-wide significance threshold (3.9 × 10-6) and a candidate threshold (1.6 × 10-4). RESULTS: No HLA alleles or C4 haplotypes were associated with depression at the region-wide threshold. HLA-B*08:01 was associated with modest protection for depression at the candidate threshold for testing in HLA genes in the meta-analysis (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.97-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that an increased risk for depression was conferred by HLA alleles, which play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, or C4 haplotypes, which are strongly associated with schizophrenia. These results suggest that any HLA or C4 variants associated with depression either are rare or have very modest effect sizes.

2.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 651-660, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: More than 90% of people who attempt suicide have a psychiatric diagnosis; however, twin and family studies suggest that the genetic etiology of suicide attempt is partially distinct from that of the psychiatric disorders themselves. The authors present the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) on suicide attempt, using cohorts of individuals with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. METHODS: The samples comprised 1,622 suicide attempters and 8,786 nonattempters with major depressive disorder; 3,264 attempters and 5,500 nonattempters with bipolar disorder; and 1,683 attempters and 2,946 nonattempters with schizophrenia. A GWAS on suicide attempt was performed by comparing attempters to nonattempters with each disorder, followed by a meta-analysis across disorders. Polygenic risk scoring was used to investigate the genetic relationship between suicide attempt and the psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Three genome-wide significant loci for suicide attempt were found: one associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder, one associated with suicide attempt in bipolar disorder, and one in the meta-analysis of suicide attempt in mood disorders. These associations were not replicated in independent mood disorder cohorts from the UK Biobank and iPSYCH. No significant associations were found in the meta-analysis of all three disorders. Polygenic risk scores for major depression were significantly associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder (R2=0.25%), bipolar disorder (R2=0.24%), and schizophrenia (R2=0.40%). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new information on genetic associations and demonstrates that genetic liability for major depression increases risk for suicide attempt across psychiatric disorders. Further collaborative efforts to increase sample size may help to robustly identify genetic associations and provide biological insights into the etiology of suicide attempt.

3.
Biol Psychiatry ; 85(12): 1065-1073, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is moderately heritable, with a high prevalence and a presumed high heterogeneity. Copy number variants (CNVs) could contribute to the heritable component of risk, but the two previous genome-wide association studies of rare CNVs did not report significant findings. METHODS: In this meta-analysis of four cohorts (5780 patients and 6626 control subjects), we analyzed the association of MDD to 1) genome-wide burden of rare deletions and duplications, partitioned by length (<100 kb or >100 kb) and other characteristics, and 2) individual rare exonic CNVs and CNV regions. RESULTS: Patients with MDD carried significantly more short deletions than control subjects (p = .0059) but not long deletions or short or long duplications. The confidence interval for long deletions overlapped with that for short deletions, but long deletions were 70% less frequent genome-wide, reducing the power to detect increased burden. The increased burden of short deletions was primarily in intergenic regions. Short deletions in cases were also modestly enriched for high-confidence enhancer regions. No individual CNV achieved thresholds for suggestive or significant association after genome-wide correction. p values < .01 were observed for 15q11.2 duplications (TUBGCP5, CYFIP1, NIPA1, and NIPA2), deletions in or near PRKN or MSR1, and exonic duplications of ATG5. CONCLUSIONS: The increased burden of short deletions in patients with MDD suggests that rare CNVs increase the risk of MDD by disrupting regulatory regions. Results for longer deletions were less clear, but no large effects were observed for long multigenic CNVs (as seen in schizophrenia and autism). Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.

4.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 180(6): 439-447, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708398

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is clinically heterogeneous with prevalence rates twice as high in women as in men. There are many possible sources of heterogeneity in MDD most of which are not measured in a sufficiently comparable way across study samples. Here, we assess genetic heterogeneity based on two fundamental measures, between-cohort and between-sex heterogeneity. First, we used genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics to investigate between-cohort genetic heterogeneity using the 29 research cohorts of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC; N cases = 16,823, N controls = 25,632) and found that some of the cohort heterogeneity can be attributed to ascertainment differences (such as recruitment of cases from hospital vs. community sources). Second, we evaluated between-sex genetic heterogeneity using GWAS summary statistics from the PGC, Kaiser Permanente GERA, UK Biobank, and the Danish iPSYCH studies but did not find convincing evidence for genetic differences between the sexes. We conclude that there is no evidence that the heterogeneity between MDD data sets and between sexes reflects genetic heterogeneity. Larger sample sizes with detailed phenotypic records and genomic data remain the key to overcome heterogeneity inherent in assessment of MDD.

5.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 190, 2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217971

RESUMO

Family and twin studies have shown a genetic component to seasonal affective disorder (SAD). A number of candidate gene studies have examined the role of variations within biologically relevant genes in SAD susceptibility, but few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed to date. The authors aimed to identify genetic risk variants for SAD through GWAS. The authors performed a GWAS for SAD in 1380 cases and 2937 controls of European-American (EA) origin, selected from samples for GWAS of major depressive disorder and of bipolar disorder. Further bioinformatic analyses were conducted to examine additional genomic and biological evidence associated with the top GWAS signals. No susceptibility loci for SAD were identified at a genome-wide significant level. The strongest association was at an intronic variant (rs139459337) within ZBTB20 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, p = 8.4 × 10-7), which encodes a transcriptional repressor that has roles in neurogenesis and in adult brain. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis showed that the risk allele "T" of rs139459337 is associated with reduced mRNA expression of ZBTB20 in human temporal cortex (p = 0.028). Zbtb20 is required for normal murine circadian rhythm and for entrainment to a shortened day. Of the 330 human orthologs of murine genes directly repressed by Zbtb20, there were 32 associated with SAD in our sample (at p < 0.05), representing a significant enrichment of ZBTB20 targets among our SAD genetic association signals (fold = 1.93, p = 0.001). ZBTB20 is a candidate susceptibility gene for SAD, based on a convergence of genetic, genomic, and biological evidence. Further studies are necessary to confirm its role in SAD.

6.
NPJ Genom Med ; 3: 24, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30155272

RESUMO

Microduplication of chromosome 1q21.1 is observed in ~0.03% of adults. It has a highly variable, incompletely penetrant phenotype that can include intellectual disability, global developmental delay, specific learning disabilities, autism, schizophrenia, heart anomalies and dysmorphic features. We evaluated a 10-year-old-male with a 1q21.1 duplication by CGH microarray. He presented with major attention deficits, phonological dysphasia, poor fine motor skills, dysmorphia and mild autistic features, but not the typical macrocephaly. Neuropsychiatric evaluation demonstrated a novel phenotype: an unusually large discrepancy between non-verbal capacities (borderline-impaired WISC-IV index scores of 70 for Working Memory and 68 for Processing Speed) vs. strong verbal skills - scores of 126 for Verbal Comprehension (superior) and 111 for Perceptual Reasoning (normal). HYDIN2 has been hypothesized to underlie macrocephaly and perhaps cognitive deficits in this syndrome, but assessment of HYDIN2 copy number by microarray is difficult because of extensive segmental duplications. We performed whole-genome sequencing which supported HYDIN2 duplication (chr1:146,370,001-148,590,000, 2.22 Mb, hg38). To evaluate copy number more rigorously we developed droplet digital PCR assays of HYDIN2 (targeting unique 1 kb and 6 kb insertions) and its paralog HYDIN (targeting a unique 154 bp segment outside the HYDIN2 overlap). In an independent cohort, ddPCR was concordant with previous microarray data. Duplication of HYDIN2 was confirmed in the patient by ddPCR. This case demonstrates that a large discrepancy of verbal and non-verbal abilities can occur in 1q21.1 duplication syndrome, but it remains unclear whether this has a specific genomic basis. These ddPCR assays may be useful for future research on HYDIN2 copy number.

7.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 57(7): 518-525.e1, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960699

RESUMO

Pediatric catatonia is a rare and severe neuropsychiatric syndrome. We previously reported, in 58 children and adolescents with catatonia, a high prevalence (up to 20%) of medical conditions, some of which have specific treatments.1 Here we extend the cohort inclusion and report the first systematic molecular genetic data for this syndrome. Among the 89 patients consecutively admitted for catatonia (according to the pediatric catatonia rating scale)2 between 1993 and 2014, we identify 51 patients (57.3%) who had genetic laboratory testing, of whom 37 had single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray tests for CNVs and 14 had routine genetic explorations (karyotyping and searches for specific chromosomal abnormalities by fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH]) or a specific diagnosis test based on clinical history. To assess the causality of observed genetic findings in each patient, we used a causality assessment score (CAUS)3 including 5 causality-support criteria on a 3-point scale (0 = absent; 1 = moderate; 2 = high): the existence of similar cases in the literature; the presence of a clinical contributing factor; the presence of a biological contributing factor; the presence of other paraclinical symptoms; and response to a specific treatment related to the suspected genetic or medical condition.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(25): 6470-6475, 2018 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29866841

RESUMO

Human cell models for disease based on induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have proven to be powerful new assets for investigating disease mechanisms. New insights have been obtained studying single mutations using isogenic controls generated by gene targeting. Modeling complex, multigenetic traits using patient-derived iPS cells is much more challenging due to line-to-line variability and technical limitations of scaling to dozens or more patients. Induced neuronal (iN) cells reprogrammed directly from dermal fibroblasts or urinary epithelia could be obtained from many donors, but such donor cells are heterogeneous, show interindividual variability, and must be extensively expanded, which can introduce random mutations. Moreover, derivation of dermal fibroblasts requires invasive biopsies. Here we show that human adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells, as well as defined purified T lymphocytes, can be directly converted into fully functional iN cells, demonstrating that terminally differentiated human cells can be efficiently transdifferentiated into a distantly related lineage. T cell-derived iN cells, generated by nonintegrating gene delivery, showed stereotypical neuronal morphologies and expressed multiple pan-neuronal markers, fired action potentials, and were able to form functional synapses. These cells were stable in the absence of exogenous reprogramming factors. Small molecule addition and optimized culture systems have yielded conversion efficiencies of up to 6.2%, resulting in the generation of >50,000 iN cells from 1 mL of peripheral blood in a single step without the need for initial expansion. Thus, our method allows the generation of sufficient neurons for experimental interrogation from a defined, homogeneous, and readily accessible donor cell population.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Transdiferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Neurônios/citologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Reprogramação Celular/fisiologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/citologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Schizophr Bull ; 44(6): 1350-1361, 2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29294133

RESUMO

New methods in genetics research, such as linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSR), quantify overlap in the common genetic variants that influence diverse phenotypes. It is becoming clear that genetic effects often cut across traditional diagnostic boundaries. Here, we introduce genetic correlation analysis (using LDSR) to a nongeneticist audience and report transdisciplinary discoveries about schizophrenia. This analytical study design used publically available genome wide association study (GWAS) data from approximately 1.5 million individuals. Genetic correlations between schizophrenia and 172 medical, psychiatric, personality, and metabolomic phenotypes were calculated using LDSR, as implemented in LDHub in order to identify known and new genetic correlations. Consistent with previous research, the strongest genetic correlation was with bipolar disorder. Positive genetic correlations were also found between schizophrenia and all other psychiatric phenotypes tested, the personality traits of neuroticism and openness to experience, and cigarette smoking. Novel results were found with medical phenotypes: schizophrenia was negatively genetically correlated with serum citrate, positively correlated with inflammatory bowel disease, and negatively correlated with BMI, hip, and waist circumference. The serum citrate finding provides a potential link between rare cases of schizophrenia (strongly influenced by 22q11.2 deletions) and more typical cases of schizophrenia (with polygenic influences). Overall, these genetic correlation findings match epidemiological findings, suggesting that common variant genetic effects are part of the scaffolding underlying phenotypic comorbidity. The "genetic correlation profile" is a succinct report of shared genetic effects, is easily updated with new information (eg, from future GWAS), and should become part of basic disease knowledge about schizophrenia.

10.
Schizophr Res ; 192: 39-49, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28526280

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Psychotic disorders in childhood and early adolescence often progress to chronic schizophrenia, but in many cases there are diagnosable medical and genetic causes or risk factors. We reviewed our clinical experience and the relevant literature to identify these factors and to define their clinical features, appropriate work-up and treatment. METHOD: We reviewed the results of comprehensive medical evaluations of 160 psychotic children and adolescents in our center. We also searched the Medline database (January 1994 to December 2015) with the following keywords and combinations: early onset schizophrenia, childhood onset schizophrenia, early onset psychosis, first episode psychosis, inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), genetic syndrome, copy number variants, autoimmune disorders, endocrine diseases, nutritional deficiencies, central nervous system infections, movement disorders, and epilepsy. RESULTS: In our center, 12.5% of cases had medical disorders likely to be contributing to psychosis. Based on 66 relevant papers and our experience, we describe the clinical features of multiple genetic syndromes, IEM, and autoimmune, neurological, endocrinological and nutritional disorders that increase the risk of psychotic disorders in childhood and adolescence. We propose an algorithm for systematic laboratory evaluation, informed by clinical examination, emphasizing common and/or treatable factors. CONCLUSIONS: In children and early adolescents with psychotic disorders, systematic medical work-up is warranted to identify medical and genetic factors. Not every rare cause can be worked up, thus careful clinical examinations are required to detect medical, neurological and genetic signs. Comprehensive medical evaluation can detect treatable diseases among cases of early-onset psychosis.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
11.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2017 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29129318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The heterogeneity of genetic effects on major depressive disorder (MDD) may be partly attributable to moderation of genetic effects by environment, such as exposure to childhood trauma (CT). Indeed, previous findings in two independent cohorts showed evidence for interaction between polygenic risk scores (PRSs) and CT, albeit in opposing directions. This study aims to meta-analyze MDD-PRS × CT interaction results across these two and other cohorts, while applying more accurate PRSs based on a larger discovery sample. METHODS: Data were combined from 3024 MDD cases and 2741 control subjects from nine cohorts contributing to the MDD Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. MDD-PRS were based on a discovery sample of ∼110,000 independent individuals. CT was assessed as exposure to sexual or physical abuse during childhood. In a subset of 1957 cases and 2002 control subjects, a more detailed five-domain measure additionally included emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect. RESULTS: MDD was associated with the MDD-PRS (odds ratio [OR] = 1.24, p = 3.6 × 10-5, R2 = 1.18%) and with CT (OR = 2.63, p = 3.5 × 10-18 and OR = 2.62, p = 1.4 ×10-5 for the two- and five-domain measures, respectively). No interaction was found between MDD-PRS and the two-domain and five-domain CT measure (OR = 1.00, p = .89 and OR = 1.05, p = .66). CONCLUSIONS: No meta-analytic evidence for interaction between MDD-PRS and CT was found. This suggests that the previously reported interaction effects, although both statistically significant, can best be interpreted as chance findings. Further research is required, but this study suggests that the genetic heterogeneity of MDD is not attributable to genome-wide moderation of genetic effects by CT.

12.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 74(11): 1153-1160, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28813562

RESUMO

Importance: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and alcohol dependence (AD) are heritable disorders with significant public health burdens, and they are frequently comorbid. Common genetic factors that influence the co-occurrence of MDD and AD have been sought in family, twin, and adoption studies, and results to date have been promising but inconclusive. Objective: To examine whether AD and MDD overlap genetically, using a polygenic score approach. Design, Settings, and Participants: Association analyses were conducted between MDD polygenic risk score (PRS) and AD case-control status in European ancestry samples from 4 independent genome-wide association study (GWAS) data sets: the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA); the Study of Addiction, Genetics, and Environment (SAGE); the Yale-Penn genetic study of substance dependence; and the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS). Results from a meta-analysis of MDD (9240 patients with MDD and 9519 controls) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium were applied to calculate PRS at thresholds from P < .05 to P ≤ .99 in each AD GWAS data set. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association between MDD PRS and AD. Results: Participants analyzed included 788 cases (548 [69.5%] men; mean [SD] age, 38.2 [10.8] years) and 522 controls (151 [28.9.%] men; age [SD], 43.9 [11.6] years) from COGA; 631 cases (333 [52.8%] men; age [SD], 35.0 [7.7] years) and 756 controls (260 [34.4%] male; age [SD] 36.1 [7.7] years) from SAGE; 2135 cases (1375 [64.4%] men; age [SD], 39.4 [11.5] years) and 350 controls (126 [36.0%] men; age [SD], 43.5 [13.9] years) from Yale-Penn; and 317 cases (295 [93.1%] men; age [SD], 59.1 [13.1] years) and 1719 controls (1545 [89.9%] men; age [SD], 64.5 [13.3] years) from NHRVS. Higher MDD PRS was associated with a significantly increased risk of AD in all samples (COGA: best P = 1.7 × 10-6, R2 = 0.026; SAGE: best P = .001, R2 = 0.01; Yale-Penn: best P = .035, R2 = 0.0018; and NHRVS: best P = .004, R2 = 0.0074), with stronger evidence for association after meta-analysis of the 4 samples (best P = 3.3 × 10-9). In analyses adjusted for MDD status in 3 AD GWAS data sets, similar patterns of association were observed (COGA: best P = 7.6 × 10-6, R2 = 0.023; Yale-Penn: best P = .08, R2 = 0.0013; and NHRVS: best P = .006, R2 = 0.0072). After recalculating MDD PRS using MDD GWAS data sets without comorbid MDD-AD cases, significant evidence was observed for an association between the MDD PRS and AD in the meta-analysis of 3 GWAS AD samples without MDD cases (best P = .007). Conclusions and Relevance: These results suggest that shared genetic susceptibility contributes modestly to MDD and AD comorbidity. Individuals with elevated polygenic risk for MDD may also be at risk for AD.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Adulto , Comorbidade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Nat Methods ; 14(7): 699-702, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28530654

RESUMO

Identifying interactions between genetics and the environment (GxE) remains challenging. We have developed EAGLE, a hierarchical Bayesian model for identifying GxE interactions based on associations between environmental variables and allele-specific expression. Combining whole-blood RNA-seq with extensive environmental annotations collected from 922 human individuals, we identified 35 GxE interactions, compared with only four using standard GxE interaction testing. EAGLE provides new opportunities for researchers to identify GxE interactions using functional genomic data.


Assuntos
Alelos , Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
14.
Biol Psychiatry ; 82(5): 322-329, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28049566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetics of depression has been explored in genome-wide association studies that focused on either major depressive disorder or depressive symptoms with mostly negative findings. A broad depression phenotype including both phenotypes has not been tested previously using a genome-wide association approach. We aimed to identify genetic polymorphisms significantly associated with a broad phenotype from depressive symptoms to major depressive disorder. METHODS: We analyzed two prior studies of 70,017 participants of European ancestry from general and clinical populations in the discovery stage. We performed a replication meta-analysis of 28,328 participants. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability and genetic correlations were calculated using linkage disequilibrium score regression. Discovery and replication analyses were performed using a p-value-based meta-analysis. Lifetime major depressive disorder and depressive symptom scores were used as the outcome measures. RESULTS: The SNP-based heritability of major depressive disorder was 0.21 (SE = 0.02), the SNP-based heritability of depressive symptoms was 0.04 (SE = 0.01), and their genetic correlation was 1.001 (SE = 0.2). We found one genome-wide significant locus related to the broad depression phenotype (rs9825823, chromosome 3: 61,082,153, p = 8.2 × 10-9) located in an intron of the FHIT gene. We replicated this SNP in independent samples (p = .02) and the overall meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts (1.0 × 10-9). CONCLUSIONS: This large study identified a new locus for depression. Our results support a continuum between depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder. A phenotypically more inclusive approach may help to achieve the large sample sizes needed to detect susceptibility loci for depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/genética , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hidrolases Anidrido Ácido/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Fenótipo
15.
Biol Psychiatry ; 81(4): 325-335, 2017 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27519822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a disabling mood disorder, and despite a known heritable component, a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies revealed no replicable genetic risk variants. Given prior evidence of heterogeneity by age at onset in MDD, we tested whether genome-wide significant risk variants for MDD could be identified in cases subdivided by age at onset. METHODS: Discovery case-control genome-wide association studies were performed where cases were stratified using increasing/decreasing age-at-onset cutoffs; significant single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested in nine independent replication samples, giving a total sample of 22,158 cases and 133,749 control subjects for subsetting. Polygenic score analysis was used to examine whether differences in shared genetic risk exists between earlier and adult-onset MDD with commonly comorbid disorders of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, and coronary artery disease. RESULTS: We identified one replicated genome-wide significant locus associated with adult-onset (>27 years) MDD (rs7647854, odds ratio: 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.11-1.21, p = 5.2 × 10-11). Using polygenic score analyses, we show that earlier-onset MDD is genetically more similar to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder than adult-onset MDD. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that using additional phenotype data previously collected by genetic studies to tackle phenotypic heterogeneity in MDD can successfully lead to the discovery of genetic risk factor despite reduced sample size. Furthermore, our results suggest that the genetic susceptibility to MDD differs between adult- and earlier-onset MDD, with earlier-onset cases having a greater genetic overlap with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adulto , Idade de Início , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS Genet ; 12(12): e1006493, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28036406

RESUMO

Recent heritability analyses have indicated that genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have the potential to improve genetic risk prediction for complex diseases based on polygenic risk score (PRS), a simple modelling technique that can be implemented using summary-level data from the discovery samples. We herein propose modifications to improve the performance of PRS. We introduce threshold-dependent winner's-curse adjustments for marginal association coefficients that are used to weight the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PRS. Further, as a way to incorporate external functional/annotation knowledge that could identify subsets of SNPs highly enriched for associations, we propose variable thresholds for SNPs selection. We applied our methods to GWAS summary-level data of 14 complex diseases. Across all diseases, a simple winner's curse correction uniformly led to enhancement of performance of the models, whereas incorporation of functional SNPs was beneficial only for selected diseases. Compared to the standard PRS algorithm, the proposed methods in combination led to notable gain in efficiency (25-50% increase in the prediction R2) for 5 of 14 diseases. As an example, for GWAS of type 2 diabetes, winner's curse correction improved prediction R2 from 2.29% based on the standard PRS to 3.10% (P = 0.0017) and incorporating functional annotation data further improved R2 to 3.53% (P = 2×10-5). Our simulation studies illustrate why differential treatment of certain categories of functional SNPs, even when shown to be highly enriched for GWAS-heritability, does not lead to proportionate improvement in genetic risk-prediction because of non-uniform linkage disequilibrium structure.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Modelos Genéticos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
17.
Genome Res ; 26(6): 768-77, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27197214

RESUMO

The X Chromosome, with its unique mode of inheritance, contributes to differences between the sexes at a molecular level, including sex-specific gene expression and sex-specific impact of genetic variation. Improving our understanding of these differences offers to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying sex-specific traits and diseases. However, to date, most studies have either ignored the X Chromosome or had insufficient power to test for the sex-specific impact of genetic variation. By analyzing whole blood transcriptomes of 922 individuals, we have conducted the first large-scale, genome-wide analysis of the impact of both sex and genetic variation on patterns of gene expression, including comparison between the X Chromosome and autosomes. We identified a depletion of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) on the X Chromosome, especially among genes under high selective constraint. In contrast, we discovered an enrichment of sex-specific regulatory variants on the X Chromosome. To resolve the molecular mechanisms underlying such effects, we generated chromatin accessibility data through ATAC-sequencing to connect sex-specific chromatin accessibility to sex-specific patterns of expression and regulatory variation. As sex-specific regulatory variants discovered in our study can inform sex differences in heritable disease prevalence, we integrated our data with genome-wide association study data for multiple immune traits identifying several traits with significant sex biases in genetic susceptibilities. Together, our study provides genome-wide insight into how genetic variation, the X Chromosome, and sex shape human gene regulation and disease.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Transcriptoma , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Caracteres Sexuais
18.
PLoS Genet ; 12(5): e1005993, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27153221

RESUMO

Duplications at 15q11.2-q13.3 overlapping the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome (PWS/AS) region have been associated with developmental delay (DD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ). Due to presence of imprinted genes within the region, the parental origin of these duplications may be key to the pathogenicity. Duplications of maternal origin are associated with disease, whereas the pathogenicity of paternal ones is unclear. To clarify the role of maternal and paternal duplications, we conducted the largest and most detailed study to date of parental origin of 15q11.2-q13.3 interstitial duplications in DD, ASD and SZ cohorts. We show, for the first time, that paternal duplications lead to an increased risk of developing DD/ASD/multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), but do not appear to increase risk for SZ. The importance of the epigenetic status of 15q11.2-q13.3 duplications was further underlined by analysis of a number of families, in which the duplication was paternally derived in the mother, who was unaffected, whereas her offspring, who inherited a maternally derived duplication, suffered from psychotic illness. Interestingly, the most consistent clinical characteristics of SZ patients with 15q11.2-q13.3 duplications were learning or developmental problems, found in 76% of carriers. Despite their lower pathogenicity, paternal duplications are less frequent in the general population with a general population prevalence of 0.0033% compared to 0.0069% for maternal duplications. This may be due to lower fecundity of male carriers and differential survival of embryos, something echoed in the findings that both types of duplications are de novo in just over 50% of cases. Isodicentric chromosome 15 (idic15) or interstitial triplications were not observed in SZ patients or in controls. Overall, this study refines the distinct roles of maternal and paternal interstitial duplications at 15q11.2-q13.3, underlining the critical importance of maternally expressed imprinted genes in the contribution of Copy Number Variants (CNVs) at this interval to the incidence of psychotic illness. This work will have tangible benefits for patients with 15q11.2-q13.3 duplications by aiding genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Angelman/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Herança Paterna/genética , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Síndrome de Angelman/patologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Duplicação Cromossômica/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Impressão Genômica/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/patologia , Esquizofrenia/patologia
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 96(2): 283-94, 2015 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25640677

RESUMO

Genetic risk prediction has several potential applications in medical research and clinical practice and could be used, for example, to stratify a heterogeneous population of patients by their predicted genetic risk. However, for polygenic traits, such as psychiatric disorders, the accuracy of risk prediction is low. Here we use a multivariate linear mixed model and apply multi-trait genomic best linear unbiased prediction for genetic risk prediction. This method exploits correlations between disorders and simultaneously evaluates individual risk for each disorder. We show that the multivariate approach significantly increases the prediction accuracy for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder in the discovery as well as in independent validation datasets. By grouping SNPs based on genome annotation and fitting multiple random effects, we show that the prediction accuracy could be further improved. The gain in prediction accuracy of the multivariate approach is equivalent to an increase in sample size of 34% for schizophrenia, 68% for bipolar disorder, and 76% for major depressive disorders using single trait models. Because our approach can be readily applied to any number of GWAS datasets of correlated traits, it is a flexible and powerful tool to maximize prediction accuracy. With current sample size, risk predictors are not useful in a clinical setting but already are a valuable research tool, for example in experimental designs comparing cases with high and low polygenic risk.


Assuntos
Genética Médica/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Medição de Risco/métodos , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Análise Multivariada , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética
20.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 23(11): 1573-80, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25669430

RESUMO

Type 1 narcolepsy, an autoimmune disease affecting hypocretin (orexin) neurons, is strongly associated with HLA-DQB1*06:02. Among polymorphisms associated with the disease is single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2305795 (c.*638G>A) located within the P2RY11 gene. P2RY11 is in a region of synteny conserved in mammals and zebrafish containing PPAN, EIF3G and DNMT1 (DNA methyltransferase 1). As mutations in DNMT1 cause a rare dominant form of narcolepsy in association with deafness, cerebellar ataxia and dementia, we questioned whether the association with P2RY11 in sporadic narcolepsy could be secondary to linkage disequilibrium with DNMT1. Based on genome-wide association data from two cohorts of European and Chinese ancestry, we found that the narcolepsy association signal drops sharply between P2RY11/EIF3G and DNMT1, suggesting that the association with narcolepsy does not extend into the DNMT1 gene region. Interestingly, using transethnic mapping, we identified a novel single-nucleotide polymorphism rs3826784 (c.596-260A>G) in the EIF3G gene also associated with narcolepsy. The disease-associated allele increases EIF3G mRNA expression. EIF3G is located in the narcolepsy risk locus and EIF3G expression correlates with PPAN and P2RY11 expression. This suggests shared regulatory mechanisms that might be affected by the polymorphism and are of relevance to narcolepsy.


Assuntos
Fator de Iniciação 3 em Eucariotos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Narcolepsia/genética , Alelos , Animais , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1 , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Fator de Iniciação 3 em Eucariotos/biossíntese , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Cadeias beta de HLA-DQ/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Narcolepsia/patologia , Proteínas Nucleares/biossíntese , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Purinérgicos P2/biossíntese , Receptores Purinérgicos P2/genética
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