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1.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; : 104836, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414581

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy for mild-deficit stroke due to large-vessel occlusion is controversial. We present a single-center consecutive case series on thrombectomy for large-vessel occlusion mild stroke. We evaluated various thrombectomy parameters to better understand disagreement in the literature. METHODS: Data from a retrospective cohort of large-vessel occlusion mild stroke patients (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale <6) treated with mechanical thrombectomy over 6 years and 2 months were analyzed. Patients were divided into 2 groups: successful reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b or 3) and failed reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 0,1, or 2a). Ninety-day modified Rankin Scale in-hospital mortality, and symptomatic hemorrhage rates were compared between groups. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate reperfusion status as a predictor of 90-day favorable (modified Rankin Scale 0-2) and excellent (modified Rankin Scale 0-1) outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 61 patients with large-vessel occlusion mild stroke who underwent thrombectomy. Reperfusion was successful in 49 patients and a failure in 12. The successful group exhibited significantly higher rates of favorable outcome (83.7% vs. 25.0%; p < 0.001) and excellent outcome (69.4% vs.16.7%; p = 0.002) at 90 days. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in the failure group (41.7% vs.10.2%; p = 0.019). Multivariate logistic regression identified successful reperfusion as a significant predictor (p = 0.001) of 90-day favorable outcome. CONCLUSION: Reperfusion success was significantly associated with improved functional outcomes in large-vessel occlusion mild stroke mechanical thrombectomy. Future studies should consider reperfusion rates when evaluating the effectiveness of thrombectomy against that of medical management in these patients.

2.
Neurosurgery ; 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A simple dimensionless aneurysm number ($An$), which depends on geometry and flow pulsatility, was previously shown to distinguish the flow mode in intracranial aneurysms (IA): vortex mode with a dynamic vortex formation/evolution if $An > 1$, and cavity mode with a steady shear layer if $An < 1$. OBJECTIVE: To hypothesize that $An\ > \ 1$ can distinguish rupture status because vortex mode is associated with high oscillatory shear index, which, in turn, is statistically associated with rupture. METHODS: The above hypothesis is tested on a retrospective, consecutively collected database of 204 patient-specific IAs. The first 119 cases are assigned to training and the remainder to testing dataset. $An$ is calculated based on the pulsatility index (PI) approximated either from the literature or solving an optimization problem (denoted as$\ \widehat {PI}$). Student's t-test and logistic regression (LR) are used for hypothesis testing and data fitting, respectively. RESULTS: $An$ can significantly discriminate ruptured and unruptured status with 95% confidence level (P < .0001). $An$ (using PI) and $\widehat {An}$ (using $\widehat {PI}$) significantly predict the ruptured IAs (for training dataset $An\!:\ $AUC = 0.85, $\widehat {An}\!:\ $AUC = 0.90, and for testing dataset $An\!:\ $sensitivity = 94%, specificity = 33%, $\widehat {An}\!:\ $sensitivity = 93.1%, specificity = 52.85%). CONCLUSION: $An > 1$ predicts ruptured status. Unlike traditional hemodynamic parameters such as wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index, $An$ has a physical threshold of one (does not depend on statistical analysis) and does not require time-consuming flow simulations. Therefore, $An$ is a simple, practical discriminator of IA rupture status.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Instantaneous wave-free ratios (iFRs) are functional measures of arterial stenosis that have become essential to interventional cardiology procedures. Their use for intracranial submaximal angioplasty (angioplasty with an undersized balloon) has not been studied extensively. OBJECTIVE: To describe the feasibility and technique of iFR measurement for stenosis assessment during intracranial angioplasty. METHODS: We present a series of consecutive patients treated between January 1, 2017 and June 30, 2018 with submaximal intracranial angioplasty in whom pre- and postprocedure iFR measurements were obtained with a Verrata-Volcano pressure wire (Philips, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). We collected patient data on age, sex, comorbid conditions, presenting complaints, modified Rankin scale (mRS) score at admission, neurological findings, procedure duration, fluoroscopy time, intraprocedural complications, length of hospital stay, and mRS score at last clinical follow-up (favorable outcome, 0-2). Angiographic stenosis severity and iFR values were recorded before and after angioplasty. RESULTS: A total of 12 patients underwent iFR-guided angioplasty during the study period. The median patient age was 69.5 yr (range 48-81 yr). All patients had symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis (3-basilar, 2-vertebral, 6-middle cerebral, 1-internal carotid). Preangioplasty stenosis ranged from 55% to 90%. The median postangioplasty reduction in stenosis was 17% (range 9%-30%). Preangioplasty values ranged from 0.30 to 0.40 (n = 4). Postangioplasty values ranged from 0.6 to 0.9 (n = 5). iFR values improved considerably in all patients. No procedure-related complications occurred. The median follow-up was 8.9 mo (range 3-25 mo). Follow-up outcomes were favorable in 10 patients. CONCLUSION: iFR measurement before and after intracranial angioplasty is feasible. It may be used to assess the adequacy of intracranial angioplasty.

4.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection from the SARS-CoV-2 virus has led to the covid-19 pandemic. Given the large number of patients affected, healthcare personnel and facility resources are stretched to the limit; however, the need for urgent and emergent neurosurgical care continues. This article describes best practices when performing neurosurgical procedures on patients with covid-19 based on multi-institutional experiences. METHODS: We assembled neurosurgical practitioners from 13 different health systems from across the USA, including those in hot spots, to describe their practices in managing neurosurgical emergencies within the covid-19 environment. RESULTS: Patients presenting with neurosurgical emergencies should be considered as persons under investigation (PUI) and thus maximal personal protective equipment (PPE) should be donned during interaction and transfer. Intubations and extubations should be done with only anesthesia staff donning maximal PPE in a negative pressure environment. Operating room (OR) staff should enter the room once the air has been cleared of particulate matter. Certain OR suites should be designated as covid ORs, thus allowing for all neurosurgical cases on covid/PUI patients to be performed in these rooms, which will require a terminal clean post procedure. Each covid OR suite should be attached to an anteroom which is a negative pressure room with a HEPA filter, thus allowing for donning and doffing of PPE without risking contamination of clean areas. CONCLUSION: Based on a multi-institutional collaborative effort, we describe best practices when providing neurosurgical treatment for patients with covid-19 in order to optimize clinical care and minimize the exposure of patients and staff.

5.
Neurosurgery ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) printing has revolutionized training, education, and device testing. Understanding the design and physical properties of 3D-printed models is important. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the design, physical properties, accuracy, and experimental outcomes of 3D-printed vascular models used in neurointervention. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature between January 1, 2000 and September 30, 2018. Public/Publisher MEDLINE (PubMed), Web of Science, Compendex, Cochrane, and Inspec databases were searched using Medical Subject Heading terms for design and physical attributes of 3D-printed models for neurointervention. Information on design and physical properties like compliance, lubricity, flow system, accuracy, and outcome measures were collected. RESULTS: A total of 23 articles were included. Nine studies described 3D-printed models for stroke intervention. Tango Plus (Stratasys) was the most common material used to develop these models. Four studies described a population-representative geometry model. All other studies reported patient-specific vascular geometry. Eight studies reported complete reconstruction of the circle of Willis, anterior, and posterior circulation. Four studies reported a model with extracranial vasculature. One prototype study reported compliance and lubricity. Reported circulation systems included manual flushing, programmable pistons, peristaltic, and pulsatile pumps. Outcomes included thrombolysis in cerebral infarction, post-thrombectomy flow restoration, surgical performance, and qualitative feedback. CONCLUSION: Variations exist in the material, design, and extent of reconstruction of vasculature of 3D-printed models. There is a need for objective characterization of 3D-printed vascular models. We propose the development of population representative 3D-printed models for skill improvement or device testing.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348503

RESUMO

Wide-necked cerebral aneurysms often require complex treatment strategies for optimal treatment. As the surgeon's arsenal continues to expand, consideration of all potential applications of available devices is important. The Woven EndoBridge (WEB) device (MicroVention-Terumo, Aliso Viejo, California) capitalizes on flow disruption to promote thrombosis and is Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for saccular wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms located at the middle cerebral artery bifurcation, internal carotid artery (ICA) terminus, anterior communicating artery complex, and basilar apex. In this video, we demonstrate an off-label use of the WEB to treat a wide-necked type II1 ophthalmic artery aneurysm, highlighting the importance of correct device sizing. The patient is a 74-yr-old woman with a family history of aneurysms. Her aneurysm was found incidentally after a minor trauma. Observation and various treatment options were considered. The patient preferred to avoid open surgical intervention and dual antiplatelet therapy. Endoluminal flow diversion for types II and III ophthalmic artery aneurysms has relatively low occlusion rates and a higher incidence of visual field deficits.1 A WEB device can be an excellent alternative to treat these aneurysms. A biaxial system was used to selectively catheterize the supraclinoid internal carotid artery and then the aneurysm, and optimal flow diversion was achieved. The patient did well and was discharged home the next day on aspirin alone. Six-month angiography showed near-occlusion of the aneurysm and ophthalmic artery patency. The neck remnant will be followed up with repeat angiography in 6 mo. The patient gave informed consent for the procedure and video recording. Institutional review board approval was deemed unnecessary. Video ©University at Buffalo Neurosurgery, 2019. With permission.

7.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 162(6): 1353-1362, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is wide variation in the reported size of ruptured intracranial aneurysms and methods of size estimation. There is widespread belief that small aneurysms < 7 mm do not rupture. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to determine the size of ruptured aneurysms according to aneurysm locations and methods of size estimation. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases using a combination of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. We included articles that reported mean aneurysm size in consecutive series of ruptured intracranial. We excluded studies limited to a specific aneurysm location or type. The random-effects model was used to calculate overall mean size and location-specific mean size. We performed meta-regression to explain observed heterogeneity and variation in reported size. RESULTS: The systematic review included 36 studies and 12,609 ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Overall mean aneurysm size was 7.0 mm (95% confidence interval [CI 6.2-7.4]). Pooled mean size varied with location. Overall mean size of 2145 ruptured anterior circulation aneurysms was 6.0 mm (95% CI 5.6-6.4, residual I2 = 86%). Overall mean size of 743 ruptured posterior circulation aneurysms was 6.2 mm (95% CI 5.3-7.0, residual I2 = 93%). Meta-regression identified aneurysm location and definition of size (i.e., maximum dimension vs. aneurysm height) as significant determinants of aneurysm size reported in the studies. CONCLUSIONS: The mean size of ruptured aneurysms in most studies was approximately 7 mm. The general wisdom that aneurysms of this size do not rupture is incorrect. Location and size definition were significant determinants of aneurysm size.

8.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-10, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217800

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Coverage of the anterior spinal artery (ASA) ostia is a source of considerable consternation regarding flow diversion (FD) in vertebral artery (VA) aneurysms due to cord supply. The authors sought to assess the association between coverage of the ASA, posterior spinal artery (PSA), or lateral spinal artery (LSA) ostia when placing flow diverters in distal VAs and clinical outcomes, with emphasis on cord infarction. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study of 7 institutions in which VA aneurysms were treated with FD between 2011 and 2019 was performed. The authors evaluated the risk of ASA and PSA/LSA occlusion, associated thromboembolic complication, complications overall, aneurysm occlusion status, and functional outcome. RESULTS: Sixty patients with 63 VA and posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms treated with FD were identified. The median aneurysm diameter was 7 mm and fusiform type was the commonest morphology (42.9%). During a procedure, 1 (61.7%) or 2 (33.3%) flow diverters were placed. Complete occlusion was achieved in 71.9%. Symptomatic thromboembolic complications occurred in 7.4% of cases and intracranial hemorrhage in 10.0% of cases. The ASA and PSA/LSA were identified in 51 (80.9%) and 35 (55.6%) complications and covered by the flow diverter in 29 (56.9%) and 13 (37.1%) of the procedures, respectively. Patency after flow diverter coverage on last follow-up was 89.2% for ASA and 100% for PSA/LSA, not significantly different between covered and noncovered groups (p = 0.5 and p > 0.99, respectively). No complications arose from coverage. CONCLUSIONS: FD aneurysm treatment in the posterior circulation with coverage of ASA or PSA/LSA was not associated with higher rates of occlusion of these branches or any instances of cord infarction.

9.
World Neurosurg ; 137: e454-e461, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite an increasing focus on endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms, microsurgical clipping remains an integral part of management. We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of microsurgical clipping performed by dual-trained neurosurgeons at our institute, which has adopted an endovascular first approach. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed clinical and radiographic data of 412 aneurysms in 375 patients treated with microsurgical clipping. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictive outcome factors. We defined favorable outcome as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0-2 at last clinical follow-up; unfavorable outcome was an mRS score of 3-6. We compared outcomes in our series with those of seminal aneurysm clipping series. RESULTS: Clipping of 330 of 351 unruptured aneurysms (94.01%) was associated with favorable outcome during the follow-up period (mean, 26.5 months). On univariate analysis, older patient age, intraoperative rupture, and higher baseline mRS scores were associated with unfavorable outcome in the unruptured cohort. On multivariate analysis, older age, higher baseline mRS scores, and posterior circulation aneurysm location were predictive of unfavorable outcome. Clipping of 46 of 61 ruptured aneurysms (75.4%) was associated with favorable outcome during the follow-up period (mean, 23.1 months). On univariate analysis, left-sided aneurysms, intraoperative rupture, and large aneurysm size were associated with unfavorable outcome in the ruptured cohort. On multivariate analysis, female sex was predictive of unfavorable outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our ruptured and unruptured cohort results compared favorably with those in seminal series. Treatment by neurosurgeons adept at both endovascular and microsurgical techniques may improve clinical outcomes.

10.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A new dual resolution imaging x-ray detector system (Canon Medical Systems Corporation, Tochigi, Japan) has a standard resolution 194 µm pixel conventional flat-panel detector (FPD) mode and a high-resolution 76 µm high-definition (Hi-Def) mode in a single unit. The Hi-Def mode enhances the visualization of the intravascular devices. OBJECTIVE: We report the clinical experience and physician evaluation of this new detector system with Hi-Def mode for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms using a Pipeline embolization device (PED). METHODS: During intervention at our institute, under large field of view (FOV) regular resolution FPD mode imaging, the catheter systems and devices were first guided to the proximity of the treatment area. Final placement and deployment of the PED was performed under Hi-Def mode guidance. A post-procedure 9-question physician survey was conducted to qualitatively assess the impact of Hi-Def mode visualization on physicians' intraoperative decision-making. One-sample t-test was performed on the responses from the survey. Dose values reported by the x-ray unit were also recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-five cases were included in our study. The survey results indicated that, for each of the nine questions, the physicians in all cases indicated that the Hi-Def mode improved visualization compared with the FPD mode. For the 25 cases, the mean cumulative entrance air kerma was 2.35 Gy, the mean dose area product (DAP) was 173.71 Gy.cm2, and the mean x-ray exposure time was 39.30 min. CONCLUSIONS: The Hi-Def mode improves visualization of flow diverters and may help in achieving more accurate placement and deployment of devices.

11.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 12(6): 585-590, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A Pipeline embolization device (PED; Medtronic, Dublin, Ireland) can be deployed using either a biaxial or a triaxial catheter delivery system. OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of these two catheter delivery systems for intracranial aneurysm treatment with the PED. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients undergoing PED deployment with biaxial or triaxial catheter systems between 2014 and 2016 was conducted. Experienced neurointerventionalists performed the procedures. Patients who received multiple PEDs or adjunctive coils were excluded. The two groups were compared for PED deployment time, total fluoroscopy time, patient radiation exposure, complications, and cost. RESULTS: Eighty-two patients with 89 intracranial aneurysms were treated with one PED each. In 49 cases, PEDs were deployed using biaxial access; triaxial access was used in 33 cases. Time (min) from guide catheter run to PED deployment was significantly shorter in the biaxial group (24.0±18.7 vs 38.4±31.1, P=0.006) as was fluoroscopy time (28.8±23.0 vs 50.3±27.1, P=0.001). Peak radiation skin exposure (mGy) in the biaxial group was less than in the triaxial group (1243.7±808.2 vs 2074.6±1505.6, P=0.003). No statistically significant differences were observed in transient and permanent complication rates or modified Rankin Scale scores at 30 days. The triaxial access system cost more than the biaxial access system (average $3285 vs $1790, respectively). Occlusion rates at last follow-up (mean 6 months) were similar between the two systems (average 88.1%: biaxial, 89.2%: triaxial). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate near-equivalent safety and effectiveness between biaxial and triaxial approaches. Some reductions in cost and procedure time were noted with the biaxial system.

12.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-6, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978888

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The mortality rates for stroke are decreasing, yet it remains a leading cause of disability and the principal neurological diagnosis in patients discharged to nursing homes. The societal and economic burdens of stroke are substantial, with the total annual health care costs of stroke expected to reach $240.7 billion by 2030. Mechanical thrombectomy has been shown to improve functional outcomes compared to medical therapy alone. Despite an incremental cost of $10,840 compared to medical therapy, the improvement in functional outcomes and decreased disability have contributed to the cost-effectiveness of the procedure. In this study the authors describe a physician-led device bundle purchase program implemented for the delivery of stroke care. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiographic data and device-associated charges of 45 consecutive patients in whom a virtual "stroke bundle" model was used to purchase mechanical thrombectomy devices. RESULTS: Use of the stroke bundle to purchase mechanical thrombectomy devices resulted in an average savings per case of $2900.93. Compared to the traditional model of charging for devices à la carte, this represented an average savings of 25.2% per case. The total amount of savings for these initial 45 cases was $130,542.00. Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction scale grade 2b or 3 recanalization occurred in 38 patients (84.4%) using these devices. CONCLUSIONS: Purchasing devices through a bundled model resulted in substantial cost savings while maintaining the therapeutic efficacy of the procedure, further pushing the already beneficial long-term cost-benefit curve in favor of thrombectomy.

13.
Neurosurgery ; 86(2): 266-271, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Pipeline Embolization Device (PED; Medtronic, Dublin, Ireland) has become an important tool for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Since FDA approval, there are ongoing efforts to increase aneurysm occlusion rates and reduce the incidence of complications. OBJECTIVE: To assess aneurysm occlusion and complication rates over time. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of consecutive anterior circulation aneurysms treated with a single PED between 2011 and 2016 at 3 academic institutions in the US was performed. Factors contributing to changes in aneurysm occlusion and complication rates over time were identified and evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 284 procedures were performed on 321 anterior circulation aneurysms in 284 patients. At a median follow-up of 13 mo (mean 18 mo), complete or near complete occlusion (>90%) was achieved in 85.9% of aneurysms. There was no significant change in aneurysm occlusion rate or procedure length over time. Thromboembolic complication occurred in 8.1% of procedures, and there was a trend toward decreased incidence from 16.3% in 2011/2012 to 3.3% in 2016 (P = .14). Hemorrhagic complications significantly decreased from 8.2% in 2011/2012 to 0 to 1.0% in 2014-2016 (P = .1). CONCLUSION: We report a notable drop in the rate of hemorrhagic and to a lesser extent thromboembolic complications with increased experience with PED in a multicenter cohort. Multiple factors are believed to contribute to this drop, including the evolved interpretation of platelet function testing, the switching of clopidogrel nonresponders to ticagrelor, and the reduced use of adjunctive coiling.

15.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 12(3): 240-245, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The time-benefit relationship of endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) according to the size of the core infarct has been incompletely explored in prior studies. We investigated whether established infarct core size on baseline imaging modifies the relationship between onset-to-reperfusion time (OTR) and functional outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with EVT. METHODS: We analyzed a database containing individual patient data pooled from three prospective Solitaire stent retriever studies. The inclusion criteria were treatment with a Solitaire device and achievement of substantial reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b-3). Main analyses were performed in patients with baseline Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Scores (ASPECTSs) of 7-10. RESULTS: Among the 305 patients (mean age 67±13 years, 58% women), the proportions of patients in different categories of pretreatment infarct extent were: small (ASPECTS 9-10) 52.0%, moderate (ASPECTS 7-8) 37.1%, and large (ASPECTS 0-6) 7.6%. The mean OTR was 297±95 min. At 3 months, 60.1% of the patients achieved a good outcome. For OTRs of 2-8 hours, the rates of good outcomes at all time points were higher with higher baseline ASPECTS but declined with similar steepness. Both baseline ASPECTS (OR 1.23 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.45)) and OTR (every 30 min delay, OR 0.80 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.88)) were independently associated with a good 3-month outcome. No interaction between OTR and baseline ASPECTS was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients with higher baseline ASPECTS are more likely to have good clinical outcomes at all OTR intervals after 2 hours, this benefit consistently declines with time, even in patients with a small infarct core, reinforcing the need to treat all patients as quickly as possible.

16.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 12(1): 2-6, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the proven benefit of neurothrombectomy, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) remains the most serious procedural complication. The aim of this analysis was to identify predictors of different hemorrhage subtypes and evaluate their individual impact on clinical outcome. METHODS: Pooled individual patient-level data from three large prospective multicenter studies were analyzed for the incidence of different ICH subtypes, including any ICH, hemorrhagic transformation (HT), parenchymal hematoma (PH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH). All patients (n=389) treated with the Solitaire device were included in the analysis. A multivariate stepwise logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of each hemorrhage subtype. RESULTS: General anesthesia and higher baseline Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score (ASPECTS) were associated with a lower probability of any ICH (OR 0.36, p=0.003), (OR 0.80, p=0.032) and HT (OR 0.54, p=0.023), (OR 0.78, p=0.001), respectively. Longer time from onset to treatment was associated with a higher likelihood of HT (OR 1.08, p=0.001) and PH (OR 1.11, p=0.015). Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) was also a strong predictor of PH (OR 7.63, p=0.013). Functional independence at 90 days (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0-2) was observed significantly less frequently in all hemorrhage subtypes except SAH. None of the patients who achieved functional independence at 90 days had sICH. CONCLUSIONS: General anesthesia and smaller baseline ischemic core are associated with a lower probability of HT whereas IV-tPA and prolonged time to treatment increase the risk of PH after neurothrombectomy. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: SWIFT-NCT01054560; post results, SWIFT PRIME-NCT01657461; post results, STAR-NCT01327989; post results.

17.
World Neurosurg ; 133: e434-e442, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525478

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of degree of contrast stasis in intracranial aneurysms (IAs) immediately after Pipeline embolization device (PED; Medtronic, Dublin, Ireland) deployment with 6- and 12-month angiographic occlusion rates. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included consecutive patients undergoing PED deployment for saccular IA treatment at a large-volume cerebrovascular center over a 4-year 9-month period. Angiographic images obtained immediately after PED deployment were graded according to amount of intra-aneurysmal contrast flow during the late venous phase: 0 = no stasis; 1 = <50% contrast stasis; 2 = 50%-75% stasis; and 3 = >75%-99% stasis. Follow-up occlusion rates were determined by digital subtraction angiography, computed tomographic angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography. RESULTS: The study included 119 patients in whom 182 PEDs were deployed to treat 141 aneurysms. A single PED was deployed in 105 (74.5%) aneurysms. The internal carotid artery was the commonest aneurysm site (119 [85%]). Fifty-two (36.9%) aneurysms were grade 0; 33 (23.4%) were grade 1; 46 (32.6%) were grade 2; and 10 (7.1%) were grade 3 immediately post-treatment. A 6-month follow-up angiogram available for 101 aneurysms showed complete occlusion (no flow into the aneurysm) in 74 (73.3%) aneurysms. A 12-month follow-up study available for 132 aneurysms showed complete occlusion in 79.5%. At last follow-up, occlusion rates were not significantly different for different contrast stasis grades (P = 0.60). Mean angiographic follow up for all IAs was 23v±v17.7 months. IA size, sex, age, and smoking were not significant predictors of occlusion. CONCLUSIONS: The degree of aneurysm contrast stasis immediately after PED deployment is not statistically associated with 6- and 12-month angiographic occlusion rates.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica/instrumentação , Hemorreologia , Aneurisma Intracraniano/terapia , Stents , Adulto , Idoso , Angiografia Digital , Angiografia Cerebral , Meios de Contraste/farmacocinética , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Trombose/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
World Neurosurg ; 134: e224-e236, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629138

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies have begun investigating grit (continued fortitude in the face of hardship) and resilience (ability to recover from a setback) and their relationship to burnout (emotional exhaustion [EE] caused by prolonged stress or frustration) within medicine. We investigated the prevalence of burnout among neurosurgery residents and aimed to determine the relationship among burnout, grit, and resilience. METHODS: We surveyed U.S. neurosurgical residents to perform a discretional analysis of prevalence of burnout. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine which variables were associated with higher and lower levels of EE, depersonalization (DP), personal accomplishment (PA), burnout, grit, and resilience. RESULTS: Of 1385 U.S. neurosurgery residents, 427 (30.8%) responded to our survey. Burnout prevalence was 33.0% (95% confidence interval, 28.6%-37.7%). High grit was associated with U.S. graduates (P = 0.006), married residents (P = 0.025), and fewer social/personal stressors (P = 0.003). Lower resilience was associated with female sex (P = 0.006), whereas higher resilience was associated with international medical graduates (P = 0.017) and fewer social/personal stressors (P = 0.005). High burnout was associated with greater social/personal stressors (P = 0.002), clinical rotations (P = 0.001), and lack of children (P = 0.016). There were positive correlations between EE and DP and among PA, grit, and resilience. There were negative correlations for EE and DP with PA, grit, and resilience and between grit/resilience and burnout. CONCLUSIONS: There is an inverse relationship between grit/resilience and burnout. Increased social/personal stressors are associated with increased levels of burnout and decreased grit and resilience. Grit and resilience are higher when social and personal stressors are decreased, indicating that these characteristics may fluctuate over time.

19.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(2): 104504, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate assessment of the frequency of large vessel occlusion (LVO) is important to determine needs for neurointerventionists and thrombectomy-capable stroke facilities. Current estimates vary from 13% to 52%, depending on acute ischemic stroke (AIS) definition and methods for AIS and LVO determination. We sought to estimate LVO prevalence among confirmed and suspected AIS patients at 2 comprehensive US stroke centers using a broad occlusion site definition: internal carotid artery (ICA), first and second segments of the middle cerebral artery (MCA M1,M2), the anterior cerebral artery, vertebral artery, basilar artery, or the proximal posterior cerebral artery. METHODS: We analyzed prospectively maintained stroke databases of patients presenting to the centers between January and December 2017. ICD-10 coding was used to determine the number of patients discharged with an AIS diagnosis. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was reviewed to determine LVO presence and site. Percentages of patients with LVO among the confirmed AIS population were reported. RESULTS: Among 2245 patients with an AIS discharge diagnosis, 418 (18.6%:95% confidence interval [CI] 17.3%-20.0%) had LVO documented on CTA or MRA. Most common occlusion site was M1 (n=139 [33.3%]), followed by M2 (n=114 [27.3%]), ICA (n=69[16.5%]), and tandem ICA-MCA lesions (n=44 [10.5%]). Presentation National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores were significantly different for different occlusion sites (P=.02). CONCLUSIONS: The LVO prevalence in our large series of consecutive AIS patients was 18.6% (95% CI 17.3%-20.0%). Despite the use of a broad definition, this estimate is less than that reported in most previous studies.


Assuntos
Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/epidemiologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Anterior/epidemiologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Vertebrobasilar/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artéria Cerebral Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Anterior/fisiopatologia , Artéria Basilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Basilar/fisiopatologia , Artéria Carótida Interna/fisiopatologia , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Anterior/fisiopatologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Artéria Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Vertebrobasilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Vertebrobasilar/fisiopatologia
20.
Neurol Clin ; 38(1): 201-214, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761059

RESUMO

Deep brain stimulation is the most advanced and effective neuromodulation therapy for Parkinson disease, essential tremor, and generalized dystonia. This article discusses how imaging improves surgical techniques and outcomes and widens possibilities in translational neuroscience in Parkinson disease, essential tremor, generalized dystonia, and epilepsy. In movement disorders diffusion tensor imaging allows anatomic segment of cortical areas and different functional subregions within deep-seated targets to understand the side effects of stimulation and gain more data to describe the therapeutic mechanism of action. The introduction of visualization of white matter tracks increases the safety of neurosurgical techniques in functional neurosurgery and neuro-oncology.

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