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1.
Contemp Clin Trials ; : 106586, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Integrating tobacco treatment services into lung cancer screening (LCS) has the potential to leverage a 'teachable moment' to promote cessation among long-term smokers and reduce disparities in tobacco treatment access. This protocol paper describes the Screen ASSIST (Aiding Screening Support in Stopping Tobacco) trial, which will identify how to best deliver evidence-driven tobacco treatment in the context of LCS. METHODS: Screen ASSIST is a randomized clinical trial with a 3-factor, fully crossed factorial design that enrolls current smokers (any cigarette use in the past 30 days) scheduled to attend LCS at multiple sites in the Mass General Brigham healthcare system. To maximize reach, recruitment is conducted at 3 time points: 1) at the time of LCS scheduling, 2) at the LCS visit, and 3) after the participant has received their LCS results. Participants are stratified by LCS study site and recruitment point and randomly assigned into 8 groups that test intervention components varying on telehealth counseling duration (4 weeks vs. 8 weeks), nicotine replacement therapy duration (2 weeks vs. 8 weeks), and systematic screening and referral for social determinants of health via a service named 'AuntBertha' (referral vs. no referral). The primary study outcome is self-reported past 7-day tobacco abstinence at 6-month follow-up. This trial will also assess systems integration and evaluate implementation of the intervention. DISCUSSION: Screen ASSIST will identify the most effective combination of tobacco cessation treatments within the LCS context, in order to improve the cost-effectiveness of LCS and quality of life among long-term heavy smokers.

2.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(9): 1368-1376, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495726

RESUMO

Different staffing configurations in primary and geriatric care practices could have implications for how best to deliver services that are essential for a growing population of older adults. Using data from a 2018 survey of physicians (MDs) and nurse practitioners (NPs) working in primary and geriatric care, we assessed whether different configurations were associated with better or worse performance on a number of standard process measures indicative of comprehensive, high-quality primary care. Practices with a large concentration of MDs had the highest estimated labor costs. Practices high in NPs and physician assistants (PAs) were most common in states that grant full scope of practice to NPs. The high-NP/PA configuration was associated with a 17-percentage-point greater probability of facilitating patient visits and a 26-percentage-point greater probability of providing the full bundle of primary care services compared with the high-MD model. Team-based configurations had a 27.7-percentage-point greater probability of providing the full bundle of primary care services. The complex needs of older adults may be best served by team-based practices with a broad provider mix that can provide a range of services in the office and the community.


Assuntos
Geriatria , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Assistentes Médicos , Idoso , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estados Unidos , Recursos Humanos
3.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 110: 106551, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While addressing smoking cessation in the context of HIV primary care may increase the acceptability of smoking cessation treatment for patients, HIV care providers have not been trained in offering these treatments. Tools that aid providers in treatment selection, such as computer-generated algorithms, may address barriers to providing effective and efficient treatment options to their patients. OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of a computer-generated smoking cessation pharmacotherapy recommendation algorithm fully integrated into HIV primary care against an enhanced usual care condition. METHODS: Six hundred adult smokers living with HIV will be recruited from 3 medical clinics that provide HIV care in Birmingham, AL, Seattle, WA, and Boston, MA. Participants will be asked to complete a baseline visit and 4 follow-up visits, which will include self-report assessments and carbon monoxide monitoring. Additionally, participants have the option to respond to weekly text-message based surveys sent over an 11-week period between baseline and end of treatment. Participants randomized to the AT condition will have a tailored, algorithm-generated smoking cessation pharmacotherapy recommendation delivered to their HIV care provider via EHR, with the potential to receive up to 12 weeks of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: A smoking cessation pharmacotherapy recommendation algorithm integrated into HIV primary care may increase treatment utilization and smoking abstinence among smokers living with HIV. If successful, the intervention would be ready for use across the entire CFAR Network of Integrated Clinical Systems network and, more broadly, in HIV clinics that utilize an EHR system.

4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether behavioral interventions to improve diet are effective in people with a genetic predisposition to obesity. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between BMI genetic risk and changes in weight and workplace purchases by employees participating in a randomized controlled trial of an automated behavioral workplace intervention to promote healthy food choices. METHODS: Participants were hospital employees enrolled in a 12-mo intervention followed by a 12-mo follow-up. Hospital cafeterias utilized a traffic-light labeling system (e.g., green = healthy, red = unhealthy) that was used to calculate a validated Healthy Purchasing Score (HPS; higher = healthier). A weighted genome-wide BMI genetic score was generated by summing BMI-increasing alleles. RESULTS: The study included 397 adults of European ancestry (mean age, 44.9 y; 80.9% female). Participants in the highest genetic quartile (Q4) had a lower HPS and higher purchases of red-labeled items relative to participants in the lowest quartile (Q1) at baseline [Q4-Q1 Beta HPS, -4.66 (95% CI, -8.01 to -1.32); red-labeled items, 4.26% (95% CI, 1.45%-7.07%)] and at the 12-mo [HPS, -3.96 (95% CI, -7.5 to -0.41); red-labeled items, 3.20% (95% CI, 0.31%-6.09%)] and 24-mo [HPS, -3.70 (95% CI, -7.40 to 0.00); red-labeled items, 3.48% (95% CI, 0.54%-6.41%)] follow-up periods. In the intervention group, increases in HPS were similar in Q4 and Q1 at 12 mo (Q4-Q1 Beta, 1.04; 95% CI, -2.42 to 4.50). At the 24-mo follow-up, the change in BMI from baseline was similar between Q4 and Q1 (0.17 kg/m2; 95% CI, -0.55 to 0.89 kg/m2) in the intervention group, but higher in Q4 than Q1 (1.20 kg/m2; 95% CI, 0.26-2.13 kg/m2) in the control group. No interaction was evident between the treatment arm and genetic score for BMI or HPS. CONCLUSIONS: Having a high BMI genetic risk was associated with greater increases in BMI and lower quality purchases over 2 y. The 12-mo behavioral intervention improved employees' food choices, regardless of the genetic burden, and may have attenuated weight gain conferred by having the genetic risk.

5.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Employed adults may skip meals due to time or financial constraints, challenging work schedules, or limited workplace food choices. Little is known about the relationship between employees' meal skipping patterns and workplace dietary choices and health. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether hospital employees' meal skipping patterns were associated with workplace food purchases, dietary quality, and cardiometabolic risk factors (ie, obesity, hypertension, and prediabetes/diabetes). DESIGN: This is a secondary cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the ChooseWell 365 randomized controlled trial. Employees reported meal-skipping frequency in a baseline survey. The healthfulness of workplace food purchases was determined with a validated Healthy Purchasing Score (HPS) (range = 0 to 100 where higher scores = healthier purchases) calculated using sales data for participants' purchases in the 3 months before study enrollment. Dietary quality was measured with the 2015 Healthy Eating Index (range = 0 to 100 where higher score = healthier diet) from two 24-hour recalls. Cardiometabolic risk factors were ascertained from clinic measurements. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Participants were 602 hospital employees who regularly visited workplace cafeterias and enrolled in ChooseWell 365, a workplace health promotion study in Boston, MA, during 2016-2018. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcomes were HPS, 2015 Healthy Eating Index, and cardiometabolic risk factors. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Regression analyses examined differences in HPS, 2015 Healthy Eating Index, and cardiometabolic variables by meal skipping frequency, adjusting for demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Participants' mean (standard deviation) age was 43.6 (12.2) years and 478 (79%) were women. Overall, 45.8% skipped breakfast, 36.2% skipped lunch, and 24.9% skipped dinner ≥ 1 day/week. Employees who skipped breakfast ≥ 3 days/week (n = 102) had lower HPS (65.1 vs 70.4; P < 0.01) and 2015 Healthy Eating Index score (55.9 vs 62.8; P < 0.001) compared with those who never skipped. Skipping lunch ≥ 3 days/week and dinner ≥ 1 day/week were associated with significantly lower HPS compared with never skipping. Employees who worked nonstandard shifts skipped more meals than those who worked standard shifts. Meal skipping was not associated with obesity or other cardiometabolic variables. CONCLUSIONS: Skipping meals was associated with less healthy food purchases at work, and skipping breakfast was associated with lower dietary quality. Future research to understand employees' reasons for skipping meals may inform how employers could support healthier dietary intake at work.

6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2112528, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097048

RESUMO

Importance: Personalized interventions that leverage workplace data and environments could improve effectiveness, sustainability, and scalability of employee wellness programs. Objective: To test an automated behavioral intervention to prevent weight gain and improve diet using employee cafeteria purchasing data. Design, Setting, and Participants: This individual-level randomized clinical trial of a 12-month intervention with 12 months of follow-up was conducted among employees of a hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, who purchased food at on-site cafeterias that used traffic-light labels (ie, green indicates healthy; yellow, less healthy; red, unhealthy). Participants were enrolled September 2016 to February 2018. Data were analyzed from May to September 2020. Interventions: For 12 months, participants in the intervention group received 2 emails per week with feedback on previous cafeteria purchases and personalized health and lifestyle tips and 1 letter per month with peer comparisons and financial incentives for healthier purchases. Emails and letters were automatically generated using survey, health, and cafeteria data. Control group participants received 1 letter per month with general healthy lifestyle information. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was change in weight from baseline to 12 months and 24 months of follow-up. Secondary outcomes included changes in cafeteria purchases, including proportion of green- and red-labeled purchases and calories purchased per day, from baseline (12 months preintervention) to the intervention (months 1-12) and follow-up (months 13-24) periods. Baseline Healthy Eating Index-15 (HEI-15) scores were compared to HEI-15 scores at 6, 12, and 24 months. Results: Among 602 employees enrolled (mean [SD] age, 43.6 [12.2] years; 478 [79.4%] women), 299 were randomized to the intervention group and 303 were randomized to the control group. Baseline mean (SD) body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) was 28.3 (6.6) and HEI-15 score was 60.4 (12.4). There were no between-group differences in weight change at 12 (0.2 [95% CI, -0.6 to 1.0] kg) or 24 (0.6 [95% CI, -0.3 to 1.4] kg) months. Compared with baseline, the intervention group increased green-labeled purchases by 7.3% (95% CI, 5.4% to 9.3%) and decreased red-labeled purchases by 3.9% (95% CI, -5.0% to -2.7%) and calories purchased per day by 49.5 (95% CI, -75.2 to -23.9) kcal more than the control group during the intervention period. In the intervention group, differences in changes in green (4.8% [95% CI, 2.9% to 6.8%]) and red purchases (-3.1% [95% CI, -4.3% to -2.0%]) were sustained at the 24-month follow-up. Differences in changes in HEI-15 scores were not significantly different in the intervention compared with the control group at 6 (2.2 [95% CI, 0 to 4.4]), 12 (1.8 [95% CI, -0.6 to 4.1]), and 24 (1.6, 95% CI, -0.7 to 3.8]) months. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this randomized clinical trial suggest that an automated behavioral intervention using workplace cafeteria data improved employees' food choices but did not prevent weight gain over 2 years. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02660086.

7.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for severe COVID-19 disease. Understanding smokers' responses to the pandemic will help assess its public health impact and inform future public health and provider messages to smokers. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk perceptions and change in tobacco use among current and former smokers during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey conducted in May-July 2020 (55% response rate) PARTICIPANTS: 694 current and former daily smokers (mean age 53, 40% male, 78% white) who had been hospitalized pre-COVID-19 and enrolled into a smoking cessation clinical trial at hospitals in Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee. MAIN MEASURES: Perceived risk of COVID-19 due to tobacco use; changes in tobacco consumption and interest in quitting tobacco use; self-reported quitting and relapse since January 2020. KEY RESULTS: 68% (95% CI, 65-72%) of respondents believed that smoking increases the risk of contracting COVID-19 or having a more severe case. In adjusted analyses, perceived risk was higher in Massachusetts where COVID-19 had already surged than in Pennsylvania and Tennessee which were pre-surge during survey administration (AOR 1.56, 95% CI, 1.07-2.28). Higher perceived COVID-19 risk was associated with increased interest in quitting smoking (AOR 1.72, 95% CI 1.01-2.92). During the pandemic, 32% (95% CI, 27-37%) of smokers increased, 37% (95% CI, 33-42%) decreased, and 31% (95% CI, 26-35%) did not change their cigarette consumption. Increased smoking was associated with higher perceived stress (AOR 1.49, 95% CI 1.16-1.91). Overall, 11% (95% CI, 8-14%) of respondents who smoked in January 2020 (pre-COVID-19) had quit smoking at survey (mean, 6 months later) while 28% (95% CI, 22-34%) of former smokers relapsed. Higher perceived COVID-19 risk was associated with higher odds of quitting and lower odds of relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Most smokers believed that smoking increased COVID-19 risk. Smokers' responses to the pandemic varied, with increased smoking related to stress and increased quitting associated with perceived COVID-19 vulnerability.

8.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 78(8): 839-847, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950156

RESUMO

Importance: Smoking among individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) represents a major public health problem. Intervening during a psychiatric hospital stay may provide an opportunity to aid engagement in smoking cessation treatment and facilitate success in quitting. Objective: To examine the effectiveness of a multicomponent, sustained care (SusC) smoking cessation intervention in adults with SMI receiving inpatient psychiatric care. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Helping HAND 3 randomized clinical trial compared SusC with usual care (UC) among individuals with SMI who smoked daily and were receiving inpatient psychiatric care in Austin, Texas, in a single hospital. The study was conducted from July 2015 through August 2019. Interventions: The UC intervention involved brief smoking cessation information, self-help materials and advice from the admitting nurse, and an offer to provide nicotine replacement therapy during hospitalization. The SusC intervention included 4 main components designed to facilitate patient engagement with postdischarge smoking cessation resources: (1) inpatient motivational counseling; (2) free transdermal nicotine patches on discharge; (3) an offer of free postdischarge telephone quitline, text-based, and/or web-based smoking cessation counseling, and (4) postdischarge automated interactive voice response calls or text messages. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was biochemically verified 7-day point-prevalence abstinence at 6-month follow-up. A secondary outcome was self-reported smoking cessation treatment use at 1, 3, and 6 months after discharge. Results: A total of 353 participants were randomized, of whom 342 were included in analyses (mean [SD] age, 35.8 [12.3] years; 268 White individuals [78.4%]; 280 non-Hispanic individuals [81.9%]; 169 women [49.4%]). They reported smoking a mean (SD) of 16.9 (10.4) cigarettes per day. Participants in the SusC group evidenced significantly higher 6-month follow-up point-prevalence abstinence rates than those in the UC group (8.9% vs 3.5%; adjusted odds ratio, 2.95 [95% CI, 1.24-6.99]; P = .01). The number needed to treat was 18.5 (95% CI, 9.6-306.4). A series of sensitivity analyses confirmed effectiveness. Finally, participants in the SusC group were significantly more likely to report using smoking cessation treatment over the 6 months postdischarge compared with participants in the UC group (74.6% vs 40.5%; relative risk, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.51-2.25]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this randomized clinical trial provide evidence for the effectiveness of a scalable, multicomponent intervention in promoting smoking cessation treatment use and smoking abstinence in individuals with SMI following hospital discharge. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02204956.

9.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 106: 106420, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interventions that target anxiety/depressive symptoms in the context of smoking treatment have shown promise irrespective of psychiatric diagnosis. Yet, these tailored treatments are largely absent for persons who smoke and are living with HIV (SLWH). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a novel, smoking cessation intervention that addresses anxiety/depression and HIV-related health (QUIT) against a time-matched control (TMC) and a standard of care (SOC) condition. METHODS: SLWH (N = 180) will be recruited and enrolled from 3 medical clinics in Boston, MA, and Houston, TX. The trial will consist of a baseline assessment, a 10-week intervention/assessment period, and follow-up assessments, accounting for a total study duration of approximately 8 months. All participants will complete a baseline visit and a pre-randomization standardized psychoeducation visit, and will then be randomized to one of three conditions: QUIT, TMC, or SOC. QUIT and TMC will consist of nine 60-min, cognitive behavioral therapy-based, individual weekly counseling sessions using standard smoking cessation counseling; additionally, QUIT will target anxiety and depressive symptoms by addressing underlying mechanisms related to mood and quit difficulty. SOC participants will complete weekly self-report surveys for nine weeks. All participants will be encouraged to quit at Session 7 and will be offered nicotine replacement therapy to help. CONCLUSIONS: QUIT is designed to improve smoking cessation in SLWH by addressing anxiety and depression and HIV-related health issues. If successful, the QUIT intervention would be ready for implementation and dissemination into "real-world" behavioral health and social service settings consistent with the four objectives outlined in NIDA's Strategic Plan.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/terapia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco
10.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(10): 1349-1357, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888881

RESUMO

Unhealthy food choice is an important driver of obesity, but research examining the relationship of food choices and social influence has been limited. We sought to assess associations in the healthfulness of workplace food choices among a large population of diverse employees whose food-related social connections were identified using passively collected data in a validated model. Data were drawn from 3 million encounters where pairs of employees made purchases together in 2015-2016. The healthfulness of food items was defined by 'traffic light' labels. Cross-sectional simultaneously autoregressive models revealed that proportions of both healthy and unhealthy items purchased were positively associated between connected employees. Longitudinal generalized estimating equation models also found positive associations between an employee's current food purchase and the most recent previous food purchase a coworker made together with the employee. These data indicate that workplace interventions to promote healthy eating and reduce obesity should test peer-based strategies.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e213927, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792730

RESUMO

Importance: Parental smoking adversely affects parents' and children's health. There are effective interventions delivered in pediatric settings to help parents quit smoking. The cost-effectiveness of this type of intervention is not known. Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a parental smoking cessation intervention, the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE) program, delivered in pediatric primary care, compared with usual care from a health care organization's perspective. Design, Setting, and Participants: This economic evaluation used data on intervention costs and parental smoking cessation collected prospectively as part of the CEASE randomized clinical trial. Data were collected at pediatric offices in 5 US states from April 2015 to October 2017. Participants included parents of children attending 10 pediatric primary care practices (5 control, 5 intervention). Data analysis was performed from October 2019 to August 2020. Exposures: The trial compared CEASE (practice training and support to address family tobacco use) vs usual care. Main Outcomes and Measures: The overall cost and incremental cost per quit of the CEASE intervention were calculated using microcosting methods. CEASE effectiveness was estimated using 2 trial outcomes measures assessed in repeated cross-sections: (1) change in smoking prevalence assessed by parental report for intervention vs usual care practices at 2 weeks after program initiation (baseline) and at 2-year follow-up and (2) changes in the proportion of smokers who achieved cotinine-confirmed smoking cessation in the previous 2 years at baseline vs follow-up. Monte Carlo analyses were used to provide 95% CIs. Results: The study included a total of 3054 participants (1523 at baseline and 1531 at follow-up); 2163 (70.8%) were aged 25 to 44 years old, and 2481 (81.2%) were women. Over 2 years, the total cost of implementing and sustaining CEASE across 5 intervention practices was $115 778. The incremental cost per quit for CEASE compared with usual care was $1132 (95% CI, $653-$3603), according to the change in parent-reported smoking prevalence, and $762 (95% CI, $418-$2883), according to cotinine-confirmed cessation. CEASE was cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $2000 per quit in 88.0% of simulations based on the parent-reported smoking prevalence and 94.6% of simulations based on cotinine-confirmed smoking cessation measures. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that the CEASE intervention was associated with an incremental cost per quit that compared favorably with those of other clinical smoking cessation interventions. CEASE is inexpensive to initiate and maintain in the clinical pediatric setting, suggesting that it has the potential for a high impact on population health.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/economia , Relações Pais-Filho , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/economia , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pais , Pediatria/economia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos
12.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 2150132721993651, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576286

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVES: Systematic screening for social determinants of health (SDOH), such as food and housing insecurity, is increasingly implemented in primary care, particularly in the context of Accountable Care Organizations (ACO). Despite the importance of developing effective systems for SDOH resource linkage, there is limited research examining these processes. The objective of the study was to explore facilitators and barriers to addressing SDOH identified by systematic screening in a healthcare system participating in a Medicaid ACO. METHODS: This qualitative case study took place between January and March 2020. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen staff (8 community resource staff and 7 managers) from community health centers and hospitals affiliated with a large healthcare system. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using the Framework Method. RESULTS: Facilitators for addressing SDOH included maintaining updated resource lists, collaborating with community organizations, having leadership buy-in, and developing a trusting relationship with patients. Barriers to addressing SDOH included high caseloads, time constraints, inefficiencies in tracking, lack of community resources, and several specific patient characteristics. Further, resource staff expressed distress associated with having to communicate to patients that they were unable to address certain needs. CONCLUSIONS: Health system, community, and individual-level facilitators and barriers should be considered when developing programs for addressing SDOH. Specifically, the psychological burden on resource staff is an important and underappreciated factor that could impact patient care and lead to staff burnout.


Assuntos
Medicaid , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pesquisa Qualitativa
13.
JAMA ; 324(14): 1406-1418, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048154

RESUMO

Importance: Persistent smoking may cause adverse outcomes among patients with cancer. Many cancer centers have not fully implemented evidence-based tobacco treatment into routine care. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of sustained telephone counseling and medication (intensive treatment) compared with shorter-term telephone counseling and medication advice (standard treatment) to assist patients recently diagnosed with cancer to quit smoking. Design, Setting, and Participants: This unblinded randomized clinical trial was conducted at Massachusetts General Hospital/Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Adults who had smoked 1 cigarette or more within 30 days, spoke English or Spanish, and had recently diagnosed breast, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, gynecological, head and neck, lung, lymphoma, or melanoma cancers were eligible. Enrollment occurred between November 2013 and July 2017; assessments were completed by the end of February 2018. Interventions: Participants randomized to the intensive treatment (n = 153) and the standard treatment (n = 150) received 4 weekly telephone counseling sessions and medication advice. The intensive treatment group also received 4 biweekly and 3 monthly telephone counseling sessions and choice of Food and Drug Administration-approved cessation medication (nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, or varenicline). Main Outcome and Measures: The primary outcome was biochemically confirmed 7-day point prevalence tobacco abstinence at 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes were treatment utilization rates. Results: Among 303 patients who were randomized (mean age, 58.3 years; 170 women [56.1%]), 221 (78.1%) completed the trial. Six-month biochemically confirmed quit rates were 34.5% (n = 51 in the intensive treatment group) vs 21.5% (n = 29 in the standard treatment group) (difference, 13.0% [95% CI, 3.0%-23.3%]; odds ratio, 1.92 [95% CI, 1.13-3.27]; P < .02). The median number of counseling sessions completed was 8 (interquartile range, 4-11) in the intensive treatment group. A total of 97 intensive treatment participants (77.0%) vs 68 standard treatment participants (59.1%) reported cessation medication use (difference, 17.9% [95% CI, 6.3%-29.5%]; odds ratio, 2.31 [95% CI, 1.32-4.04]; P = .003). The most common adverse events in the intensive treatment and standard treatment groups, respectively, were nausea (n = 13 and n = 6), rash (n = 4 and n = 1), hiccups (n = 4 and n = 1), mouth irritation (n = 4 and n = 0), difficulty sleeping (n = 3 and n = 2), and vivid dreams (n = 3 and n = 2). Conclusions and Relevance: Among smokers recently diagnosed with cancer in 2 National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers, sustained counseling and provision of free cessation medication compared with 4-week counseling and medication advice resulted in higher 6-month biochemically confirmed quit rates. However, the generalizability of the study findings is uncertain and requires further research. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01871506.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Temperança/psicologia , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Idoso , Bupropiona/efeitos adversos , Bupropiona/uso terapêutico , Cotinina/análise , Aconselhamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Entrevista Motivacional , Satisfação do Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes , Saliva/química , Fumar/tratamento farmacológico , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/efeitos adversos , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/uso terapêutico , Telefone , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Vareniclina/efeitos adversos , Vareniclina/uso terapêutico
14.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003219, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of genetic risk for obesity on food choice behaviors is unknown and may be in the causal pathway between genetic risk and weight gain. The aim of this study was to examine associations between genetic risk for obesity and food choice behaviors using objectively assessed workplace food purchases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study is a secondary analysis of baseline data collected prior to the start of the "ChooseWell 365" health-promotion intervention randomized control trial. Participants were employees of a large hospital in Boston, MA, who enrolled in the study between September 2016 and February 2018. Cafeteria sales data, collected retrospectively for 3 months prior to enrollment, were used to track the quantity (number of items per 3 months) and timing (median time of day) of purchases, and participant surveys provided self-reported behaviors, including skipping meals and preparing meals at home. A previously validated Healthy Purchasing Score was calculated using the cafeteria traffic-light labeling system (i.e., green = healthy, yellow = less healthy, red = unhealthy) to estimate the healthfulness (quality) of employees' purchases (range, 0%-100% healthy). DNA was extracted and genotyped from blood samples. A body mass index (BMI) genome-wide polygenic score (BMIGPS) was generated by summing BMI-increasing risk alleles across the genome. Additionally, 3 polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were generated with 97 BMI variants previously identified at the genome-wide significance level (P < 5 × 10-8): (1) BMI97 (97 loci), (2) BMICNS (54 loci near genes related to central nervous system [CNS]), and (3) BMInon-CNS (43 loci not related to CNS). Multivariable linear and logistic regression tested associations of genetic risk score quartiles with workplace purchases, adjusted for age, sex, seasonality, and population structure. Associations were considered significant at P < 0.05. In 397 participants, mean age was 44.9 years, and 80.9% were female. Higher genetic risk scores were associated with higher BMI. The highest quartile of BMIGPS was associated with lower Healthy Purchasing Score (-4.8 percentage points [95% CI -8.6 to -1.0]; P = 0.02), higher quantity of food purchases (14.4 more items [95% CI -0.1 to 29.0]; P = 0.03), later time of breakfast purchases (15.0 minutes later [95% CI 1.5-28.5]; P = 0.03), and lower likelihood of preparing dinner at home (Q4 odds ratio [OR] = 0.3 [95% CI 0.1-0.9]; P = 0.03) relative to the lowest BMIGPS quartile. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest BMICNS quartile was associated with fewer items purchased (P = 0.04), and the highest BMInon-CNS quartile was associated with purchasing breakfast at a later time (P = 0.01), skipping breakfast (P = 0.03), and not preparing breakfast (P = 0.04) or lunch (P = 0.01) at home. A limitation of this study is our data come from a relatively small sample of healthy working adults of European ancestry who volunteered to enroll in a health-promotion study, which may limit generalizability. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, genetic risk for obesity was associated with the quality, quantity, and timing of objectively measured workplace food purchases. These findings suggest that genetic risk for obesity may influence eating behaviors that contribute to weight and could be targeted in personalized workplace wellness programs in the future. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02660086.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/genética , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Boston , Comportamento do Consumidor , Feminino , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Local de Trabalho
15.
BMJ Open ; 10(5): e032579, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Simulation models can project effects of tobacco use and cessation and inform tobacco control policies. Most existing tobacco models do not explicitly include relapse, a key component of the natural history of tobacco use. Our objective was to develop, calibrate and validate a novel individual-level microsimulation model that would explicitly include smoking relapse and project cigarette smoking behaviours and associated mortality risks. METHODS: We developed the Simulation of Tobacco and Nicotine Outcomes and Policy (STOP) model, in which individuals transition monthly between tobacco use states (current/former/never) depending on rates of initiation, cessation and relapse. Simulated individuals face tobacco use-stratified mortality risks. For US women and men, we conducted cross-validation with a Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET) model. We then incorporated smoking relapse and calibrated cessation rates to reflect the difference between a transient quit attempt and sustained abstinence. We performed external validation with the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the linked National Death Index. Comparisons were based on root-mean-square error (RMSE). RESULTS: In cross-validation, STOP-generated projections of current/former/never smoking prevalence fit CISNET-projected data well (coefficient of variation (CV)-RMSE≤15%). After incorporating smoking relapse, multiplying the CISNET-reported cessation rates for women/men by 7.75/7.25, to reflect the ratio of quit attempts to sustained abstinence, resulted in the best approximation to CISNET-reported smoking prevalence (CV-RMSE 2%/3%). In external validation using these new multipliers, STOP-generated cumulative mortality curves for 20-year-old current smokers and never smokers each had CV-RMSE ≤1% compared with NHIS. In simulating those surveyed by NHIS in 1997, the STOP-projected prevalence of current/former/never smokers annually (1998-2009) was similar to that reported by NHIS (CV-RMSE 12%). CONCLUSIONS: The STOP model, with relapse included, performed well when validated to US smoking prevalence and mortality. STOP provides a flexible framework for policy-relevant analysis of tobacco and nicotine product use.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Simulação por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Calibragem , Fumar Cigarros/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Prevalência , Recidiva , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/tendências , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Trials ; 21(1): 336, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death in the US. A hospital admission provides smokers with a unique opportunity to stop smoking because it requires temporary tobacco abstinence while illness may enhance motivation to quit. Hospital interventions must continue post-discharge to increase tobacco abstinence long-term, but how best to accomplish this remains unclear. Building on two previous randomized controlled trials, each of which tested smoking cessation interventions that began in hospital and continued after discharge, this trial compares two interventions that provide sustained smoking cessation treatment after hospital discharge with the goal of improving long-term smoking cessation rates among hospitalized smokers. METHODS/DESIGN: Helping HAND 4 is a three-site randomized controlled trial that compares the effectiveness of two active interventions for producing validated past 7-day tobacco abstinence 6 months after hospital discharge. Smokers who are admitted to three hospitals receive a standard in-hospital smoking intervention, and those who plan to quit smoking after discharge are recruited and randomly assigned to two interventions that begin at discharge, Personalized Tobacco Care Management (PTCM) or Quitline eReferral. Each lasts 3 months. At discharge, PTCM provides 8 weeks of free nicotine replacement (NRT; a participant's choice of patch, gum, lozenge, or a combination) and then proactive smoking cessation support using an automated communication platform and live contact with a tobacco treatment specialist who is based in the health care system. In the eReferral condition, a direct referral is made from the hospital electronic health record to a community-based resource, the state's telephone quitline. The quitline provides up to 8 weeks of free NRT and offers behavioral support via a series of phone calls from a trained coach. Outcomes are assessed at 1, 3, and 6 months after discharge. The study hypothesis is that PTCM will produce higher quit rates than eReferral. DISCUSSION: Helping HAND 4 is a pragmatic trial that aims to evaluate interventions in real-world conditions. This project will give hospital systems critical evidence-based tools for meeting National Hospital Quality Measures for tobacco treatment and maximizing their ability to improve cessation rates and overall health for the millions of smokers hospitalized annually in the US. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Prospectively registered prior to start of enrollment at Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03603496 (July 27, 2018). https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/prs/app/action/SelectProtocol?sid=S00084MJ&selectaction=Edit&uid=U00002G7&ts=2&cx=ff0oxn.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/métodos , Fumar Cigarros/terapia , Alta do Paciente , Fumantes , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Boston/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Tennessee/epidemiologia , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Gen Intern Med ; 35(9): 2637-2646, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensive lifestyle interventions (LI) improve outcomes in obesity and type 2 diabetes but are not currently available in usual care. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness and costs of two group LI programs, in-person LI and telephone conference call (telephone LI), to medical nutrition therapy (MNT) on weight loss in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: A randomized, assessor-blinded, practice-based clinical trial in three community health centers and one hospital-based practice affiliated with a single health system. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 208 primary care patients with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c 6.5 to < 11.5, and BMI > 25 kg/m2 (> 23 kg/m2 in Asians). INTERVENTIONS: Dietitian-delivered in-person or telephone group LI programs with medication management or MNT referral. MAIN MEASURES: Primary outcome: mean percent weight change. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: 5% and 10% weight loss, change in HbA1c, and cost per kilogram lost. KEY RESULTS: Participants' mean age was 62 (SD 10) years, 45% were male, and 77% were White, with BMI 35 (SD 5) kg/m2 and HbA1c 7.7 (SD 1.2). Seventy were assigned to in-person LI, 72 to telephone LI, and 69 to MNT. The mean percent weight loss (95% CI) at 6 and 12 months was 5.6% (4.4-6.8%) and 4.6% (3.1-6.1%) for in-person LI, 4.6% (3.3-6.0%) and 4.8% (3.3-6.2%) for telephone LI, and 1.1% (0.2-2.0%) and 2.0% (0.9-3.0%) for MNT, with statistically significant differences between each LI arm and MNT (P < 0.001) but not between LI arms (P = 0.63). HbA1c improved in all participants. Compared with MNT, the incremental cost per kilogram lost was $789 for in-person LI and $1223 for telephone LI. CONCLUSIONS: In-person LI or telephone group LI can achieve good weight loss outcomes in primary care type 2 diabetes patients at a reasonable cost. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02320253.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Perda de Peso
19.
Transl Behav Med ; 10(4): 1039-1052, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157864

RESUMO

Addressing parental smoking in the child healthcare setting improves the health of all family members. Innovative approaches, such as mobilizing technology-based platforms, may streamline screening and motivate acceptance of behavioral health services to treat tobacco use and dependence. The obective of this study was to describe innovations added to the CEASE intervention and to track 2 year post-intervention implementation data on families who were screened for tobacco use. Child healthcare practices in five states (IN, NC, OH, TN, and VA) used an electronic tablet screener to identify tobacco use within families and deliver tobacco cessation assistance to smokers. Motivational/educational videos on cessation were displayed via the screener to enhance its utility. Five CEASE intervention practices screened 50,111 family members for tobacco use and identified 6,885 families with children exposed to tobacco smoke. The mean number of screeners per practice per month was 417; the mean number of households with smokers identified per month was 57. Of 2,764 smokers who were at visits and consented, 57% indicated that they wanted a prescription to reduce or quit smoking; 94% of these were given preprinted prescriptions. Of 41% who requested connection to the quitline, 93% were given enrollment forms. Electronic screening was used to routinely identify tobacco users, leading to increased potential for offering cessation assistance to all household members who smoke. Improved delivery of smoking cessation services to families may be achieved by integrating technological innovations into routine pediatric practice. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: Trial Number NCT01882348.

20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1583, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While leisure-time physical activity (PA) has been associated with reduced risk of cardiometabolic disease, less is known about the relationship between work-related PA and health. Work-related PA is often not a chosen behavior and may be associated with lower socioeconomic status and less control over job-related activities. This study examined whether high work-related PA and leisure-time PA reported by hospital employees were associated with healthier dietary intake and reductions in cardiometabolic risk. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis of 602 hospital employees who used workplace cafeterias and completed the baseline visit for a health promotion study in 2016-2018. Participants completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and clinical measures of weight, blood pressure, HbA1c, and lipids. Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores were calculated from two 24-h dietary recalls, and a Healthy Purchasing Score was calculated based on healthfulness of workplace food/beverage purchases. Regression analyses examined Healthy Purchasing Score, HEI, and obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes/prediabetes by quartile of work-related PA, leisure-time PA, and sedentary time. RESULTS: Participants' mean age was 43.6 years (SD = 12.2), 79.4% were female, and 81.1% were white. In total, 30.3% had obesity, 20.6% had hypertension, 26.6% had prediabetes/diabetes, and 32.1% had hyperlipidemia. Median leisure-time PA was 12.0 (IQR: 3.3, 28.0) and median work-related PA was 14.0 (IQR: 0.0, 51.1) MET-hours/week. Higher leisure-time PA was associated with higher workplace Healthy Purchasing Score and HEI (p's < 0.01) and lower prevalence of obesity, diabetes/prediabetes, and hyperlipidemia (p's < 0.05). Work-related PA was not associated with Healthy Purchasing Score, HEI, or cardiometabolic risk factors. Increased sedentary time was associated with lower HEI (p = 0.02) but was not associated with the workplace Healthy Purchasing Score. CONCLUSIONS: Employees with high work-related PA did not have associated reductions in cardiometabolic risk or have healthier dietary intake as did employees reporting high leisure-time PA. Workplace wellness programs should promote leisure-time PA and healthy food choices for all employees, but programs may need to be customized and made more accessible to meet the unique needs of employees who are physically active at work. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was prospectively registered with clinicaltrials.gov (Identifier: NCT02660086) on January 21, 2016. The first participant was enrolled on September 16, 2016.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/normas , Exercício Físico , Nível de Saúde , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho
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