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1.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e28047, 2019 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736278

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate the absolute number of adult survivors of childhood cancer in the U.S. population who carry a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant in a cancer predisposition gene. METHODS: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, we estimated the number of childhood cancer survivors on December 31, 2016 for each childhood cancer diagnosis, multiplied this by the proportion of carriers of pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort (SJLIFE) study, and projected the resulting number onto the U.S. RESULTS: Based on genome sequence data, 11.8% of 2450 SJLIFE participants carry a pathogenic/likely pathogenic variant in one of 156 cancer predisposition genes. Given this information, we estimate that 21 800 adult survivors of childhood cancer in the United States carry a pathogenic/likely pathogenic variant in one of these genes. The highest estimated absolute number of variant carriers are among survivors of central nervous system tumors (n = 4300), particularly astrocytoma (n = 1800) and other gliomas (n = 1700), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 4300), and retinoblastoma (n = 3500). The most frequently mutated genes are RB1 (n = 3000), NF1 (n = 2300), and BRCA2 (n = 800). CONCLUSION: Given the increasing number of childhood cancer survivors in the United States, clinicians should counsel survivors regarding their potential genetic risk, consider referral for genetic counseling and testing, and, as appropriate, implement syndrome-specific cancer surveillance or risk-reducing measures.

2.
Blood ; 134(19): 1598-1607, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558468

RESUMO

Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive, MYC-driven lymphoma comprising 3 distinct clinical subtypes: sporadic BLs that occur worldwide, endemic BLs that occur predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa, and immunodeficiency-associated BLs that occur primarily in the setting of HIV. In this study, we comprehensively delineated the genomic basis of BL through whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 101 tumors representing all 3 subtypes of BL to identify 72 driver genes. These data were additionally informed by CRISPR screens in BL cell lines to functionally annotate the role of oncogenic drivers. Nearly every driver gene was found to have both coding and non-coding mutations, highlighting the importance of WGS for identifying driver events. Our data implicate coding and non-coding mutations in IGLL5, BACH2, SIN3A, and DNMT1. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection was associated with higher mutation load, with type 1 EBV showing a higher mutational burden than type 2 EBV. Although sporadic and immunodeficiency-associated BLs had similar genetic profiles, endemic BLs manifested more frequent mutations in BCL7A and BCL6 and fewer genetic alterations in DNMT1, SNTB2, and CTCF. Silencing mutations in ID3 were a common feature of all 3 subtypes of BL. In vitro, mass spectrometry-based proteomics demonstrated that the ID3 protein binds primarily to TCF3 and TCF4. In vivo knockout of ID3 potentiated the effects of MYC, leading to rapid tumorigenesis and tumor phenotypes consistent with those observed in the human disease.

4.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 50, 2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sequencing errors are key confounding factors for detecting low-frequency genetic variants that are important for cancer molecular diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance using deep next-generation sequencing (NGS). However, there is a lack of comprehensive understanding of errors introduced at various steps of a conventional NGS workflow, such as sample handling, library preparation, PCR enrichment, and sequencing. In this study, we use current NGS technology to systematically investigate these questions. RESULTS: By evaluating read-specific error distributions, we discover that the substitution error rate can be computationally suppressed to 10-5 to 10-4, which is 10- to 100-fold lower than generally considered achievable (10-3) in the current literature. We then quantify substitution errors attributable to sample handling, library preparation, enrichment PCR, and sequencing by using multiple deep sequencing datasets. We find that error rates differ by nucleotide substitution types, ranging from 10-5 for A>C/T>G, C>A/G>T, and C>G/G>C changes to 10-4 for A>G/T>C changes. Furthermore, C>T/G>A errors exhibit strong sequence context dependency, sample-specific effects dominate elevated C>A/G>T errors, and target-enrichment PCR led to ~ 6-fold increase of overall error rate. We also find that more than 70% of hotspot variants can be detected at 0.1 ~ 0.01% frequency with the current NGS technology by applying in silico error suppression. CONCLUSIONS: We present the first comprehensive analysis of sequencing error sources in conventional NGS workflows. The error profiles revealed by our study highlight new directions for further improving NGS analysis accuracy both experimentally and computationally, ultimately enhancing the precision of deep sequencing.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Neoplasias/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/normas , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas , Software , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Mutação , Controle de Qualidade
5.
J Infect Dis ; 219(11): 1786-1798, 2019 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant System 03 (AS03) markedly enhances responses to influenza A/H5N1 vaccines, but the mechanisms of this enhancement are incompletely understood. METHODS: Using ribonucleic acid sequencing on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from AS03-adjuvanted and unadjuvanted inactivated H5N1 vaccine recipients, we identified differentially expressed genes, enriched pathways, and genes that correlated with serologic responses. We compared bulk PBMC findings with our previously published assessments of flow-sorted immune cell types. RESULTS: AS03-adjuvanted vaccine induced the strongest differential signals on day 1 postvaccination, activating multiple innate immune pathways including interferon and JAK-STAT signaling, Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated phagocytosis, and antigen processing and presentation. Changes in signal transduction and immunoglobulin genes predicted peak hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) titers. Compared with individual immune cell types, activated PBMC genes and pathways were most similar to innate immune cells. However, several pathways were unique to PBMCs, and several pathways identified in individual cell types were absent in PBMCs. CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptomic analysis of PBMCs after AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 vaccination revealed early activation of innate immune signaling, including a 5- to 8-fold upregulation of FcγR1A/1B/1C genes. Several early gene responses were correlated with HAI titer, indicating links with the adaptive immune response. Although PBMCs and cell-specific results shared key innate immune signals, unique signals were identified by both approaches.

6.
J Clin Invest ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507613

RESUMO

Using an integrated approach to characterize the pancreatic tissue and isolated islets from a 33-year-old with 17 years of type 1 diabetes (T1D), we found that donor islets contained ß cells without insulitis and lacked glucose-stimulated insulin secretion despite a normal insulin response to cAMP-evoked stimulation. With these unexpected findings for T1D, we sequenced the donor DNA and found a pathogenic heterozygous variant in the gene encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α (HNF1A). In one of the first studies of human pancreatic islets with a disease-causing HNF1A variant associated with the most common form of monogenic diabetes, we found that HNF1A dysfunction leads to insulin-insufficient diabetes reminiscent of T1D by impacting the regulatory processes critical for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and suggest a rationale for a therapeutic alternative to current treatment.

7.
Cell Metab ; 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449685

RESUMO

Identification of cell-surface markers specific to human pancreatic ß cells would allow in vivo analysis and imaging. Here we introduce a biomarker, ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-3 (NTPDase3), that is expressed on the cell surface of essentially all adult human ß cells, including those from individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. NTPDase3 is expressed dynamically during postnatal human pancreas development, appearing first in acinar cells at birth, but several months later its expression declines in acinar cells while concurrently emerging in islet ß cells. Given its specificity and membrane localization, we utilized an NTPDase3 antibody for purification of live human ß cells as confirmed by transcriptional profiling, and, in addition, for in vivo imaging of transplanted human ß cells. Thus, NTPDase3 is a cell-surface biomarker of adult human ß cells, and the antibody directed to this protein should be a useful new reagent for ß cell sorting, in vivo imaging, and targeting.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323017

RESUMO

More than a decade ago, the term "next-generation" sequencing was coined to describe what was, at the time, revolutionary new methods to sequence RNA and DNA at a faster pace and cheaper cost than could be performed by standard bench-top protocols. Since then, the field of DNA sequencing has evolved at a rapid pace, with new breakthroughs allowing capacity to exponentially increase and cost to dramatically decrease. As genome-scale sequencing has become routine, a paradigm shift is occurring in genomics, which uses the power of high-throughput, rapid sequencing power with large-scale studies. These new approaches to genetic discovery will provide direct impact to fields such as personalized medicine, evolution, and biodiversity. This work reviews recent technology advances and methods in next-generation sequencing and highlights current large-scale sequencing efforts driving the evolution of the genomics space.

9.
Cell Rep ; 25(3): 715-725.e4, 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30332650

RESUMO

The regulation and functional roles of secreted coding and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs; >200 nt) are largely unknown. We previously showed that mutant KRAS colorectal cancer (CRC) cells release extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing distinct proteomes, microRNAs (miRNAs), and circular RNAs. Here, we comprehensively identify diverse classes of CRC extracellular long RNAs secreted in EVs and demonstrate differential export of specific RNAs. Distinct noncoding RNAs, including antisense transcripts and transcripts derived from pseudogenes, are enriched in EVs compared to cellular profiles. We detected strong enrichment of Rab13 in mutant KRAS EVs and demonstrate functional delivery of Rab13 mRNA to recipient cells. To assay functional transfer of lncRNAs, we implemented a CRISPR/Cas9-based RNA-tracking system to monitor delivery to recipient cells. We show that gRNAs containing export signals from secreted RNAs can be transferred from donor to recipient cells. Our data support the existence of cellular mechanisms to selectively export diverse classes of RNA.

10.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3753, 2018 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218074

RESUMO

A detailed understanding of the genome-wide variability of single-nucleotide germline mutation rates is essential to studying human genome evolution. Here, we use ~36 million singleton variants from 3560 whole-genome sequences to infer fine-scale patterns of mutation rate heterogeneity. Mutability is jointly affected by adjacent nucleotide context and diverse genomic features of the surrounding region, including histone modifications, replication timing, and recombination rate, sometimes suggesting specific mutagenic mechanisms. Remarkably, GC content, DNase hypersensitivity, CpG islands, and H3K36 trimethylation are associated with both increased and decreased mutation rates depending on nucleotide context. We validate these estimated effects in an independent dataset of ~46,000 de novo mutations, and confirm our estimates are more accurate than previously published results based on ancestrally older variants without considering genomic features. Our results thus provide the most refined portrait to date of the factors contributing to genome-wide variability of the human germline mutation rate.

11.
Traffic ; 19(11): 879-892, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30095213

RESUMO

Deficiency in diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1) is a rare cause of neonatal diarrhea, without a known mechanism or in vitro model. A patient presenting at our institution at 7 weeks of life with failure to thrive and diarrhea was found by whole-exome sequencing to have a homozygous DGAT1 truncation mutation. Duodenal biopsies showed loss of DGAT1 and deficits in apical membrane transporters and junctional proteins in enterocytes. When placed on a very low-fat diet, the patient's diarrhea resolved with normalization of brush border transporter localization in endoscopic biopsies. DGAT1 knockdown in Caco2-BBe cells modeled the deficits in apical trafficking, with loss of apical DPPIV and junctional occludin. Elevation in cellular lipid levels, including diacylglycerol (DAG) and phospholipid metabolites of DAG, was documented by lipid analysis in DGAT1 knockdown cells. Culture of the DGAT1 knockdown cells in lipid-depleted media led to re-establishment of occludin and return of apical DPPIV. DGAT1 loss appears to elicit global changes in enterocyte polarized trafficking that could account for deficits in absorption seen in the patient. The in vitro modeling of this disease should allow for investigation of possible therapeutic targets.

12.
Microb Ecol ; 2018 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29876609

RESUMO

Serving over three billion passengers annually, air travel serves as a conduit for infectious disease spread, including emerging infections and pandemics. Over two dozen cases of in-flight transmissions have been documented. To understand these risks, a characterization of the airplane cabin microbiome is necessary. Our study team collected 229 environmental samples on ten transcontinental US flights with subsequent 16S rRNA sequencing. We found that bacterial communities were largely derived from human skin and oral commensals, as well as environmental generalist bacteria. We identified clear signatures for air versus touch surface microbiome, but not for individual types of touch surfaces. We also found large flight-to-flight beta diversity variations with no distinguishing signatures of individual flights, rather a high between-flight diversity for all touch surfaces and particularly for air samples. There was no systematic pattern of microbial community change from pre- to post-flight. Our findings are similar to those of other recent studies of the microbiome of built environments. In summary, the airplane cabin microbiome has immense airplane to airplane variability. The vast majority of airplane-associated microbes are human commensals or non-pathogenic, and the results provide a baseline for non-crisis-level airplane microbiome conditions.

13.
J Biol Chem ; 293(27): 10810-10824, 2018 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769320

RESUMO

It is estimated that ∼1% of the world's population has intellectual disability, with males affected more often than females. OGT is an X-linked gene encoding for the enzyme O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), which carries out the reversible addition of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to Ser/Thr residues of its intracellular substrates. Three missense mutations in the tetratricopeptide (TPR) repeats of OGT have recently been reported to cause X-linked intellectual disability (XLID). Here, we report the discovery of two additional novel missense mutations (c.775 G>A, p.A259T, and c.1016 A>G, p.E339G) in the TPR domain of OGT that segregate with XLID in affected families. Characterization of all five of these XLID missense variants of OGT demonstrates modest declines in thermodynamic stability and/or activities of the variants. We engineered each of the mutations into a male human embryonic stem cell line using CRISPR/Cas9. Investigation of the global O-GlcNAc profile as well as OGT and O-GlcNAc hydrolase levels by Western blotting showed no gross changes in steady-state levels in the engineered lines. However, analyses of the differential transcriptomes of the OGT variant-expressing stem cells revealed shared deregulation of genes involved in cell fate determination and liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor signaling, which has been implicated in neuronal development. Thus, here we reveal two additional mutations encoding residues in the TPR regions of OGT that appear causal for XLID and provide evidence that the relatively stable and active TPR variants may share a common, unelucidated mechanism of altering gene expression profiles in human embryonic stem cells.

14.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(20): 2078-2087, 2018 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29847298

RESUMO

Purpose Childhood cancer survivors are at increased risk of subsequent neoplasms (SNs), but the germline genetic contribution is largely unknown. We assessed the contribution of pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) mutations in cancer predisposition genes to their SN risk. Patients and Methods Whole-genome sequencing (30-fold) was performed on samples from childhood cancer survivors who were ≥ 5 years since initial cancer diagnosis and participants in the St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study, a retrospective hospital-based study with prospective clinical follow-up. Germline mutations in 60 genes known to be associated with autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndromes with moderate to high penetrance were classified by their pathogenicity according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines. Relative rates (RRs) and 95% CIs of SN occurrence by mutation status were estimated using multivariable piecewise exponential regression stratified by radiation exposure. Results Participants were 3,006 survivors (53% male; median age, 35.8 years [range, 7.1 to 69.8 years]; 56% received radiotherapy), 1,120 SNs were diagnosed among 439 survivors (14.6%), and 175 P/LP mutations were identified in 5.8% (95% CI, 5.0% to 6.7%) of survivors. Mutations were associated with significantly increased rates of breast cancer (RR, 13.9; 95% CI, 6.0 to 32.2) and sarcoma (RR, 10.6; 95% CI, 4.3 to 26.3) among irradiated survivors and with increased rates of developing any SN (RR, 4.7; 95% CI, 2.4 to 9.3), breast cancer (RR, 7.7; 95% CI, 2.4 to 24.4), nonmelanoma skin cancer (RR, 11.0; 95% CI, 2.9 to 41.4), and two or more histologically distinct SNs (RR, 18.6; 95% CI, 3.5 to 99.3) among nonirradiated survivors. Conclusion The findings support referral of all survivors for genetic counseling for potential clinical genetic testing, which should be prioritized for nonirradiated survivors with any SN and for those with breast cancer or sarcoma in the field of prior irradiation.

15.
Genet Med ; 2018 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29790872

RESUMO

PurposeClinically relevant secondary variants were identified in parents enrolled with a child with developmental delay and intellectual disability.MethodsExome/genome sequencing and analysis of 789 "unaffected" parents was performed.ResultsPathogenic/likely pathogenic variants were identified in 21 genes within 25 individuals (3.2%), with 11 (1.4%) participants harboring variation in a gene defined as clinically actionable by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. These 25 individuals self-reported either relevant clinical diagnoses (5); relevant family history or symptoms (13); or no relevant family history, symptoms, or clinical diagnoses (7). A limited carrier screen was performed yielding 15 variants in 48 (6.1%) parents. Parents were also analyzed as mate pairs (n = 365) to identify cases in which both parents were carriers for the same recessive disease, yielding three such cases (0.8%), two of which had children with the relevant recessive disease. Four participants had two findings (one carrier and one noncarrier variant). In total, 71 of the 789 enrolled parents (9.0%) received secondary findings.ConclusionWe provide an overview of the rates and types of clinically relevant secondary findings, which may be useful in the design and implementation of research and clinical sequencing efforts to identify such findings.Genetics in Medicine advance online publication, 12 April 2018; doi:10.1038/gim.2018.53.

16.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(14): 2454-2465, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29726930

RESUMO

The 17 genes of the T-box family are transcriptional regulators that are involved in all stages of embryonic development, including craniofacial, brain, heart, skeleton and immune system. Malformation syndromes have been linked to many of the T-box genes. For example, haploinsufficiency of TBX1 is responsible for many structural malformations in DiGeorge syndrome caused by a chromosome 22q11.2 deletion. We report four individuals with an overlapping spectrum of craniofacial dysmorphisms, cardiac anomalies, skeletal malformations, immune deficiency, endocrine abnormalities and developmental impairments, reminiscent of DiGeorge syndrome, who are heterozygotes for TBX2 variants. The p.R20Q variant is shared by three affected family members in an autosomal dominant manner; the fourth unrelated individual has a de novo p.R305H mutation. Bioinformatics analyses indicate that these variants are rare and predict them to be damaging. In vitro transcriptional assays in cultured cells show that both variants result in reduced transcriptional repressor activity of TBX2. We also show that the variants result in reduced protein levels of TBX2. Heterologous over-expression studies in Drosophila demonstrate that both p.R20Q and p.R305H function as partial loss-of-function alleles. Hence, these and other data suggest that TBX2 is a novel candidate gene for a new multisystem malformation disorder.

17.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 310, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29615983

RESUMO

Bacteria grown in space experiments under microgravity conditions have been found to undergo unique physiological responses, ranging from modified cell morphology and growth dynamics to a putative increased tolerance to antibiotics. A common theory for this behavior is the loss of gravity-driven convection processes in the orbital environment, resulting in both reduction of extracellular nutrient availability and the accumulation of bacterial byproducts near the cell. To further characterize the responses, this study investigated the transcriptomic response of Escherichia coli to both microgravity and antibiotic concentration. E. coli was grown aboard International Space Station in the presence of increasing concentrations of the antibiotic gentamicin with identical ground controls conducted on Earth. Here we show that within 49 h of being cultured, E. coli adapted to grow at higher antibiotic concentrations in space compared to Earth, and demonstrated consistent changes in expression of 63 genes in response to an increase in drug concentration in both environments, including specific responses related to oxidative stress and starvation response. Additionally, we find 50 stress-response genes upregulated in response to the microgravity when compared directly to the equivalent concentration in the ground control. We conclude that the increased antibiotic tolerance in microgravity may be attributed not only to diminished transport processes, but also to a resultant antibiotic cross-resistance response conferred by an overlapping effect of stress response genes. Our data suggest that direct stresses of nutrient starvation and acid-shock conveyed by the microgravity environment can incidentally upregulate stress response pathways related to antibiotic stress and in doing so contribute to the increased antibiotic stress tolerance observed for bacteria in space experiments. These results provide insights into the ability of bacteria to adapt under extreme stress conditions and potential strategies to prevent antimicrobial-resistance in space and on Earth.

18.
Cell Rep ; 22(10): 2667-2676, 2018 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29514095

RESUMO

Many patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have residual ß cells producing small amounts of C-peptide long after disease onset but develop an inadequate glucagon response to hypoglycemia following T1D diagnosis. The features of these residual ß cells and α cells in the islet endocrine compartment are largely unknown, due to the difficulty of comprehensive investigation. By studying the T1D pancreas and isolated islets, we show that remnant ß cells appeared to maintain several aspects of regulated insulin secretion. However, the function of T1D α cells was markedly reduced, and these cells had alterations in transcription factors constituting α and ß cell identity. In the native pancreas and after placing the T1D islets into a non-autoimmune, normoglycemic in vivo environment, there was no evidence of α-to-ß cell conversion. These results suggest an explanation for the disordered T1D counterregulatory glucagon response to hypoglycemia.

19.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 26(1): 213-222, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29193816

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a major risk factor for multiple diseases and is in part heritable, yet the majority of causative genetic variants that drive excessive adiposity remain unknown. Here, outbred heterogeneous stock (HS) rats were used in controlled environmental conditions to fine-map novel genetic modifiers of adiposity. METHODS: Body weight and visceral fat pad weights were measured in male HS rats that were also genotyped genome-wide. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified by genome-wide association of imputed single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes using a linear mixed effect model that accounts for unequal relatedness between the HS rats. Candidate genes were assessed by protein modeling and mediation analysis of expression for coding and noncoding variants, respectively. RESULTS: HS rats exhibited large variation in adiposity traits, which were highly heritable and correlated with metabolic health. Fine-mapping of fat pad weight and body weight revealed three QTL and prioritized five candidate genes. Fat pad weight was associated with missense SNPs in Adcy3 and Prlhr and altered expression of Krtcap3 and Slc30a3, whereas Grid2 was identified as a candidate within the body weight locus. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the power of HS rats for identification of known and novel heritable mediators of obesity traits.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Obesidade/genética , Animais , Genótipo , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ratos
20.
Gut ; 67(5): 805-817, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28196875

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alternatively activated macrophages (M2) are associated with the progression of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in the stomach. However, the precise mechanism(s) and critical mediators that induce SPEM are unknown. DESIGN: To determine candidate genes important in these processes, macrophages from the stomach corpus of mice with SPEM (DMP-777-treated) or advanced SPEM (L635-treated) were isolated and RNA sequenced. Effects on metaplasia development after acute parietal cell loss induced by L635 were evaluated in interleukin (IL)-33, IL-33 receptor (ST2) and IL-13 knockout (KO) mice. RESULTS: Profiling of metaplasia-associated macrophages in the stomach identified an M2a-polarised macrophage population. Expression of IL-33 was significantly upregulated in macrophages associated with advanced SPEM. L635 induced metaplasia in the stomachs of wild-type mice, but not in the stomachs of IL-33 and ST2 KO mice. While IL-5 and IL-9 were not required for metaplasia induction, IL-13 KO mice did not develop metaplasia in response to L635. Administration of IL-13 to ST2 KO mice re-established the induction of metaplasia following acute parietal cell loss. CONCLUSIONS: Metaplasia induction and macrophage polarisation after parietal cell loss is coordinated through a cytokine signalling network of IL-33 and IL-13, linking a combined response to injury by both intrinsic mucosal mechanisms and infiltrating M2 macrophages.


Assuntos
Interleucina-13/metabolismo , Interleucina-33/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Metaplasia/metabolismo , Estômago/citologia , Animais , Citometria de Fluxo , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Interleucina-13/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Células Parietais Gástricas/citologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Transdução de Sinais
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