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1.
JAMA Surg ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389993
2.
J Clin Densitom ; 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377055

RESUMO

The 2019 International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) Position Development Conference Task Force for monitoring with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) identified detection of atypical femur fractures (AFFs) as an important topic and established this working group to answer key questions in this area. The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature and deliberated on proposed ISCD positions, which were then reviewed by an external expert panel and vetted at the 2019 ISCD Position Development Conference in Kuala Lumpur on March 23, 2019. This paper summarizes the final ISCD positions and the rationale for supporting these positions. Default-length femur imaging or extended-length femur imaging as well as full-length femur imaging (FFI), both single-energy and dual-energy scans, by DXA can detect abnormalities in the spectrum of AFF. It is important to visually inspect all DXA scans of the hip and femur, and report on findings of focal periosteal and endosteal thickening at the lateral cortex (grade: Good, A, W). FFI is the preferred DXA scan mode for detecting abnormalities in the spectrum of AFF. The FFI report should state the absence or presence of abnormalities in the spectrum of AFF. If focal thickening is present on the lateral cortex, the report should state whether a lucent line is seen (grade: Fair, C, W). The ISCD recommends considering the use of bilateral FFI in patients who are currently or have been in the past year on potent antiresorptive therapy (ie, oral or intravenous bisphosphonate or subcutaneous denosumab therapy) for a cumulative period of 3 or more years, especially those on long-term glucocorticoid therapy (grade: Fair, B, W). More research is needed to determine the role of repeat testing and the optimal time interval for follow-up DXA scans, whether an automated measuring tool would perform better than visual inspection, whether FFI would change patient management and outcomes, and the cost-effectiveness of FFI.

3.
J Clin Densitom ; 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378452

RESUMO

Bone mineral density (BMD) can be measured at multiple skeletal sites using various technologies to aid clinical decision-making in bone and mineral disorders. BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has a critical role in predicting risk of fracture, diagnosis of osteoporosis, and monitoring patients. In clinical practice, DXA remains the most available and best validated tool for monitoring patients. A quality baseline DXA scan is essential for comparison with all subsequent scans. Monitoring patients with serial measurements requires technical expertise and knowledge of the least significant change in order to determine when follow-up scans should be repeated. Prior ISCD Official Positions have clarified how and when repeat DXA is useful as well as the interpretation of results. The 2019 ISCD Official Positions considered new evidence and clarifies if and when BMD should be repeated. There is good evidence showing that repeat BMD measurement can identify people who experience bone loss, which is an independent predictor of fracture risk. There is good evidence showing that the reduction in spine and hip fractures with osteoporosis medication is proportional to the change in BMD with treatment. There is evidence that measuring BMD is useful following discontinuation of osteoporosis treatment. There is less documentation addressing the effectiveness of monitoring BMD to improve medication adherence, whether monitoring of BMD reduces the risk of fracture, or effectively discriminates patients who should and should not recommence treatment following an interruption of medication. Further research is needed in all of these areas.

4.
J Clin Densitom ; 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375350

RESUMO

Vertebral fracture (VF) is the most common type of osteoporotic fracture. VFs are associated with a decline in quality of life and high morbidity and mortality. The presence of a VF is a significant risk factor for developing another fracture; however, most VFs are not clinically recognized and diagnosed. Vertebral fracture assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is a low cost, low radiation, convenient, and reliable method to identify VFs. The finding of a previously unrecognized VF may change the assessment of fracture risk, diagnostic classification, and treatment strategies. Vertebral fracture assessment or radiographic lateral spine imaging should be repeated in patients with continued high risk for fracture (e.g., historical height loss >4 cm [>1.5 inches], self-reported but undocumented vertebral fracture, or glucocorticoid therapy equivalent to ≥5 mg of prednisone or equivalent per day for greater than or equal to 3 months).

5.
Curr Osteoporos Rep ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414397

RESUMO

The author Edward Michael Lewiecki is listed incorrectly in indexing sources as "Michael Lewiecki E."

6.
J Clin Densitom ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400968

RESUMO

To answer important questions in the fields of monitoring with densitometry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry machine cross-calibration, monitoring, spinal cord injury, periprosthetic and orthopedic bone health, transgender medicine, and pediatric bone health, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) held a Position Development Conference from March 20 to 23, 2019. Potential topics requiring guidance were solicited from ISCD members in 2017. Following that, a steering committee selected, prioritized, and grouped topics into Task Forces. Chairs for each Task Force were appointed and the members were co-opted from suggestions by the Steering Committee and Task Force Chairs. The Task Forces developed key questions, performed literature searches, and came up with proposed initial positions with substantiating draft publications, with support from the Steering Committee. An invited Panel of Experts first performed a review of draft positions using a modified RAND Appropriateness Method with voting for appropriateness. Draft positions deemed appropriate were further edited and presented at the Position Development Conference meeting in an open forum. A second round of voting occurred after discussions to approve or reject the positions. Finally, a face-to-face closed session with experts and Task Force Chairs, and subsequent electronic follow-up resulted in 34 Official Positions of the ISCD approved by the ISCD Board on May 28, 2019. The Official Positions and the supporting evidence were submitted for publication on July 1, 2019. This paper provides a summary of the all the ISCD Adult and Pediatric Official Positions, with the new 2019 positions highlighted in bold.

7.
Am J Med ; 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152714

RESUMO

Patients often start treatment to reduce fracture risk because of a bone mineral density T-score consistent with osteoporosis (≤ -2.5). Others with a T-score above -2.5 may be treated when there is a history of fragility fracture or when a fracture risk algorithm categorizes them as having a high risk for fracture. It is common to initiate therapy with a generic oral bisphosphonate, unless contraindicated, and continue therapy if the patient is responding as assessed by stability or an increase in bone mineral density. However, some patients may respond well to an oral bisphosphonate, yet remain with an unacceptably high risk for fracture. Recognition of this occurrence has led to the development of an alternative strategy: treat-to-target. This involves identifying a biological marker (treatment target) that represents an acceptable fracture risk and then initiating treatment with an agent likely to reach this target. If the patient is on a path to reaching the target with initial therapy, treatment is continued. If it appears the target will not be reached with initial therapy, treatment is changed to an agent more likely to achieve the goal.

8.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(8): 3450-3461, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125092

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Evidence for further nonvertebral fracture (NVF) reductions with long-term antiresorptive therapy in osteoporosis is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate NVF risk reduction in subjects receiving ≤10 years of denosumab treatment. DESIGN: Phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled, 3-year Fracture Reduction Evaluation of Denosumab in Osteoporosis Every 6 Months (FREEDOM) trial (NCT00089791) and its open-label 7-year extension (NCT00523341). SETTING: One hundred seventy-two study centers worldwide. PATIENTS: Women 60 to 90 years, lumbar spine or total hip bone mineral density T-scores <-2.5 (≥-4.0 at both). INTERVENTIONS: Subjects randomly assigned 1:1 denosumab 60 mg SC Q6M (long-term) or placebo (crossover) in FREEDOM; eligible subjects could enroll in the extension to receive denosumab 60 mg SC Q6M. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: NVF Exposure-adjusted subject incidence (per 100 subject-years) during denosumab treatment years 1 to 3 and 4 to 7 (all subjects) and years 4 to 10 (long-term only), and rate ratios (RRs) for years 4 to 7 or 4 to 10 vs 1 to 3. RESULTS: Among 4074 subjects (2343 long-term, 1731 crossover), NVF rates (95% CI) in all subjects were 2.15 (1.90 to 2.43) during years 1 to 3 and 1.53 (1.34 to 1.75) during years 4 to 7 of denosumab treatment [RR (95% CI) = 0.72 (0.61 to 0.86); P < 0.001]; in long-term only were 1.98 (1.67 to 2.34) during years 1 to 3 and 1.44 (1.24 to 1.66) during years 4 to 10 [RR = 0.74 (0.60 to 0.93); P = 0.008]. combined osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femoral fracture rate was 0.06. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term denosumab treatment, >3 and ≤10 years, was associated with further reductions in NVF rates compared with the first 3 years.

9.
J Clin Densitom ; 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010789

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a major health issue. By 2050, a greater than 2-fold increase in patients number with hip fractures will occur in Asia representing 50% of all hip fractures worldwide. For the Asia-Pacific (AP) region, more efforts on controlling osteoporosis and the subsequent fractures are crucial. Bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is commonly used to diagnose osteoporosis and monitor osteoporosis treatment. However, the inconvenience, cost, limited availability of DXA and the delay in detection of BMD changes after treatment initiation support an important role for bone turnover markers (BTMs), as short-term tools to monitor therapy. With regards to low adherence rates of medical treatment of osteoporosis, the experts reached consensus on the use of BTMs for both raising awareness and short-term monitoring of osteoporosis treatment in the AP region. The experts endorse the use of BTMs, especially serum C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX) and serum procollagen type 1 N propeptide (P1NP), as short-term monitoring tools to help clinicians assess the responses to osteoporosis therapies and appropriately adjust treatment regimens earlier than BMD. Either the absolute values or the degree of change from baseline in BTMs can be used to monitor the potential efficacy of osteoporosis therapies. The use of BTMs can be incorporated in osteoporosis care programs, such as fracture liaison service (FLS), to improve patient adherence and treatment outcomes. Encouraging sufficient reimbursement from health care systems may facilitate widespread use of BTMs in clinical practice in the AP region.

10.
Rheum Dis Clin North Am ; 45(2): 303-314, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952400

RESUMO

Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) was developed at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center to educate health care professionals in underserved communities to treat chronic complex diseases, allowing patients to receive better care, closer to home, with greater convenience, and at lower cost than referral to a specialty center. Videoconferencing technology is used to create learning networks, with case-based discussions as the primary method of education. The 3-year experience of Bone Health TeleECHO, a strategy to improve the care of osteoporosis and reduce the large treatment gap, is discussed.

11.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(4): 605-606, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779859
12.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508316

RESUMO

Romosozumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds and inhibits sclerostin, has the dual effect of increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption. As previously reported in the pivotal FRActure study in postmenopausal woMen with ostEoporosis (FRAME), women with a T-score of ≤ -2.5 at the total hip or femoral neck received subcutaneous placebo or romosozumab once monthly for 12 months, followed by open-label subcutaneous denosumab every 6 months for an additional 12 months. Upon completion of the 24-month primary analysis period, eligible women entered the extension phase and received denosumab for an additional 12 months. Here, we report the final analysis results through 36 months, including efficacy assessments of new vertebral, clinical, and nonvertebral fracture; bone mineral density (BMD); and safety assessments. Of 7180 women enrolled, 5743 (80%) completed the 36-month study (2851 romosozumab-to-denosumab; 2892 placebo-to-denosumab). Through 36 months, fracture risk was reduced in subjects receiving romosozumab versus placebo for 12 months followed by 24 months of denosumab for both groups: new vertebral fracture (relative risk reduction [RRR], 66%; incidence, 1.0% versus 2.8%; p < 0.001), clinical fracture (RRR, 27%; incidence, 4.0% versus 5.5%; p = 0.004), and nonvertebral fracture (RRR, 21%; incidence, 3.9% versus 4.9%; p = 0.039). BMD continued to increase for the 2 years with denosumab treatment in both arms. The substantial difference in BMD achieved through 12 months of romosozumab treatment versus placebo was maintained through the follow-up period when both treatment arms received denosumab. Subject incidence of adverse events, including positively adjudicated serious cardiovascular adverse events, were overall balanced between groups. In conclusion, in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, 12 months of romosozumab led to persistent fracture reduction benefit and ongoing BMD gains when followed by 24 months of denosumab. The sequence of romosozumab followed by denosumab may be a promising regimen for the treatment of osteoporosis. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

13.
Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis ; 10(11): 209-223, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386439

RESUMO

Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody to receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), a cytokine expressed by cells of the osteoblast lineage that is a key regulator of osteoclastic bone resorption. By binding and neutralizing RANKL, denosumab inhibits osteoclast differentiation, activity, and survival. Clinical trials in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis have shown that it reduces the risk of vertebral fractures, nonvertebral fractures, and hip fractures, with a generally favorable safety profile. With a dose of 60 mg subcutaneously every 6 months, it is approved for: treatment of postmenopausal women and men with osteoporosis, and for women and men with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis who are at high risk for fracture; treatment to increase bone mass in men at high risk for fracture receiving androgen-deprivation therapy for nonmetastatic prostate cancer; and treatment to increase bone mass in women at high risk for fracture receiving adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy for breast cancer. Atypical femur fractures and osteonecrosis of the jaw have been reported in patients treated with denosumab. Discontinuation of denosumab is followed by rapidly rising bone turnover markers, decreasing bone density, and vertebral fracture risk that returns to baseline, with a possible increase in the risk of multiple vertebral fractures. Further study is needed to clarify this potential risk. After stopping long-term denosumab, patients should be switched to another antiresorptive agent to maintain the benefit achieved with denosumab.

14.
J Clin Densitom ; 2018 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366683

RESUMO

The Santa Fe Bone Symposium is an annual meeting devoted to clinical applications of recent advances in skeletal research. The 19th Santa Fe Bone Symposium convened August 3-4, 2018, in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Attendees included physicians of many specialties, fellows in training, advanced practice providers, clinical researchers, and bone density technologists. The format consisted of lectures, case presentations by endocrinology fellows, and panel discussions, with all involving extensive interactive discussions. Topics were diverse, including an evolutionary history of calcium homeostasis, osteoporosis treatment in the very old, optimizing outcomes with orthopedic surgery, microbiome and bone, new strategies for combination and sequential therapy of osteoporosis, exercise as medicine, manifestations of parathyroid hormone excess and deficiency, parathyroid hormone as a therapeutic agent, cell senescence and bone health, and managing patients outside clinical practice guidelines. The National Bone Health Alliance conducted a premeeting on development of fracture liaison services. A workshop was devoted to Bone Health TeleECHO (Bone Health Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes), a strategy of ongoing medical education for healthcare professions to expand capacity to deliver best practice skeletal healthcare in underserved communities and reduce the osteoporosis treatment gap.

17.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 103(5): 540-545, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29951742

RESUMO

Abaloparatide (ABL) is a 34-amino acid peptide designed to be a selective activator of the parathyroid hormone receptor type 1 signaling pathway. In the Abaloparatide Comparator Trial In Vertebral Endpoints (ACTIVE), subcutaneous ABL reduced the risk of new vertebral, nonvertebral, clinical, and major osteoporotic fracture compared with placebo and of major osteoporotic fracture compared with teriparatide. To further evaluate the effectiveness of ABL, we calculated the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one fracture using ACTIVE data. To estimate the potential effectiveness of ABL in populations at higher fracture risk than in ACTIVE, we calculated NNT for vertebral fracture using reference populations from historical placebo-controlled trials, assuming an 86% relative risk reduction in vertebral fracture with ABL treatment as observed in ACTIVE. NNT was calculated as the reciprocal of the absolute risk reduction in ACTIVE. The projected NNT for ABL in other populations was calculated based on incidence rate (IR) for vertebral fractures in the placebo arms of the FREEDOM (placebo IR 7.2%), FIT-1 (placebo IR 15.0%), and FIT-2 (placebo IR 3.8%) trials. NNT for ABL in ACTIVE was 28 for vertebral, 55 for nonvertebral, 37 for clinical, and 34 for major osteoporotic fracture. NNT for these fracture types for teriparatide in ACTIVE were 30, 92, 59, and 75, respectively. Using placebo IRs from FREEDOM, FIT-1, and FIT-2, projected NNTs for vertebral fracture with ABL were 17, 8, and 31. These data are useful for further evaluating ABL for the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(9): 3183-3193, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931216

RESUMO

Context: Globally, one in five men aged >50 years is predicted to experience an osteoporotic fracture. Because of the treatment gap in osteoporosis and the paucity of bone-forming agents for men, new osteoporosis treatments are needed. Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of romosozumab in men with osteoporosis. Design: Phase III randomized BRIDGE study (placebo-controlled double-blind study evaluating the efficacy and safety of romosozumab in treating men with osteoporosis; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT02186171) for 12 months. Setting: Thirty-one centers in Europe, Latin America, Japan, and North America. Patients: Men aged 55 to 90 years with a baseline bone mineral density (BMD) T-score at the lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), or femoral neck of ≤-2.5 or ≤-1.5 with a history of a fragility nonvertebral or vertebral fracture. Interventions: The subjects were randomized 2:1 to receive romosozumab 210 mg subcutaneously monthly or placebo for 12 months. Main Outcome Measures: The primary efficacy endpoint was percentage change from baseline in LS BMD at month 12. Results: In 245 subjects (163 romosozumab, 82 placebo), at month 12, the mean percentage change from baseline in the LS and TH BMD was significantly greater for the romosozumab group than for the placebo group (LS, 12.1% vs 1.2%; TH, 2.5% vs -0.5%; P < 0.001). Adverse events and serious adverse events were balanced between the two groups, with a numerical imbalance in the positively adjudicated cardiovascular serious adverse events [romosozumab, 8 (4.9%) vs placebo, 2 (2.5%)]. Conclusions: Treatment with romosozumab for 12 months increased the spine and hip BMD compared with placebo and was well tolerated in men with osteoporosis.

19.
Arch Osteoporos ; 13(1): 59, 2018 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29754189

RESUMO

The Fracture Liaison Service (FLS) Consensus Meeting endorsed by the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF), Asian Federation of Osteoporosis Societies (AFOS), and Asia Pacific Osteoporosis Foundation (APOF) was hosted by the Taiwanese Osteoporosis Association on October 14, 2017. International and domestic experts reviewed the 13 Best Practice Framework (BPF) standards and concluded that all standards were generally applicable in the Asia-Pacific region and needed only minor modifications to fit the healthcare settings in the region. PURPOSE: To review and generate consensus on best practices of fracture liaison service (FLS) in the Asia-Pacific (AP) region. METHODS: In October 2017, the Taiwanese Osteoporosis Association (TOA) invited experts from the AP region (n = 23), the Capture the Fracture Steering Committee (n = 2), and the USA (n = 1) to join the AP region FLS Consensus Meeting in Taipei. After two rounds of consensus generation, the recommendations on the 13 Best Practice Framework (BPF) standards were reported and reviewed by the attendees. Experts unable to attend the on-site meeting reviewed the draft, made suggestions, and approved the final version. RESULTS: Because the number of FLSs in the region is rapidly increasing, experts agreed that it was timely to establish consensus on benchmark quality standards for FLSs in the region. They also agreed that the 13 BPF standards and the 3 levels of standards were generally applicable, but that some clarifications were necessary. They suggested, for example, that patient and family education be incorporated into the current standards and that communication with the public to promote FLSs be increased. CONCLUSIONS: The consensus on the 13 BPF standards reviewed in this meeting was that they were generally applicable and required only a few advanced clarifications to increase the quality of FLSs in the region.

20.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 2018 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29761280

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The review focused on the role that media reporting plays in the level of public awareness about osteoporosis and its influence on osteoporosis treatment decisions. METHODS: We reviewed the literature on the role of media on three main aspects influencing patient adherence to osteoporosis treatment: the awareness of osteoporosis as a major health problem, the perception of the effectiveness of osteoporosis medications, and the fear of adverse effects with osteoporosis medications. RESULTS: A review of the literature confirmed what is routinely observed in clinical practice-that media report can strongly influence the level of awareness of osteoporosis and fracture risk. Inadequate and/or incorrect information on osteoporosis in the media are associated with a low level of awareness of the disease. High-risk patients may have a poor understanding of the need for treatment. Alarming information in the media over the last 2 decades regarding effectiveness and safety of long-term osteoporosis treatment is associated with reduction in the use of osteoporosis medications. CONCLUSIONS: There is a gap between the application of clinical recommendations and patient perceptions of osteoporosis and its treatment. There is a need for better education of patients and practitioners aimed at recognizing the serious consequences of fractures and understanding the expected benefits and potential risks of treatment. Media reports that disseminate evidence-based information on the balance of benefits and risks could help to reduce the osteoporosis treatment gap and mitigate the crisis in osteoporosis care.

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