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1.
Diabetes ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506343

RESUMO

Epigenetic changes may contribute substantially to risks of diseases of ageing. Previous studies reported seven methylation variable positions (MVPs) robustly associated with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, their causal roles in T2DM are unclear. In an incident T2DM case-cohort study nested within the population-based EPIC-Norfolk cohort, we used whole blood DNA collected at baseline, up to 11 years before T2DM onset to investigate the role of methylation in the aetiology of T2DM. We identified 15 novel MVPs with robust associations with incident T2DM, and robustly confirmed three MVPs identified previously (near to TXNIP, ABCG1 and SREBF1). All 18 MVPs showed directionally consistent associations with incident and prevalent T2DM in independent studies. Further conditional analyses suggested that the identified epigenetic signals appear related to T2DM via glucose and obesity-related pathways acting before the collection of baseline samples. We integrated genome-wide genetic data to identify methylation-associated quantitative trait loci robustly associated with 16 of the 18 MVPs, and found one MVP, cg00574958 at CPT1A, with a possible direct causal role on T2DM. None of the implicated genes was previously highlighted by genetic association studies, suggesting that DNA methylation studies may reveal novel biological mechanisms involved in tissue responses to glycemia.

2.
iScience ; 19: 916-926, 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518900

RESUMO

The presence of nonhuman RNAs in man has been questioned and it is unclear if food-derived miRNAs cross into the circulation. In a large population study, we found nonhuman miRNAs in plasma by RNA sequencing and validated a small number of pine-pollen miRNAs by RT-qPCR in 2,776 people. The presence of these pine-pollen miRNAs associated with hay fever and not with overt cardiovascular or pulmonary disease. Using in vivo and in vitro models, we found that transmission of pollen-miRNAs into the circulation occurs via pulmonary transfer and this transfer was mediated by platelet-pulmonary vascular cell interactions and platelet pollen-DNA uptake. These data demonstrate that pollen-derived plant miRNAs can be horizontally transferred into the circulation via the pulmonary system in humans. Although these data suggest mechanistic plausibility for pulmonary-mediated plant-derived miRNA transfer into the human circulation, our large observational cohort data do not implicate major disease or risk factor association.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(12): 1543-1553, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differences in proteomic profiles between men and women may provide insights into the biological pathways that contribute to known sex differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate sex differences in circulating biomarkers representative of biological pathways implicated in the development of CVD among Framingham Heart Study participants. METHODS: The authors measured 71 circulating CVD protein biomarkers in 7,184 participants (54% women, mean age 49 years). Multivariable models were used to evaluate the associations of sex, menopause, and hormone status with biomarkers. Cox models were used to examine whether sex modified the association of biomarkers with incident CVD. RESULTS: Of 71 biomarkers examined, 61 (86%) differed significantly between men and women, of which 37 were higher in women (including adipokines and inflammatory markers such as leptin and C-reactive protein), and 24 were higher in men (including fibrosis and platelet markers such as MMP-8 (matrix metalloproteinase-8) and TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1); false discovery rate q < 0.05 for all). Sex differences in biomarker profiles were most pronounced between pre-menopausal women versus men, with attenuated sex differences among post-menopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. Sex modified the association of specific biomarkers with incident CVD, including CD14 and apolipoprotein B (pinteraction <0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: In a predominantly Caucasian population, the authors identified widespread sex differences in circulating biomarkers that reflect distinct pathways implicated in CVD, including inflammation, adiposity, fibrosis, and platelet homeostasis. Menopause and hormone status accounted for some, but not all, of the observed sex differences. Further investigation into factors underlying sex-based differences may provide mechanistic insight into CVD development.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4267, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537805

RESUMO

Identifying methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTLs) and integrating them with disease-associated variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) may illuminate functional mechanisms underlying genetic variant-disease associations. Here, we perform GWAS of >415 thousand CpG methylation sites in whole blood from 4170 individuals and map 4.7 million cis- and 630 thousand trans-meQTL variants targeting >120 thousand CpGs. Independent replication is performed in 1347 participants from two studies. By linking cis-meQTL variants with GWAS results for cardiovascular disease (CVD) traits, we identify 92 putatively causal CpGs for CVD traits by Mendelian randomization analysis. Further integrating gene expression data reveals evidence of cis CpG-transcript pairs causally linked to CVD. In addition, we identify 22 trans-meQTL hotspots each targeting more than 30 CpGs and find that trans-meQTL hotspots appear to act in cis on expression of nearby transcriptional regulatory genes. Our findings provide a powerful meQTL resource and shed light on DNA methylation involvement in human diseases.

5.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(16): 5876-5894, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461406

RESUMO

Telomere length is associated with age-related diseases and is highly heritable. It is unclear, however, to what extent epigenetic modifications are associated with leukocyte telomere length (LTL). In this study, we conducted a large-scale epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of LTL using seven large cohorts (n=5,713) - the Framingham Heart Study, the Jackson Heart Study, the Women's Health Initiative, the Bogalusa Heart Study, the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936, and the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. Our stratified analysis suggests that EWAS findings for women of African ancestry may be distinct from those of three other groups: males of African ancestry, and males and females of European ancestry. Using a meta-analysis framework, we identified DNA methylation (DNAm) levels at 823 CpG sites to be significantly associated (P<1E-7) with LTL after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, and imputed white blood cell counts. Functional enrichment analyses revealed that these CpG sites are near genes that play a role in circadian rhythm, blood coagulation, and wound healing. Weighted correlation network analysis identified four co-methylation modules associated with LTL, age, and blood cell counts. Overall, this study reveals highly significant relationships between two hallmarks of aging: telomere biology and epigenetic changes.

6.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(9): 1659-1670, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between plasma insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) and cognitive outcomes. METHODS: We measured plasma IGFBP-2 levels in 1596 (53% women, mean age 68.7 [SD 5.7] years) dementia-free Framingham Offspring cohort participants between 1998 and 2001. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models related plasma IGFBP-2 to subsequent risk of incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease. MRI brain measures and cognitive performance were included as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 11.8 (Q1, Q3: 7.1, 13.3) years, 131 participants developed incident dementia, of whom 98 were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. The highest tertile of IGFBP-2, compared to the lowest tertile, was associated with an increased risk of incident all-cause dementia (hazard ratio [HR] 2.89, 95% CI 1.63-5.13) and Alzheimer's disease (HR 3.63, 95% CI 1.76-7.50) in multivariable analysis. Higher circulating IGFBP2 levels were also cross-sectionally associated with poorer performance on tests of abstract reasoning but not with MRI-based outcomes. After adding plasma IGFBP-2 levels to a conventional dementia prediction model, 32% of individuals with dementia were correctly assigned a higher predicted risk, while 8% of individuals without dementia were correctly assigned a lower predicted risk (overall net reclassification improvement index, 0.40, 95% CI 0.22-0.59). INTERPRETATION: Elevated circulating IGFBP-2 levels were associated with an increased risk of both all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Addition of IGFBP2 plasma levels to a model of traditional risk factors significantly improved dementia risk classification. Manipulation of insulin-like growth factor signaling via IGFBP-2 may be a promising therapeutic target for dementia.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0219261, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393881

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests microRNAs (miRNAs) may play an important role in explaining variation in stroke risk and recovery in humans, yet there are still few longitudinal studies examining the association between whole blood miRNAs and stroke. Accounting for multiple testing and adjusting for potentially confounding technical and clinical variables, here we show that whole blood miR-574-3p expression was significantly lower in participants with chronic stroke compared to non-cases. To explore the functional relevance of our findings, we analyzed miRNA-mRNA whole blood co-expression, pathway enrichment, and brain tissue gene expression. Results suggest miR-574-3p is involved in neurometabolic and chronic neuronal injury response pathways, including brain gene expression of DBNDD2 and ELOVL1. These results suggest miR-574-3p plays a role in regulating chronic brain and systemic cellular response to stroke and thus may implicate miR-574-3p as a partial mediator of long-term stroke outcomes.

8.
Mol Biol Cell ; 30(18): 2349-2357, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318320

RESUMO

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) tubules and sheets conventionally correspond to smooth and rough ER, respectively. The ratio of ER tubules-to-sheets varies in different cell types and changes in response to cellular conditions, potentially impacting the functional output of the ER. To directly test whether ER morphology impacts vesicular trafficking, we increased the tubule-to-sheet ratio in three different ways, by overexpressing Rtn4a, Rtn4b, or REEP5. Only Rtn4a overexpression increased exocytosis, but not overall levels, of several cell surface and secreted proteins. Furthermore, Rtn4a depletion reduced cell surface trafficking without affecting ER morphology. Similar results were observed in three different mammalian cell lines, suggesting that Rtn4a generally enhances exocytosis independently of changes in ER morphology. Finally, we show that Rtn4a levels modulate cell adhesion, possibly by regulating trafficking of integrins to the cell surface. Taking the results together, we find that altering ER morphology does not necessarily affect protein trafficking, but that Rtn4a specifically enhances exocytosis.

9.
Epigenetics ; : 1-16, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282290

RESUMO

DNA methylation (DNAm) and microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in a wide-range of human diseases. While often studied in isolation, DNAm and miRNAs are not independent. We analyzed associations of expression of 283 miRNAs with DNAm at >400K CpG sites in whole blood obtained from 3565 individuals and identified 227 CpGs at which differential methylation was associated with the expression of 40 nearby miRNAs (cis-miR-eQTMs) at FDR<0.01, including 91 independent CpG sites at r2 < 0.2. cis-miR-eQTMs were enriched for CpGs in promoter and polycomb-repressed state regions, and 60% were inversely associated with miRNA expression. Bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis further identified 58 cis-miR-eQTMCpG-miRNA pairs where DNAm changes appeared to drive miRNA expression changes and opposite directional effects were unlikely. Integration of genetic variants in joint analyses revealed an average partial between cis-miR-eQTM CpGs and miRNAs of 2% after conditioning on site-specific genetic variation, suggesting that DNAm is an important epigenetic regulator of miRNA expression. Finally, two-step MR analysis was performed to identify putatively causal CpGs driving miRNA expression in relation to human complex traits. We found that an imprinted region on 14q32 that was previously identified in relation to age at menarche is enriched with cis-miR-eQTMs. Nine CpGs and three miRNAs at this locus tested causal for age at menarche, reflecting novel epigenetic-driven molecular pathways underlying this complex trait. Our study sheds light on the joint genetic and epigenetic regulation of miRNA expression and provides insights into the relations of miRNAs to their targets and to complex phenotypes.

10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(3): 742-749, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genes in metabolic and nutrient signaling pathways play important roles in lifespan in model organisms and human longevity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the relation of a quantitative measure of healthy diet to gene expression in a community-based cohort. METHODS: We used the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adherence Index (DGAI) score to quantify key dietary recommendations of an overall healthy diet. Our current analyses included 2220 Offspring participants (mean age 66 ± 9 y, 55.4% women) and 2941 Third-Generation participants (mean age 46 ± 9 y, 54.5% women) from the Framingham Heart Study. Gene expression was profiled in blood through the use of the Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST Array. We conducted a transcriptome-wide association study of DGAI adjusting for age, sex, smoking, cell counts, and technical covariates. We also constructed a combined gene score from genes significantly associated with DGAI. RESULTS: The DGAI was significantly associated with the expression of 19 genes (false discovery rate <0.05). The most significant gene, ARRDC3, is a member of the arrestin family of proteins, and evidence in animal models and human data suggests that this gene is a regulator of obesity and energy expenditure. The DGAI gene score was associated with body mass index (P = 1.4 × 10-50), fasting glucose concentration (P = 2.5 × 10-11), type 2 diabetes (P = 1.1 × 10-5), and metabolic syndrome (P = 1.8 × 10-32). CONCLUSIONS: Healthier diet was associated with genes involved in metabolic function. Further work is needed to replicate our findings and investigate the relation of a healthy diet to altered gene regulation.

11.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(2): 437-450, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential micronutrients involved in the donation of methyl groups in cellular metabolism. However, associations between intake of these nutrients and genome-wide DNA methylation levels have not been studied comprehensively in humans. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether folate and/or vitamin B-12 intake are asssociated with genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in leukocytes. METHODS: A large-scale epigenome-wide association study of folate and vitamin B-12 intake was performed on DNA from 5841 participants from 10 cohorts using Illumina 450k arrays. Folate and vitamin B-12 intakes were calculated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Continuous and categorical (low compared with high intake) linear regression mixed models were applied per cohort, controlling for confounders. A meta-analysis was performed to identify significant differentially methylated positions (DMPs) and regions (DMRs), and a pathway analysis was performed on the DMR annotated genes. RESULTS: The categorical model resulted in 6 DMPs, which are all negatively associated with folate intake, annotated to FAM64A, WRAP73, FRMD8, CUX1, and LCN8 genes, which have a role in cellular processes including centrosome localization, cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis. Regional analysis showed 74 folate-associated DMRs, of which 73 were negatively associated with folate intake. The most significant folate-associated DMR was a 400-base pair (bp) spanning region annotated to the LGALS3BP gene. In the categorical model, vitamin B-12 intake was associated with 29 DMRs annotated to 48 genes, of which the most significant was a 1100-bp spanning region annotated to the calcium-binding tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated gene (CABYR). Vitamin B-12 intake was not associated with DMPs. CONCLUSIONS: We identified novel epigenetic loci that are associated with folate and vitamin B-12 intake. Interestingly, we found a negative association between folate and DNA methylation. Replication of these methylation loci is necessary in future studies.

12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 3413-3425, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190800

RESUMO

Background: Exosomes are ubiquitous naturally secreted stable nanovesicles that can be engineered to target and deliver novel therapeutics to treat a host of human diseases. Methods: We engineered the surfaces of cell-derived nanovesicles to act as decoys in the treatment of inflammation by antagonizing the major proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Results: Decoy exosomes were generated by displaying the TNFα binding domain of human TNF receptor-1 (hTNFR1) on the outer surface of exosomes using stably transfected HEK293 cells. We developed an efficient method to purify the engineered exosomes from conditioned medium based on sequential centrifugation, ultrafiltration, and precipitation. We characterized decoy exosomes using immune-quantification, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and confocal microscopy to confirm that they retain the correct orientation, size, and shape of naturally produced exosomes. We demonstrated the engineered decoy exosomes specifically antagonize activities of TNFα using an inflammatory reporter cell line. Conclusions: Decoy exosomes produced in human cells serve as a novel biologic reagent for antagonizing inflammatory signaling mediated by TNFα.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Nanopartículas , Domínios Proteicos , Receptores de Superfície Celular/química , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2581, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197173

RESUMO

Despite existing reports on differential DNA methylation in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity, our understanding of its functional relevance remains limited. Here we show the effect of differential methylation in the early phases of T2D pathology by a blood-based epigenome-wide association study of 4808 non-diabetic Europeans in the discovery phase and 11,750 individuals in the replication. We identify CpGs in LETM1, RBM20, IRS2, MAN2A2 and the 1q25.3 region associated with fasting insulin, and in FCRL6, SLAMF1, APOBEC3H and the 15q26.1 region with fasting glucose. In silico cross-omics analyses highlight the role of differential methylation in the crosstalk between the adaptive immune system and glucose homeostasis. The differential methylation explains at least 16.9% of the association between obesity and insulin. Our study sheds light on the biological interactions between genetic variants driving differential methylation and gene expression in the early pathogenesis of T2D.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Simulação por Computador , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Exp Gerontol ; 124: 110630, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195104

RESUMO

Lateralization of the distribution of attentional function in the brain is asserted to lead to asymmetry in attentional allocation. This is expressed in the phenomenon of pseudoneglect, in which line and object bisection judgments indicate left visual field (and presumably right hemisphere) dominance. Several studies indicate that this asymmetry is not found in old age, which is taken as an indication of decline in attentional function with aging. We examined this assertion using a more comprehensive assay of attentional asymmetry. We contrasted the spatial distribution of older and younger adults' visual attention using the Starry Night Task, a speeded visual search task in which targets must be located across a wide spatial distribution against a dynamic background of distracters. As expected, compared to younger adults, older adults' response times were longer overall. However, we found that older adults exhibited a graded left visual field advantage, even more distinctly than did younger adults. Additionally, older adults exhibited a graded upper visual field advantage equivalent to that of younger adults. These results indicate that aging may not necessarily compromise basic patterns of distribution of spatial attention. They do not support claims of aging-related loss of attentional lateralization.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162581

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prior attention research has asserted that endogenous orienting of spatial attention by willful focusing may be differently influenced by aging than exogenous orienting, the capture of attention by external cues. However, most such studies confound factors of manifestation (locational vs. symbolic cues) and the predictivity of cues. We therefore investigated whether age effects on orienting are mediated by those factors. METHOD: We measured accuracy and response times of groups of younger and older adults in a discrimination task with flanker distracters, under three spatial cueing conditions: non-predictive locational cues, predictive symbolic cues, and a hybrid predictive locational condition. RESULTS: Age differences were found to be related to the factor of cue predictivity, but not to the factor of spatial manifestation. These differences were not modulated by flanker congruency. DISCUSSION: The results indicate that the orienting of spatial attention in healthy aging may be adversely affected by less effective perception or utilization of the predictive value of cues, but not by the requirement to voluntarily execute a shift of attention.

16.
EMBO Rep ; 20(6)2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085625

RESUMO

How intracellular organelles acquire their characteristic sizes is a fundamental question in cell biology. Given stereotypical changes in nuclear size in cancer, it is important to understand the mechanisms that control nuclear size in human cells. Using a high-throughput imaging RNAi screen, we identify and mechanistically characterize ELYS, a nucleoporin required for post-mitotic nuclear pore complex (NPC) assembly, as a determinant of nuclear size in mammalian cells. ELYS knockdown results in small nuclei, reduced nuclear lamin B2 localization, lower NPC density, and decreased nuclear import. Increasing nuclear import by importin α overexpression rescues nuclear size and lamin B2 import, while inhibiting importin α/ß-mediated nuclear import decreases nuclear size. Conversely, ELYS overexpression increases nuclear size, enriches nuclear lamin B2 at the nuclear periphery, and elevates NPC density and nuclear import. Consistent with these observations, knockdown or inhibition of exportin 1 increases nuclear size. Thus, we identify ELYS as a novel positive effector of mammalian nuclear size and propose that nuclear size is sensitive to NPC density and nuclear import capacity.

17.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(5): e005897, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104495

RESUMO

Background Identifying the mechanistic pathways potentially associated with incident heart failure (HF) may provide a basis for novel preventive strategies. Methods and Results To identify proteomic biomarkers and the potential underlying mechanistic pathways that may be associated with incident HF defined as the first hospitalization for HF, a nested-matched case-control design was used with cases (incident HF) and controls (without HF) selected from 3 cohorts (>20 000 individuals). Controls were matched on cohort, follow-up time, age, and sex. Two independent sample sets (a discovery set with 286 cases and 591 controls and a replication set with 276 cases and 280 controls) were used to discover and replicate the findings. Two hundred fifty-two circulating proteins in the plasma were studied. Adjusting for the matching variables age, sex, and follow-up time (and correcting for multiplicity of tests), 89 proteins were found to be associated with incident HF in the discovery phase, of which 38 were also associated with incident HF in the replication phase. These 38 proteins pointed to 4 main network clusters underlying incident HF: (1) inflammation and apoptosis, indicated by the expression of the TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-family members; (2) extracellular matrix remodeling, angiogenesis and growth, indicated by the expression of proteins associated with collagen metabolism, endothelial function, and vascular homeostasis; (3) blood pressure regulation, indicated by the expression of natriuretic peptides and proteins related to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; and (4) metabolism, associated with cholesterol and atherosclerosis. Conclusions Clusters of biomarkers associated with mechanistic pathways leading to HF were identified linking inflammation, apoptosis, vascular function, matrix remodeling, blood pressure control, and metabolism. These findings provide important insight on the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to HF. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT02556450.

18.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065045

RESUMO

The Framingham Heart Study (FHS) was established in 1948 to improve understanding of the epidemiology of coronary heart disease (CHD) in the USA. In 1961, seminal work identified major risk factors for CHD (high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels and evidence on the electrocardiogram of left ventricular hypertrophy), which later formed the basis for multivariable 10-year and 30-year risk-prediction algorithms. The FHS cohorts now comprise three generations of participants (n ≈ 15,000) and two minority cohorts. The FHS cohorts are densely phenotyped, with recurring follow-up examinations and surveillance for cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular end points. Assessment of subclinical disease and physiological profiling of these cohorts (with the use of echocardiography, ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring, exercise stress testing, cardiac CT, heart and brain MRI, serial vascular tonometry and accelerometry) have been performed repeatedly. Over the past decade, the FHS cohorts have undergone deep 'omics' profiling (including whole-genome sequencing, DNA methylation analysis, transcriptomics, high-throughput proteomics and metabolomics, and microbiome studies). The FHS is a rich, longitudinal, transgenerational and deeply phenotyped cohort study with a sustained focus on state-of-the-art epidemiological methods and technological advances to facilitate scientific discoveries.

19.
J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics ; 14(3): 262-273, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068049

RESUMO

Genetic analysis has become integral to many large cohort studies. However, little is known about longitudinal cohort study participants' attitudes toward genetics and genetic testing. We analyzed data from a survey of participants in the Jackson Heart Study (n = 960), Framingham Heart Study (n = 955), and Framingham Heart Study-Omni Cohort (n = 160). Based on a three-question attitude scale, most participants had positive attitudes toward genetic testing (median score = 4.3-5/5). Participants were also asked to select words to describe their attitudes toward genetics. More respondents endorsed the positive words "hopeful" (60%-70%), "optimistic" (44%-64%), "enthusiastic" (35%-43%), or "excited" (28%-30%) than the negative words "cautious" (35%-38%), "concerned" (25%-55%), "worried" (6%-13%), "pessimistic" (2%-5%), or "horrified" (1%-5%). Characteristics associated with favorable attitudes were greater genetics knowledge, higher subjective numeracy, experience with genetic testing, less frequent religious attendance, and not being employed. These findings demonstrate variation in attitudes even among participants in long-standing cohort studies, indicating a need for ongoing participant engagement and education.

20.
Diabetes ; 68(5): 1073-1083, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936141

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to identify the peripheral blood DNA methylation signature of hepatic fat. We conducted epigenome-wide association studies of hepatic fat in 3,400 European ancestry (EA) participants and in 401 Hispanic ancestry and 724 African ancestry participants from four population-based cohort studies. Hepatic fat was measured using computed tomography or ultrasound imaging and DNA methylation was assessed at >400,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpGs) in whole blood or CD14+ monocytes using a commercial array. We identified 22 CpGs associated with hepatic fat in EA participants at a false discovery rate <0.05 (corresponding P = 6.9 × 10-6) with replication at Bonferroni-corrected P < 8.6 × 10-4 Mendelian randomization analyses supported the association of hypomethylation of cg08309687 (LINC00649) with NAFLD (P = 2.5 × 10-4). Hypomethylation of the same CpG was also associated with risk for new-onset T2D (P = 0.005). Our study demonstrates that a peripheral blood-derived DNA methylation signature is robustly associated with hepatic fat accumulation. The hepatic fat-associated CpGs may represent attractive biomarkers for T2D. Future studies are warranted to explore mechanisms and to examine DNA methylation signatures of NAFLD across racial/ethnic groups.

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