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1.
Br J Radiol ; : 20220136, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522777

RESUMO

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) represents a clinical disease entity without a clear aetiology, that if left untreated, can result in severe outcomes, including permanent vision loss. For this reason, early diagnosis and treatment is necessary. Historically, the role of cross-sectional imaging has been to rule out secondary or emergent causes of increased intracranial pressure, including tumor, infection, hydrocephalus, or venous thrombosis. MRI and MRV, however, can serve as valuable imaging tools to not only rule out causes for secondary intracranial hypertension, but can also detect indirect signs of IIH resultant from increased intracranial pressure, and demonstrate potentially treatable sinus venous stenosis. Digital subtraction venographic imaging also plays a central role in both diagnosis and treatment, providing enhanced anatomic delineation and temporal flow evaluation, quantitative assessment of the pressure gradient across a venous stenosis, treatment guidance, and immediate opportunity for endovascular therapy. In this review, we discuss the multiple modalities for imaging IIH, their limitations, and their contributions to the management of IIH.

2.
World Neurosurg ; 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35605939

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of the modified frailty index-5 (mFI-5) in predicting postoperative functional outcome after microsurgical resection of ruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs). METHODS: Retrospective review of patients undergoing microsurgical resection of acutely ruptured bAVMs. Demographics, bAVM characteristics, mFI-5, ruptured arteriovenous malformation grading scale (RAGS), and Spetzler-Martin grade (S-M) were recorded. Predictive ability of mFI-5 for postoperative functional outcome measured by modified Rankin scale (mRS) was assessed with univariate and multivariate logistic and linear regression. RAGS and S-M alone were compared with adding mFI-5 to either RAGS or S-M using area under the curve (AUC) analysis. RESULTS: In total, 109 patients were included. For every 1-point increase in mFI-5, there was a lower likelihood of good functional outcome (mRS≤2; OR 0.33, CI 0.15-0.60, p=0.011). Healthy patients (mFI-5=0) were more likely to have good postoperative outcomes versus frail patients (mFI-5≥1) (OR 3.32, CI 1.24-8.97, p=0.017). In multivariate analysis controlling for RAGS, for every 1-point mFI-5 increase, there was a decreased likelihood of postoperative good functional outcome (OR 0.32, CI 0.14-0.63, p=0.0026) and mFI-5 did not significantly predict secondary outcomes. S-M grade with mFI-5 exhibited better discrimination for postoperative good functional outcome (AUC 0.616), compared with S-M grade alone (AUC 0.544). RAGS with mFI-5 exhibited the best discrimination for postoperative good functional outcome (AUC 0.798), compared with RAGS alone (AUC 0.721). CONCLUSIONS: Measuring frailty with mFI-5 additive to established bAVM grading systems may improve assessment of individual patient likelihood of postoperative good functional outcome following hemorrhagic bAVM resection.

3.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 14(6): 527, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35568485
4.
J Hematol ; 11(2): 45-54, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35573751

RESUMO

Background: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) constitutes 30% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. It can present as a nodal disease or as an extra nodal disease. Based on the site of origin, extra nodal DLBCL (EN-DLBCL) may have a distinct clinical outcome. Apart from the site of origin, factors including demographics, stage, and presence of any other primary malignancy also affect the outcome. The purpose of our study was to characterize prognostically distinct groups based on the site of presentation of EN-DLBCL. Methods: We used 18 registries in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database to identify the patients with EN-DLBCL for 2000 - 2015 with last follow-up till December 31, 2018. A total of 30,290 EN-DLBCL patients were selected and categorized based on 13 broad sites grouping. Demographic variables were summarized. We did overall survival analysis with univariate and multivariate Cox-proportional hazard modeling. Short-term survival trend was calculated as well. Results: The percentage of EN-DLBCL of all DLBCLs is 34.48%. EN-DLBCL was comparatively seen more in males (54.94%) and non-Hispanic whites (71.52%). In terms of clinical characteristics, patients with EN-DLBCL were mostly diagnosed at age ≥ 60 years (66.11%), early stage (69.33%), and presentation as first primary cancer (81.89%). A higher risk of mortality was seen in non-Hispanic black (hazard ratio (HR) 1.36), with late age of onset (HR 2.69), late stage at presentation (HR 1.42), and with history of other malignancy (HR 1.29). Compared to the intestinal tract, the risk of overall mortality was higher in individuals with involvement of nervous system (HR 1.85), pancreas and hepatobiliary system (HR 1.22), and respiratory system (HR 1.18) and the best outcomes were seen in heart and mediastinal site (HR 0.58) of DLBCL. Conclusion: Based upon our population-based study, we conclude that primary site of presentation of EN-DLBCL is an important prognostic factor with significant difference in survival based on histological and epidemiological characteristics.

5.
Stroke ; : 101161STROKEAHA121036450, 2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas with cortical venous drainage are rare lesions that can present with hemorrhage. A high rate of rebleeding in the early period following hemorrhage has been reported, but published long-term rates are much lower. No study has examined how risk of rebleeding changes over time. Our objective was to quantify the relative incidence of rebleeding in the early and later periods following hemorrhage. METHODS: Patients with dural arteriovenous fistula and cortical venous drainage presenting with hemorrhage were identified from the multinational CONDOR (Consortium for Dural Fistula Outcomes Research) database. Natural history follow-up was defined as time from hemorrhage to first treatment, rebleed, or last follow-up. Rebleeding in the first 2 weeks and first year were compared using incidence rate ratio and difference. RESULTS: Of 1077 patients, 250 met the inclusion criteria and had 95 cumulative person-years natural history follow-up. The overall annualized rebleed rate was 7.3% (95% CI, 3.2-14.5). The incidence rate of rebleeding in the first 2 weeks was 0.0011 per person-day; an early rebleed risk of 1.6% in the first 14 days (95% CI, 0.3-5.1). For the remainder of the first year, the incidence rate was 0.00015 per person-day; a rebleed rate of 5.3% (CI, 1.7-12.4) over 1 year. The incidence rate ratio was 7.3 (95% CI, 1.4-37.7; P, 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of rebleeding of a dural arteriovenous fistula with cortical venous drainage presenting with hemorrhage is increased in the first 2 weeks justifying early treatment. However, the magnitude of this increase may be considerably lower than previously thought. Treatment within 5 days was associated with a low rate of rebleeding and appears an appropriate timeframe.

6.
Neurosurgery ; 90(6): 725-733, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35238817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms and outcomes in coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-associated stroke are unique from those of non-COVID-19 stroke. OBJECTIVE: To describe the efficacy and outcomes of acute revascularization of large vessel occlusion (LVO) in the setting of COVID-19 in an international cohort. METHODS: We conducted an international multicenter retrospective study of consecutively admitted patients with COVID-19 with concomitant acute LVO across 50 comprehensive stroke centers. Our control group constituted historical controls of patients presenting with LVO and receiving a mechanical thrombectomy between January 2018 and December 2020. RESULTS: The total cohort was 575 patients with acute LVO; 194 patients had COVID-19 while 381 patients did not. Patients in the COVID-19 group were younger (62.5 vs 71.2; P < .001) and lacked vascular risk factors (49, 25.3% vs 54, 14.2%; P = .001). Modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 3 revascularization was less common in the COVID-19 group (74, 39.2% vs 252, 67.2%; P < .001). Poor functional outcome at discharge (defined as modified Ranklin Scale 3-6) was more common in the COVID-19 group (150, 79.8% vs 132, 66.7%; P = .004). COVID-19 was independently associated with a lower likelihood of achieving modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 3 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.7; P < .001) and unfavorable outcomes (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.5; P = .002). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 was an independent predictor of incomplete revascularization and poor outcomes in patients with stroke due to LVO. Patients with COVID-19 with LVO were younger, had fewer cerebrovascular risk factors, and suffered from higher morbidity/mortality rates.

7.
Surg Neurol Int ; 13: 60, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35242426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Penetrating crossbow head injuries are rare with no clear consensus regarding the optimal management paradigm for such injuries. We present three cases of crossbow injury to the head, with emphasis on the need for a comprehensive multidisciplinary management plan. CASE DESCRIPTION: Three cases are presented of patients presenting with self-inflicted penetrating crossbow to head injuries. All three patients presented with intact neurological exam. A comprehensive multidisciplinary plan was created for all three cases with subsequent successful removal of the arrows. All three patients were discharged home with modified Rankin scale score of <2. CONCLUSION: Penetrating crossbow brain injuries are rare and require complex management. A comprehensive management strategy is necessary to manage these injuries. Moreover, careful consideration of factors such as the arrow trajectory, complexity of the injuries, and availability of the required expertise is important to increase the chances of success.

9.
Clin Exp Gastroenterol ; 15: 41-49, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35313457

RESUMO

While serum alkaline phosphatase activity has become a routine clinical measurement, we have found that physicians' knowledge of the pathophysiology of this enzyme is almost solely limited to the concept that an elevated serum alkaline phosphatase suggests disease of liver or bone. For example, physicians at all levels of training had no understanding of such basic physiological information as the function of alkaline phosphatase in the liver or how this enzyme is eliminated from the serum. Based on a patient with an enormously elevated alkaline phosphatase, this report provides a review of existing clinically relevant information concerning the pathophysiology of alkaline phosphatase with emphasis on the mechanisms involved in the homeostasis of this enzyme. A novel aspect of this paper is the discussion of the previously neglected concept that defective enzyme elimination could play a major role in the pathogenesis of serum alkaline phosphatase elevations.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35297396

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the association with in-hospital mortality of 8 illness severity scores in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, we investigated the association with in-hospital mortality of admission Hunt and Hess (HH) score, Fisher grade, severity of illness and risk of mortality scores, and serial Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score in patients with aSAH. We also explored the changes in GCS between admission and discharge using a multivariate model adjusting for age, clinical vasospasm, and external ventricular drain status. RESULTS: Data from 480 patients with aSAH, of which 383 (79.8%) aneurysms were in the anterior circulation, were included in analysis. Patients were female (n=340, 70.8%) with a median age of 56 (interquartile range: 48 to 66) years. The majority (n=332, 69.2%) had admission HH score 3 to 5, Fisher grade 3 to 4 (n=437, 91%), median severity of illness 3 (range: 1 to 4), median risk of mortality 3 (range: 1 to 4), and median admission GCS of 13 (interquartile range: 7 to 15). Overall, 406 (84.6%) patients received an external ventricular drain, 469 (97.7%) underwent aneurysm repair, and 60 died (12.5%). Compared with admission HH score, GCS 24 hours after admission (area under the curve: 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79-0.88) and 24 hours after aneurysm repair (area under the curve: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.82-0.90) were more likely to be associated with in-hospital mortality. Among those who died, the greatest decline in GCS was noted between 24 hours after aneurysm repair and discharge (-3.38 points, 95% CI: -4.17, -2.58). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with admission HH score, GCS 24 hours after admission (or 24 h after aneurysm repair) is more likely to be associated with in-hospital mortality after aSAH.

11.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34987071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most intracranial stents contain nickel alloy, and nickel allergy or hypersensitivity is common. Neurological injury following endovascular treatment with a nickel containing intracranial stent has been reported in patients with purported nickel allergy, but it is unclear whether these reactions represent true nickel hypersensitivity. We quantified nickel release from commonly used intracranial stents to investigate whether such stents should be avoided in patients with nickel allergy. METHODS: We examined nickel release from seven commonly used intracranial stents: Enterprise, LVIS Jr, Neuroform, Wingspan, Zilver, Pipeline Flex Embolization Device, and Surpass Evolve. We incubated each stent in human plasma-like media for 30 days. Dimethylglyoxime (DMG) spot testing was performed on each stent to detect released nickel at 0 and 30 days. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was then used to quantify the nickel concentration of the media at 30 days. Nickel currency and nickel standard for atomic absorption spectrometry were used as positive controls. RESULTS: DMG spot tests indicated nickel release only from nickel currency at 0 and 30 days of incubation. No nickel release was detected from any stent at 30 days using ICP-OES. CONCLUSIONS: Nickel release from commonly used intracranial stents is negligible. These results suggest that previously reported hypersensitivity to these stents may be misattributed to nickel allergy, and that patients with nickel allergy may be safely treated with select nickel-containing stents.

13.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 414, 2022 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35058472

RESUMO

The main goal of molecular simulation is to accurately predict experimental observables of molecular systems. Another long-standing goal is to devise models for arbitrary neutral organic molecules with little or no reliance on experimental data. While separately these goals have been met to various degrees, for an arbitrary system of molecules they have not been achieved simultaneously. For biophysical ensembles that exist at room temperature and pressure, and where the entropic contributions are on par with interaction strengths, it is the free energies that are both most important and most difficult to predict. We compute the free energies of solvation for a diverse set of neutral organic compounds using a polarizable force field fitted entirely to ab initio calculations. The mean absolute errors (MAE) of hydration, cyclohexane solvation, and corresponding partition coefficients are 0.2 kcal/mol, 0.3 kcal/mol and 0.22 log units, i.e. within chemical accuracy. The model (ARROW FF) is multipolar, polarizable, and its accompanying simulation stack includes nuclear quantum effects (NQE). The simulation tools' computational efficiency is on a par with current state-of-the-art packages. The construction of a wide-coverage molecular modelling toolset from first principles, together with its excellent predictive ability in the liquid phase is a major advance in biomolecular simulation.

14.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 34, 2022 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35073871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of transfemoral cerebral angiography complications are related to the access site, with no clear consensus concerning the optimal closure technique. In this study, we examined the usefulness of a shortened closure protocol for transfemoral diagnostic cerebral angiography. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent transfemoral (4Fr sheath) diagnostic cerebral angiography procedures at our institution. We included patients > 18 years old who underwent the shortened closure protocol to achieve hemostasis at the access site. The shortened protocol entailed the use of nonocclusive manual compression for 15 min followed by 2 h of bed rest, with additional 10-15 min of compression for new hematoma. We collected and analyzed the patients' demographics, use of antiplatelet and anticoagulation medications, sheath size, and others. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 119 patients with a mean age was 54 years with (88%) females. Forty-one patients (34%) were on antiplatelet medications, with 12 (10%) on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). Four patients (3%) (two on DAPT, one on Aspirin alone, and one was not on any antiplatelet medication) had access site hematoma that required additional compression. Subgroup analysis showed that within the DAPT, Aspirin alone, and no antiplatelet medications groups, (17%), (3%), and (1%) of patients developed access site hematoma, respectively. CONCLUSION: This pilot study demonstrates that our closure protocol for transfemoral angiograms is safe and effective. There was a trend toward higher access-site complications in patients on DAPT. Further studies are required to expand on and validate our results.


Assuntos
Deambulação Precoce , Técnicas Hemostáticas , Adolescente , Angiografia Cerebral , Feminino , Artéria Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Neurosurg ; 136(4): 962-970, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The risk-to-benefit profile of treating an unruptured high-grade dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) is not clearly defined. The aim of this multicenter retrospective cohort study was to compare the outcomes of different interventions with observation for unruptured high-grade dAVFs. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed dAVF patients from 12 institutions participating in the Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR). Patients with unruptured high-grade (Borden type II or III) dAVFs were included and categorized into four groups (observation, embolization, surgery, and stereotactic radiosurgery [SRS]) based on the initial management. The primary outcome was defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at final follow-up. Secondary outcomes were good outcome (mRS scores 0-2) at final follow-up, symptomatic improvement, all-cause mortality, and dAVF obliteration. The outcomes of each intervention group were compared against those of the observation group as a reference, with adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics. RESULTS: The study included 415 dAVF patients, accounting for 29, 324, 43, and 19 in the observation, embolization, surgery, and SRS groups, respectively. The mean radiological and clinical follow-up durations were 21 and 25 months, respectively. Functional outcomes were similar for embolization, surgery, and SRS compared with observation. With observation as a reference, obliteration rates were higher after embolization (adjusted OR [aOR] 7.147, p = 0.010) and surgery (aOR 33.803, p < 0.001) and all-cause mortality was lower after embolization (imputed, aOR 0.171, p = 0.040). Hemorrhage rates per 1000 patient-years were 101 for observation versus 9, 22, and 0 for embolization (p = 0.022), surgery (p = 0.245), and SRS (p = 0.077), respectively. Nonhemorrhagic neurological deficit rates were similar between each intervention group versus observation. CONCLUSIONS: Embolization and surgery for unruptured high-grade dAVFs afforded a greater likelihood of obliteration than did observation. Embolization also reduced the risk of death and dAVF-associated hemorrhage compared with conservative management over a modest follow-up period. These findings support embolization as the first-line treatment of choice for appropriately selected unruptured Borden type II and III dAVFs.


Assuntos
Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central , Embolização Terapêutica , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas , Radiocirurgia , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/cirurgia , Humanos , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/cirurgia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Neurosurg ; 136(4): 942-950, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Current evidence suggests that intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) without cortical venous drainage (CVD) have a benign clinical course. However, no large study has evaluated the safety and efficacy of current treatments and their impact over the natural history of dAVFs without CVD. METHODS: The authors conducted an analysis of the retrospectively collected multicenter Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR) database. Patient demographics and presenting symptoms, angiographic features of the dAVFs, and treatment outcomes of patients with Borden type I dAVFs were reviewed. Clinical and radiological follow-up information was assessed to determine rates of new intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) or nonhemorrhagic neurological deficit (NHND), worsening of venous hyperdynamic symptoms (VHSs), angiographic recurrence, and progression or spontaneous regression of dAVFs over time. RESULTS: A total of 342 patients/Borden type I dAVFs were identified. The mean patient age was 58.1 ± 15.6 years, and 62% were women. The mean follow-up time was 37.7 ± 54.3 months. Of 230 (67.3%) treated dAVFs, 178 (77%) underwent mainly endovascular embolization, 11 (4.7%) radiosurgery alone, and 4 (1.7%) open surgery as the primary modality. After the first embolization, most dAVFs (47.2%) achieved only partial reduction in early venous filling. Multiple complementary interventions increased complete obliteration rates from 37.9% after first embolization to 46.7% after two or more embolizations, and 55.2% after combined radiosurgery and open surgery. Immediate postprocedural complications occurred in 35 dAVFs (15.2%) and 6 (2.6%) with permanent sequelae. Of 127 completely obliterated dAVFs by any therapeutic modality, 2 (1.6%) showed angiographic recurrence/recanalization at a mean of 34.2 months after treatment. Progression to Borden-Shucart type II or III was documented in 2.2% of patients and subsequent development of a new dAVF in 1.6%. Partial spontaneous regression was found in 22 (21.4%) of 103 nontreated dAVFs. Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that older age, NHND, or severe venous-hyperdynamic symptoms at presentation and infratentorial location were associated with worse prognosis. Kaplan-Meier curves showed no significant difference for stable/improved symptoms survival probability in treated versus nontreated dAVFs. However, estimated survival times showed better trends for treated dAVFs compared with nontreated dAVFs (288.1 months vs 151.1 months, log-rank p = 0.28). This difference was statistically significant for treated dAVFs with 100% occlusion (394 months, log-rank p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Current therapeutic modalities for management of dAVFs without CVD may provide better symptom control when complete angiographic occlusion is achieved.


Assuntos
Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central , Embolização Terapêutica , Adulto , Idoso , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/cirurgia , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/terapia , Drenagem , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Neurosurg ; 136(4): 951-961, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507282

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) are rare lesions, hampering efforts to understand them and improve their care. To address this challenge, investigators with an established record of dAVF investigation formed an international, multicenter consortium aimed at better elucidating dAVF pathophysiology, imaging characteristics, natural history, and patient outcomes. This report describes the design of the Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR) and includes characterization of the 1077-patient cohort. METHODS: Potential collaborators with established interest in the field were identified via systematic review of the literature. To ensure uniformity of data collection, a quality control process was instituted. Data were retrospectively obtained. RESULTS: CONDOR comprises 14 centers in the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Japan that have pooled their data from 1077 dAVF patients seen between 1990 and 2017. The cohort includes 359 patients (33%) with Borden type I dAVFs, 175 (16%) with Borden type II fistulas, and 529 (49%) with Borden type III fistulas. Overall, 852 patients (79%) presented with fistula-related symptoms: 427 (40%) presented with nonaggressive symptoms such as tinnitus or orbital phenomena, 258 (24%) presented with intracranial hemorrhage, and 167 (16%) presented with nonhemorrhagic neurological deficits. A smaller proportion (224 patients, 21%), whose dAVFs were discovered incidentally, were asymptomatic. Many patients (85%, 911/1077) underwent treatment via endovascular embolization (55%, 587/1077), surgery (10%, 103/1077), radiosurgery (3%, 36/1077), or multimodal therapy (17%, 184/1077). The overall angiographic cure rate was 83% (758/911 treated), and treatment-related permanent neurological morbidity was 2% (27/1467 total procedures). The median time from diagnosis to follow-up was 380 days (IQR 120-1038.5 days). CONCLUSIONS: With more than 1000 patients, the CONDOR registry represents the largest registry of cranial dAVF patient data in the world. These unique, well-annotated data will enable multiple future analyses to be performed to better understand dAVFs and their management.


Assuntos
Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central , Embolização Terapêutica , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Neurosurg ; 136(4): 981-989, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) are often treated with endovascular therapy, but occasionally a multimodality approach including surgery and/or radiosurgery is utilized. Recurrence after an initial angiographic cure has been reported, with estimated rates ranging from 2% to 14.3%, but few risk factors have been identified. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with recurrence of dAVF after putative cure. METHODS: The Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR) data were retrospectively reviewed. All patients with angiographic cure after treatment and subsequent angiographic follow-up were included. The primary outcome was recurrence, with risk factor analysis. Secondary outcomes included clinical outcomes, morbidity, and mortality associated with recurrence. Risk factor analysis was performed comparing the group of patients who experienced recurrence with those with durable cure (regardless of multiple recurrences). Time-to-event analysis was performed using all collective recurrence events (multiple per patients in some cases). RESULTS: Of the 1077 patients included in the primary CONDOR data set, 457 met inclusion criteria. A total of 32 patients (7%) experienced 34 events of recurrence at a mean of 368.7 days (median 192 days). The recurrence rate was 4.5% overall. Kaplan-Meier analysis predicted long-term recurrence rates approaching 11% at 3 years. Grade III dAVFs treated with endovascular therapy were statistically significantly more likely to experience recurrence than those treated surgically (13.3% vs 0%, p = 0.0001). Tentorial location, cortical venous drainage, and deep cerebral venous drainage were all risk factors for recurrence. Endovascular intervention and radiosurgery were associated with recurrence. Six recurrences were symptomatic, including 2 with hemorrhage, 3 with nonhemorrhagic neurological deficit, and 1 with progressive flow-related symptoms (decreased vision). CONCLUSIONS: Recurrence of dAVFs after putative cure can occur after endovascular treatment. Risk factors include tentorial location, cortical venous drainage, and deep cerebral drainage. Multimodality therapy can be used to achieve cure after recurrence. A delayed long-term angiographic evaluation (at least 1 year from cure) may be warranted, especially in cases with risk factors for recurrence.


Assuntos
Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central , Embolização Terapêutica , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/cirurgia , Angiografia Cerebral , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Crânio , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Neurosurg ; 136(4): 971-980, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507300

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a reported elevated risk of cerebral aneurysms in patients with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs). However, the natural history, rate of spontaneous regression, and ideal treatment regimen are not well characterized. In this study, the authors aimed to describe the characteristics of patients with dAVFs and intracranial aneurysms and propose a classification system. METHODS: The Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR) database from 12 centers was retrospectively reviewed. Analysis was performed to compare dAVF patients with (dAVF+ cohort) and without (dAVF-only cohort) concomitant aneurysm. Aneurysms were categorized based on location as a dAVF flow-related aneurysm (FRA) or a dAVF non-flow-related aneurysm (NFRA), with further classification as extra- or intradural. Patients with traumatic pseudoaneurysms or aneurysms with associated arteriovenous malformations were excluded from the analysis. Patient demographics, dAVF anatomical information, aneurysm information, and follow-up data were collected. RESULTS: Of the 1077 patients, 1043 were eligible for inclusion, comprising 978 (93.8%) and 65 (6.2%) in the dAVF-only and dAVF+ cohorts, respectively. There were 96 aneurysms in the dAVF+ cohort; 10 patients (1%) harbored 12 FRAs, and 55 patients (5.3%) harbored 84 NFRAs. Dural AVF+ patients had higher rates of smoking (59.3% vs 35.2%, p < 0.001) and illicit drug use (5.8% vs 1.5%, p = 0.02). Sixteen dAVF+ patients (24.6%) presented with aneurysm rupture, which represented 16.7% of the total aneurysms. One patient (1.5%) had aneurysm rupture during follow-up. Patients with dAVF+ were more likely to have a dAVF located in nonconventional locations, less likely to have arterial supply to the dAVF from external carotid artery branches, and more likely to have supply from pial branches. Rates of cortical venous drainage and Borden type distributions were comparable between cohorts. A minority (12.5%) of aneurysms were FRAs. The majority of the aneurysms underwent treatment via either endovascular (36.5%) or microsurgical (15.6%) technique. A small proportion of aneurysms managed conservatively either with or without dAVF treatment spontaneously regressed (6.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with dAVF have a similar risk of harboring a concomitant intracranial aneurysm unrelated to the dAVF (5.3%) compared with the general population (approximately 2%-5%) and a rare risk (0.9%) of harboring an FRA. Only 50% of FRAs are intradural. Dural AVF+ patients have differences in dAVF angioarchitecture. A subset of dAVF+ patients harbor FRAs that may regress after dAVF treatment.


Assuntos
Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central , Embolização Terapêutica , Aneurisma Intracraniano , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/complicações , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/complicações , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Intracraniano/terapia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 18(3): 1905-1914, 2022 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34881571

RESUMO

The ribosome stalling mechanism is a crucial biological process, yet its atomistic underpinning is still elusive. In this framework, the human XBP1u translational arrest peptide (AP) plays a central role in regulating the unfolded protein response (UPR) in eukaryotic cells. Here, we report multimicrosecond all-atom molecular dynamics simulations designed to probe the interactions between the XBP1u AP and the mammalian ribosome exit tunnel, both for the wild type AP and for four mutant variants of different arrest potencies. Enhanced sampling simulations allow investigating the AP release process of the different variants, shedding light on this complex mechanism. The present outcomes are in qualitative/quantitative agreement with available experimental data. In conclusion, we provide an unprecedented atomistic picture of this biological process and clear-cut insights into the key AP-ribosome interactions.


Assuntos
Peptídeos , Ribossomos , Animais , Citosol , Humanos , Mamíferos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Peptídeos/química , Ribossomos/química
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