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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694311

RESUMO

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) are part of the indicated treatment in hypertensive African Americans. ACEi have blood pressure-independent effects that may make them preferred for certain patients. We aimed to evaluate the impact of ACEi on anti-fibrotic biomarkers in African American hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We conducted a post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial in which hypertensive African American patients with LVH and vitamin D deficiency were randomized to receive intensive antihypertensive therapy plus vitamin D supplementation or placebo. We selected patients who had detectable lisinopril (lisinopril group) in plasma using liquid-chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and compared them to subjects who did not (comparison group) at the one-year follow-up. The pro-fibrotic marker type 1 procollagen C-terminal propeptide (PICP) and the anti-fibrotic markers matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1), telopeptide of collagen type I (CITP), and N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) peptide were measured. Sixty-six patients were included, and the mean age was 46.2 ± 8 years. No difference was observed in the number and intensity of antihypertensive medications prescribed in each group. Patients with detectable lisinopril had lower blood pressure than those in the comparison group. The anti-fibrotic markers Ac-SDKP, MMP-1, and MMP-1/TIMP-1 ratio were higher in patients with detectable ACEi (all p < .05). In a model adjusted for systolic blood pressure, MMP-1/TIMP-1 (p = .02) and Ac-SDKP (p < .001) levels were associated with lisinopril. We conclude that ACEi increase anti-fibrotic biomarkers in hypertensive African Americans with LVH, suggesting that they may offer added benefit over other agents in such patients.

2.
Healthc (Amst) ; 9(1): 100519, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many off-site COVID-19 testing centers (OSCTCs) are struggling with strategies to serve vulnerable populations who have some of the highest rates of COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths. Inter-OSCTC sharing of successful protocols and systems has been hampered by evolving resource constraints, the changing science of testing, and ever increasing COVID-19 case counts. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to identify promising approaches to testing vulnerable populations. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 26 leaders of OSCTCs and public health departments across the United States between June 8th and August 10th, 2020. All interviews were coded utilizing oral coding via rapid identification of themes from audio recordings, and analysis occurred concurrently with data collection to assess when saturation was achieved. RESULTS: Six main themes emerged highlighting approaches to testing within vulnerable populations including: 1. Expanding services to support health and health-related needs beyond COVID-19; 2. Gaining community trust; 3. Developing and leveraging community partnerships; 4. Promoting clear and creative messaging; 5. Prioritizing patient experience; and 6. Managing patient results. CONCLUSIONS: Testing among the vulnerable not only helps those at highest risk of severe disease or death from COVID-19, but also presents a critical opportunity to control viral spread within and from these communities. Reaching vulnerable populations is challenging and requires multi-sector collaboration, additional funding, and high levels of creativity and flexibility.


Assuntos
/métodos , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , /diagnóstico , /normas , Humanos , Estados Unidos
3.
Front Neurol ; 11: 554633, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162926

RESUMO

The neurological ICU (neuro ICU) often suffers from significant limitations due to scarce resource availability for their neurocritical care patients. Neuro ICU patients require frequent neurological evaluations, continuous monitoring of various physiological parameters, frequent imaging, and routine lab testing. This amasses large amounts of data specific to each patient. Neuro ICU teams are often overburdened by the resulting complexity of data for each patient. Machine Learning algorithms (ML), are uniquely capable of interpreting high-dimensional datasets that are too difficult for humans to comprehend. Therefore, the application of ML in the neuro ICU could alleviate the burden of analyzing big datasets for each patient. This review serves to (1) briefly summarize ML and compare the different types of MLs, (2) review recent ML applications to improve neuro ICU management and (3) describe the future implications of ML to neuro ICU management.

4.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206126

RESUMO

Importance: Up to 20% of patients who present to the emergency department (ED) with acute heart failure (AHF) are discharged without hospitalization. Compared with rates in hospitalized patients, readmission and mortality are worse for ED patients. Objective: To assess the impact of a self-care intervention on 90-day outcomes in patients with AHF who are discharged from the ED. Design, Setting, and Participants: Get With the Guidelines in Emergency Department Patients With Heart Failure was an unblinded, parallel-group, multicenter randomized trial. Patients were randomized 1:1 to usual care vs a tailored self-care intervention. Patients with AHF discharged after ED-based management at 15 geographically diverse EDs were included. The trial was conducted from October 28, 2015, to September 5, 2019. Interventions: Home visit within 7 days of discharge and twice-monthly telephone-based self-care coaching for 3 months. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a global rank of cardiovascular death, HF-related events (unscheduled clinic visit due to HF, ED revisit, or hospitalization), and changes in the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire-12 (KCCQ-12) summary score (SS) at 90 days. Key secondary outcomes included the global rank outcome at 30 days and changes in the KCCQ-12 SS score at 30 and 90 days. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed for the primary, secondary, and safety outcomes. Per-protocol analysis was conducted including patients who completed a home visit and had scheduled outpatient follow-up in the intervention arm. Results: Owing to slow enrollment, 479 of a planned 700 patients were randomized: 235 to the intervention arm and 244 to the usual care arm. The median age was 63.0 years (interquartile range, 54.7-70.2), 302 patients (63%) were African American, 305 patients (64%) were men, and 178 patients (37%) had a previous ejection fraction greater than 50%. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome between patients in the intervention vs usual care arm (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% CI, 0.73-1.10; P = .28). At day 30, patients in the intervention arm had significantly better global rank (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.64-0.99; P = .04) and a 5.5-point higher KCCQ-12 SS (95% CI, 1.3-9.7; P = .01), while at day 90, the KCCQ-12 SS was 2.7 points higher (95% CI, -1.9 to 7.2; P = .25). Conclusions and Relevance: The self-care intervention did not improve the primary global rank outcome at 90 days in this trial. However, benefit was observed in the global rank and KCCQ-12 SS at 30 days, suggesting that an early benefit of a tailored self-care program initiated at an ED visit for AHF was not sustained through 90 days. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02519283.

5.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(16): 1862-1874, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apoptosis in atherosclerotic lesions contributes to plaque vulnerability by lipid core enlargement and fibrous cap attenuation. Apoptosis is associated with exteriorization of phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) on the cell membrane. Although PS-avid radiolabeled annexin-V has been employed for molecular imaging of high-risk plaques, PE-targeted imaging in atherosclerosis has not been studied. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the feasibility of molecular imaging with PE-avid radiolabeled duramycin in experimental atherosclerotic lesions in a rabbit model and compare duramycin targeting with radiolabeled annexin-V. METHODS: Of the 27 rabbits, 21 were fed high-cholesterol, high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Nine of the 21 rabbits received 99mTc-duramycin (test group), 6 received 99mTc-linear duramycin (duramycin without PE-binding capability, negative radiotracer control group), and 6 received 99mTc-annexin-V for radionuclide imaging. The remaining normal chow-fed 6 animals (disease control group) received 99mTc-duramycin. In vivo microSPECT/microCT imaging was performed, and the aortas were explanted for ex vivo imaging and for histological characterization of atherosclerosis. RESULTS: A significantly higher duramycin uptake was observed in the test group compared with that of disease control and negative radiotracer control animals; duramycin uptake was also significantly higher than the annexin-V uptake. Quantitative duramycin uptake, represented as the square root of percent injected dose per cm (√ID/cm) of abdominal aorta was >2-fold higher in atherosclerotic lesions in test group (0.08 ± 0.01%) than in comparable regions of disease control animals (0.039 ± 0.0061%, p = 3.70·10-8). Mean annexin uptake (0.060 ± 0.010%) was significantly lower than duramycin (p = 0.001). Duramycin uptake corresponded to the lesion severity and macrophage burden. The radiation burden to the kidneys was substantially lower with duramycin (0.49% ID/g) than annexin (5.48% ID/g; p = 4.00·10-4). CONCLUSIONS: Radiolabeled duramycin localizes in lipid-rich areas with high concentration of apoptotic macrophages in the experimental atherosclerosis model. Duramycin uptake in atherosclerotic lesions was significantly greater than annexin-V uptake and produced significantly lower radiation burden to nontarget organs.

6.
J Neurol Sci ; 418: 117147, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980780

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been considered a higher-risk population for COVID-19 due to the high prevalence of disability and disease-modifying therapy use; however, there is little data identifying clinical characteristics of MS associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes. Therefore, we conducted a multicenter prospective cohort study looking at the outcomes of 40 MS patients with confirmed COVID-19. Severity of COVID-19 infection was based on hospital course, where a mild course was defined as the patient not requiring hospital admission, moderate severity was defined as the patient requiring hospital admission to the general floor, and most severe was defined as requiring intensive care unit admission and/or death. 19/40(47.5%) had mild courses, 15/40(37.5%) had moderate courses, and 6/40(15%) had severe courses. Patients with moderate and severe courses were significantly older than those with a mild course (57[50-63] years old and 66[58.8-69.5] years old vs 48[40-51.5] years old, P = 0.0121, P = 0.0373). There was differing prevalence of progressive MS phenotype in those with more severe courses (severe:2/6[33.3%]primary-progressing and 0/6[0%]secondary-progressing, moderate:1/14[7.14%] and 5/14[35.7%] vs mild:0/19[0%] and 1/19[5.26%], P = 0.0075, 1 unknown). Significant disability was found in 1/19(5.26%) mild course-patients, but was in 9/15(60%, P = 0.00435) of moderate course-patients and 2/6(33.3%, P = 0.200) of severe course-patients. Disease-modifying therapy prevalence did not differ among courses (mild:17/19[89.5%], moderate:12/15[80%] and severe:3/6[50%], P = 0.123). MS patients with more severe COVID-19 courses tended to be older, were more likely to suffer from progressive phenotype, and had a higher degree of disability. However, disease-modifying therapy use was not different among courses.

7.
Ultrasound J ; 12(1): 44, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) with real-time volumetric imaging can be a vital modality in clinical practice. Despite its potential, it remains underutilized in the acute care setting. CASE PRESENTATION: We present two cases describing the use of 3DE in the emergency department (ED) for acute heart failure (AHF) and discuss the potential benefits of routine use in acute care settings. CONCLUSIONS: Three-dimensional echocardiography offers unique information as it relates to cardiac structure and function, and can be valuable for diagnosis and clinical decision-making in the ED.

8.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(5): 1118-1122, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970564

RESUMO

Training in research methodology represents an important aspect of emergency medicine (EM) resident education, but best methods for design, implementation, and dissemination of resident research remain elusive. Here we describe recommendations and best practices from the existing literature on EM resident research, including helpful tips on how to best implement a resident research program.

9.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(5): 2941-2947, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697034

RESUMO

AIMS: The goal of this study was to determine the number of scans needed for novice learners to attain proficiency in B-line quantification compared with expert interpretation. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a prospective, multicentre observational study of novice learners, physicians and non-physicians from three academic institutions. Learners received a 2 h lung ultrasound (LUS) training session on B-line assessment, including lecture, video review to practice counting and hands-on patient scanning. Learners quantified B-lines using an eight-zone scanning protocol in patients with suspected acute heart failure. Ultrasound (US) machine settings were standardized to a depth of 18 cm and clip length of 6 s, and tissue harmonics and multibeam former were deactivated. For quantification, the intercostal space with the greatest number of B-lines within each zone was used for scoring. Each zone was given a score of 0-20 based on the maximum number of B-lines counted during one respiratory cycle. The B-line score was determined by multiplying the percentage of the intercostal space filled with B-lines by 20. We compared learner B-line counts with a blinded expert reviewer (five US fellowship-trained faculty with > 5 years of clinical experience) for each lung zone scanned; proficiency was defined as an intraclass correlation of > 0.7. Learning curves for each learner were constructed using cumulative sum method for statistical analysis. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare the number of scans required to reach proficiency between different learner types. Twenty-nine learners (21 research associates, 5 residents and 3 non-US-trained emergency medicine faculty) scanned 2629 lung zones with acute pulmonary oedema. After a mean of 10.8 (standard deviation 14.0) LUS zones scanned, learners reached the predefined proficiency standard. The number of scanned zones required to reach proficiency was not significantly different between physicians and non-physicians (P = 0.26), learners with no prior US experience vs. > 25 prior patient scans (P = 0.64) and no prior vs. some prior LUS experience (P = 0.59). The overall intraclass correlation for agreement between learners and experts was 0.74 and 0.80 between experts. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that after a short, structured training, novice learners are able to achieve proficiency for quantifying B-lines on LUS after scanning 11 zones. These findings support the use of LUS for B-line quantification by non-physicians in clinical and research applications.

10.
Am J Hypertens ; 33(9): 837-845, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypertensive heart disease (SHHD) is a precursor to heart failure. Blood pressure (BP) reduction is an important component of secondary disease prevention in patients with SHHD. Treating patients with SHHD utilizing a more intensive BP target (120/80 mm Hg), may lead to improved cardiac function but there has been limited study of this, particularly in African Americans (AAs). METHODS: We conducted a single center, randomized controlled trial where subjects with uncontrolled, asymptomatic hypertension, and SHHD not managed by a primary care physician were randomized to standard (<140/90 mm Hg) or intensive (<120/80 mm Hg) BP therapy groups with quarterly follow-up for 12 months. The primary outcome was the differences of BP reduction between these 2 groups and the secondary outcome was the improvement in echocardiographic measures at 12 months. RESULTS: Patients (95% AAs, 65% male, mean age 49.4) were randomized to the standard (n = 65) or the intensive (n = 58) BP therapy groups. Despite significant reductions in systolic BP (sBP) from baseline (-10.9 vs. -19.1 mm Hg, respectively) (P < 0.05), no significant differences were noted between intention-to-treat groups (P = 0.33) or the proportion with resolution of SHHD (P = 0.31). However, on post hoc analysis, achievement of a sBP <130 mm Hg was associated with significant reduction in indexed left ventricular mass (-6.91 gm/m2.7; P = 0.008) which remained significant on mixed effect modeling (P = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: In post hoc analysis, sBP <130 mm Hg in predominantly AA patients with SHHD was associated with improved cardiac function and reverse remodeling and may help to explain preventative effects of lower BP goals. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: Trial Number NCT00689819.

11.
Acad Emerg Med ; 27(8): 783-784, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542950
12.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther ; 25(5): 379-390, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495652

RESUMO

Despite substantial advances in the study, treatment, and prevention of cardiovascular disease, numerous challenges relating to optimally screening, diagnosing, and managing patients remain. Simultaneous improvements in computing power, data storage, and data analytics have led to the development of new techniques to address these challenges. One powerful tool to this end is machine learning (ML), which aims to algorithmically identify and represent structure within data. Machine learning's ability to efficiently analyze large and highly complex data sets make it a desirable investigative approach in modern biomedical research. Despite this potential and enormous public and private sector investment, few prospective studies have demonstrated improved clinical outcomes from this technology. This is particularly true in cardiology, despite its emphasis on objective, data-driven results. This threatens to stifle ML's growth and use in mainstream medicine. We outline the current state of ML in cardiology and outline methods through which impactful and sustainable ML research can occur. Following these steps can ensure ML reaches its potential as a transformative technology in medicine.


Assuntos
Cardiologia/tendências , Mineração de Dados/tendências , Aprendizado de Máquina/tendências , Aprendizado Profundo/tendências , Diagnóstico por Computador/tendências , Difusão de Inovações , Previsões , Humanos , Terapia Assistida por Computador/tendências
13.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(3): 595-599, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421506

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To study diversity of researchers and barriers to success among Emergency Medicine Foundation (EMF) grant recipients in the last 10 years. METHODS: EMF grant awardees were approached to complete a brief survey, which included demographics, queries related to contributions to the literature, success in obtaining grants, and any perceived barriers they encountered. RESULTS: Of the 342 researchers contacted by email, a total of 147 completed the survey for a response rate of 43%. The respondents were predominately mid to late career white-male-heterosexual-Christian with an average age of 44 years (range 25-69 years of age). With regards to training and education, the majority of respondents (50%) were either Associate or Professor clinical rank (8% instructor/resident/fellow and 31% Assistant). Sixty-two percent of the respondents reported perceived barriers to career advancement since completion of residency. The largest perceived barrier to success was medical specialty (26%), followed by gender (21%) and age (16%). CONCLUSION: Our survey of EMF grant recipients in the last 10 years shows a considerable lack of diversity. The most commonly perceived barriers to career advancement by this cohort were medical specialty, gender, and age. An opportunity exists for further definition of barriers and development of mechanisms to overcome them, with a goal of increased success for those that are underrepresented.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Medicina de Emergência , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Pesquisadores , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Adulto , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Barreiras de Comunicação , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/economia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisadores/classificação , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/métodos , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/organização & administração , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
14.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(5): 415-422, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354416

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 (IGFBP7) would aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of acute heart failure (HF) beyond N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration. BACKGROUND: IGFBP7 is associated with impaired ventricular relaxation and worse prognosis. METHODS: The ICON-RELOADED (International Collaborative of NT-proBNP-Re-evaluation of Acute Diagnostic Cut-Offs in the Emergency Department) study was a prospective, multicenter clinical trial that enrolled subjects presenting with dyspnea. Six-month prognosis for death or repeat hospitalization was obtained. RESULTS: Among 1,449 patients, 274 (18.9%) were diagnosed with acute HF. Those with IGFBP7 concentrations in the highest quartile were older, male, had hypertension and HF, had lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and lowest ejection fraction (41 ± 20%; all p < 0.001). Independent predictors of IGFBP7 were age, male sex, history of diabetes, history of HF, and eGFR. Median concentrations of NT-proBNP (2,844 ng/ml vs. 99 ng/ml) and IGFBP7 (146.1 ng/ml vs. 86.1 ng/ml) were higher in those with acute HF (both; p < 0.001). Addition of IGFBP7 to NT-proBNP concentrations improved discrimination, therefore increasing the area under the receiver operating curve for diagnosis of acute HF (from 0.91 to 0.94; p < 0.001 for differences). Addition of IGFBP7 to a complete model of independent predictors of acute HF improved model calibration. IGFBP7 significantly reclassified acute HF diagnosis beyond NT-proBNP (net reclassification index: +0.25). Higher log2-IGFBP7 concentrations in patients with acute HF predicted death or rehospitalization at 6 months (hazard ratio: 1.84 per log2-SD; 95% confidence interval: 1.30 to 2.61; p = 0.001). In Kaplan-Meier analyses, supramedian concentrations of IGFBP7 were associated with shorter event-free survival (log-rank: p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with acute dyspnea, concentrations of IGFBP7 add to NT-proBNP for diagnosis of acute HF and provide added prognostic utility for short-term risk.

15.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(4): 1664-1675, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406612

RESUMO

AIMS: Concentrations of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 (IGFBP7) have been linked to abnormal cardiac structure and function in patients with chronic heart failure (HF), but cardiovascular correlates of the biomarker in patients with more acute presentations are lacking. We aimed to determine the relationship between IGFBP7 concentrations and cardiac structure and to evaluate the impact of IGFBP7 on the diagnosis of acute HF among patients with acute dyspnoea. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this pre-specified subgroup analysis of the International Collaborative of N-terminal pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide Re-evaluation of Acute Diagnostic Cut-Offs in the Emergency Department (ICON-RELOADED) study, we included 271 patients with and without acute HF. All patients presented to an emergency department with acute dyspnoea, had blood samples for IGFBP7 measurement, and detailed echocardiographic evaluation. Higher IGFBP7 concentrations were associated with numerous cardiac abnormalities, including increased left atrial volume index (LAVi; r = 0.49, P < 0.001), lower left ventricular ejection fraction (r = -0.27, P < 0.001), lower right ventricular fractional area change (r = -0.31, P < 0.001), and higher tissue Doppler E/e' ratio (r = 0.44, P < 0.001). In multivariable linear regression analyses, increased LAVi (P = 0.01), lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.008), higher body mass index (P = 0.001), diabetes (P = 0.009), and higher concentrations of amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, P = 0.02) were independently associated with higher IGFBP7 concentrations regardless of other variables. Furthermore, IGFBP7 (odds ratio = 12.08, 95% confidence interval 2.42-60.15, P = 0.02) was found to be independently associated with the diagnosis of acute HF in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Among acute dyspnoeic patients with and without acute HF, increased IGFBP7 concentrations are associated with a range of cardiac structure and function abnormalities. Independent association with increased LAVi suggests elevated left ventricular filling pressure is an important trigger for IGFBP7 expression and release. IGFBP7 may enhance the diagnosis of acute HF.

18.
Am J Emerg Med ; 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has impacted the insurance mix of emergency department (ED) visits, yet the degree to which this has influenced provider behavior is not clear. METHODS: This was a difference-in-differences (DID) analysis of ED-visit data from five states in 2013 and 2014. Sample states included 3 expanding Medicaid under the ACA, 1 rejecting ACA funding and delaying an eligibility expansion, and 1 with no eligibility change. We included self-pay and Medicaid patients aged 27 to 64 years. A subsample analysis was done for chest pain visits. DID logistic models were estimated for likelihood of admission for given Medicaid-paid ED visits in expansion states as compared to non-expansion states. Among chest pain visits we assessed likelihood given visits resulted in admission or advanced cardiac imaging, where clinician discretion may be more significant. RESULTS: A total of 8,157,748 ED visits with primary payer Medicaid and self-pay were included, of which 331,422 were for chest pain. The proportion of visits paid for by Medicaid rose in expansion states by between 15.8% and 38.9%. Medicaid eligibility expansion was associated with increased odds of admission (OR 1.070 [95% CI 1.051-1.089]). Among chest pain visits, expansion was associated with increased odds of admission (OR 1.294 [95% CI 1.144-1.464]), but not advanced cardiac imaging (OR 1.099 [95% CI 0.983-1.229]). CONCLUSION: Medicaid expansion was associated with small increases in ED visit admissions across the board and among the subgroup of patients presenting with chest pain.

19.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(8): 1652-1657, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hypertension is one of the most common chronic illnesses among adults in the United States. While poor hypertension control is a risk factor for many emergent conditions, asymptomatic hypertension is rarely an emergency. Despite this, patients may present to the emergency department (ED) with a chief complaint of hypertension, and there may be significant variability in the management of these patients. Our objective was to characterize national trends in ED visits for chief complaint of hypertension between 2006 and 2015. METHODS: We used the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) from 2006 to 2015 to examine ED visits for chief complaint of hypertension. We examined trends in demographics, diagnostic resource utilization, and clinical management of these patients. RESULTS: Between 2006 and 2015, visits with hypertension as the primary chief complaint represented 0.6% of all ED visits, or 6,215,787 national-level ED visits. Of these, 63.9% received a primary diagnosis of hypertension. While there was no significant growth in these visits over the study period, 79.3% of visits received any form of diagnostic testing, with 35.5% of patients receiving an antihypertensive medication. Increasing blood pressure and non-white race were associated with increased odds of receiving antihypertensive medications. CONCLUSIONS: Despite clinical policies and guidelines recommending against routine diagnostic testing for asymptomatic hypertension, roughly 4 out of 5 ED visits received diagnostic testing, and more than 1 out of 3 received medications. These visits may represent an opportunity for improvement to reduce overutilization, as well as for innovative approaches as EDs expand their role in care coordination across settings.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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