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1.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269486

RESUMO

AIMS: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of the composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure (CV death/HHF) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in DECLARE-TIMI 58. We hypothesized that baseline NT-proBNP and hsTnT levels would help identify patients who are at higher baseline risk and we describe the treatment effects of dapagliflozin in patients according to their baseline NT-proBNP and hsTnT levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a prespecified biomarker study from DECLARE-TIMI 58, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled CV outcomes trial of dapagliflozin. Baseline NT-proBNP and hsTnT levels were measured in the TIMI Clinical Trials Laboratory in 14 565 patients. Among the included patients, 9143 patients (62.8%) were male, 1464 (10.1%) had a history of HF and the mean age was 63.9. The median baseline NT-proBNP and hsTnT levels were 75 pg/mL (IQR 35-165) and 10.2 pg/mL (IQR 6.9-15.5), respectively. Patients with higher NT-proBNP and hsTnT quartiles had higher rates of CV death/HHF (Q4 vs Q1: NT-proBNP: 4-year KM event rates 13.7% vs 1.0%; hsTnT: 11.8% vs 1.4%; P-trend <0.001). Dapagliflozin consistently reduced the relative risk of CV death/HHF regardless of baseline NT-proBNP (P-interaction 0.72) or hsTnT quartiles (P-interaction 0.93). Given their higher baseline risk, patients with NT-proBNP and/or hsTnT levels above the median derived larger absolute risk reductions with dapagliflozin (NT-proBNP 1.9%; vs. 0%, P-interaction 0.010; hsTnT 1.8% vs 0.1%, P-interaction 0.026). CONCLUSION: Patients with T2DM and higher NT-proBNP or hsTnT levels are at increased risk of CV death and HHF. Dapagliflozin reduced the relative risk of CV death/HHF irrespective of NT-proBNP and hsTnT levels, with greater absolute risk reductions seen in patients with higher baseline biomarker levels.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367487

RESUMO

AIMS: Whether diabetes without insulin therapy is an independent cardiovascular (CV) risk factor in atrial fibrillation (AF) has recently been questioned. We investigated the prognostic relevance of diabetes with or without insulin treatment in patients in the ARISTOTLE trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with AF and increased stroke risk randomized to apixaban vs. warfarin were classified according to diabetes status: no diabetes; diabetes on no diabetes medications; diabetes on non-insulin antidiabetic drugs only; or insulin-treated. The associations between such patient subgroups and stroke/systemic embolism (SE), myocardial infarction (MI), and CV death were examined by Cox proportional hazard regression, both unadjusted and adjusted for other prognostic variables. Patients with diabetes were younger and had a higher body mass index. Median CHA2DS2VASc score was 4.0 in patients with diabetes and 3.0 in patients without diabetes. We found no significant difference in stroke/SE incidence across patient subgroups. Compared with no diabetes, only insulin-treated diabetes was significantly associated with higher risk. When adjusted for clinical variables, compared with no diabetes, the hazard ratios (HRs) for MI (95% confidence intervals) were for diabetes on no medication: 1.15 (0.62-2.14); for diabetes on non-insulin antidiabetic drugs: 1.32 (0.90-1.94); for insulin-treated diabetes: 2.34 (1.43-3.82); interaction P = 0.008. HRs for CV death were for diabetes on no medication: 1.19 (0.86-166); for diabetes on non-insulin antidiabetic drugs: 1.12 (0.88-1.42); for insulin-treated diabetes 1.85 (1.36-2.53), interaction P = 0.001. CONCLUSION: In anticoagulated patients with AF, a higher risk of MI and CV death is largely confined to diabetes treated with insulin.

3.
Lancet ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose has been shown to improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure and iron deficiency. We aimed to evaluate the effect of ferric carboxymaltose, compared with placebo, on outcomes in patients who were stabilised after an episode of acute heart failure. METHODS: AFFIRM-AHF was a multicentre, double-blind, randomised trial done at 121 sites in Europe, South America, and Singapore. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, were hospitalised for acute heart failure with concomitant iron deficiency (defined as ferritin <100 µg/L, or 100-299 µg/L with transferrin saturation <20%), and had a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 50%. Before hospital discharge, participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous ferric carboxymaltose or placebo for up to 24 weeks, dosed according to the extent of iron deficiency. To maintain masking of patients and study personnel, treatments were administered in black syringes by personnel not involved in any study assessments. The primary outcome was a composite of total hospitalisations for heart failure and cardiovascular death up to 52 weeks after randomisation, analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment and had at least one post-randomisation data point. Secondary outcomes were the composite of total cardiovascular hospitalisations and cardiovascular death; cardiovascular death; total heart failure hospitalisations; time to first heart failure hospitalisation or cardiovascular death; and days lost due to heart failure hospitalisations or cardiovascular death, all evaluated up to 52 weeks after randomisation. Safety was assessed in all patients for whom study treatment was started. A pre-COVID-19 sensitivity analysis on the primary and secondary outcomes was prespecified. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02937454, and has now been completed. FINDINGS: Between March 21, 2017, and July 30, 2019, 1525 patients were screened, of whom 1132 patients were randomly assigned to study groups. Study treatment was started in 1110 patients, and 1108 (558 in the carboxymaltose group and 550 in the placebo group) had at least one post-randomisation value. 293 primary events (57·2 per 100 patient-years) occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 372 (72·5 per 100 patient-years) occurred in the placebo group (rate ratio [RR] 0·79, 95% CI 0·62-1·01, p=0·059). 370 total cardiovascular hospitalisations and cardiovascular deaths occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 451 occurred in the placebo group (RR 0·80, 95% CI 0·64-1·00, p=0·050). There was no difference in cardiovascular death between the two groups (77 [14%] of 558 in the ferric carboxymaltose group vs 78 [14%] in the placebo group; hazard ratio [HR] 0·96, 95% CI 0·70-1·32, p=0·81). 217 total heart failure hospitalisations occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 294 occurred in the placebo group (RR 0·74; 95% CI 0·58-0·94, p=0·013). The composite of first heart failure hospitalisation or cardiovascular death occurred in 181 (32%) patients in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 209 (38%) in the placebo group (HR 0·80, 95% CI 0·66-0·98, p=0·030). Fewer days were lost due to heart failure hospitalisations and cardiovascular death for patients assigned to ferric carboxymaltose compared with placebo (369 days per 100 patient-years vs 548 days per 100 patient-years; RR 0·67, 95% CI 0·47-0·97, p=0·035). Serious adverse events occurred in 250 (45%) of 559 patients in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 282 (51%) of 551 patients in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION: In patients with iron deficiency, a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 50%, and who were stabilised after an episode of acute heart failure, treatment with ferric carboxymaltose was safe and reduced the risk of heart failure hospitalisations, with no apparent effect on the risk of cardiovascular death. FUNDING: Vifor Pharma.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interleukin-1 has been implicated as a mediator of recurrent pericarditis. The efficacy and safety of rilonacept, an interleukin-1α and interleukin-1ß cytokine trap, were studied previously in a phase 2 trial involving patients with recurrent pericarditis. METHODS: We conducted a phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, event-driven, randomized-withdrawal trial of rilonacept in patients with acute symptoms of recurrent pericarditis (as assessed on a patient-reported scale) and systemic inflammation (as shown by an elevated C-reactive protein [CRP] level). Patients presenting with pericarditis recurrence while receiving standard therapy were enrolled in a 12-week run-in period, during which rilonacept was initiated and background medications were discontinued. Patients who had a clinical response (i.e., met prespecified response criteria) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive continued rilonacept monotherapy or placebo, administered subcutaneously once weekly. The primary efficacy end point, assessed with a Cox proportional-hazards model, was the time to the first pericarditis recurrence. Safety was also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 86 patients with pericarditis pain and an elevated CRP level were enrolled in the run-in period. During the run-in period, the median time to resolution or near-resolution of pain was 5 days, and the median time to normalization of the CRP level was 7 days. A total of 61 patients underwent randomization. During the randomized-withdrawal period, there were too few recurrence events in the rilonacept group to allow for the median time to the first adjudicated recurrence to be calculated; the median time to the first adjudicated recurrence in the placebo group was 8.6 weeks (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.0 to 11.7; hazard ratio in a Cox proportional-hazards model, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.18; P<0.001 by the log-rank test). During this period, 2 of 30 patients (7%) in the rilonacept group had a pericarditis recurrence, as compared with 23 of 31 patients (74%) in the placebo group. In the run-in period, 4 patients had adverse events leading to the discontinuation of rilonacept therapy. The most common adverse events with rilonacept were injection-site reactions and upper respiratory tract infections. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with recurrent pericarditis, rilonacept led to rapid resolution of recurrent pericarditis episodes and to a significantly lower risk of pericarditis recurrence than placebo. (Funded by Kiniksa Pharmaceuticals; RHAPSODY ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03737110.).

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941594

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is a chronic debilitating and potentially life-threatening condition. Heart Failure patients are usually at high risk of polypharmacy and consequently, potentially inappropriate prescribing leading to poor clinical outcomes. Based on the published literature, a comprehensive HF-specific prescribing review tool is compiled to avoid medications that may cause HF or harm HF patients and to optimize the prescribing practice of HF guideline-directed medical therapies. Recommendations are made in line with the last versions of ESC guidelines, ESC position papers, scientific evidence, and experts' opinions.

7.
Heart ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938772

RESUMO

AIMS: The ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial randomised patients with atrial fibrillation at risk of stroke to apixaban or warfarin. We sought to describe patients from ARISTOTLE who prematurely permanently discontinued study drug. METHODS/RESULTS: We performed a posthoc analysis of patients from ARISTOTLE who prematurely permanently discontinued study drug during the study or follow-up period. Discontinuation rates and reasons for discontinuation were described. Death, thromboembolism (stroke, transient ischaemic attack, systemic embolism), myocardial infarction and major bleeding rates were stratified by ≤30 days or >30 days after discontinuation. A total of 4063/18 140 (22.4%) patients discontinued study drug at a median of 7.3 (2.2, 15.2) months after randomisation. Patients with discontinuation were more likely to be female and had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, renal impairment and anaemia. Premature permanent discontinuation was more common in those randomised to warfarin than apixaban (23.4% vs 21.4%; p=0.002). The most common reasons for discontinuation were patient request (46.1%) and adverse event (34.9%), with no significant difference between treatment groups. The cumulative incidence of clinical events ≤30 days after premature permanent discontinuation for all-cause death, thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, and major bleeding was 5.8%, 2.6%, 0.9%, and 3.0%, respectively. No significant difference was seen between treatment groups with respect to clinical outcomes after discontinuation. CONCLUSION: Premature permanent discontinuation of study drug in ARISTOTLE was common, less frequent in patients receiving apixaban than warfarin and was followed by high 30-day rates of death, thromboembolism and major bleeding. Initiatives are needed to reduce discontinuation of oral anticoagulation.

10.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432684

RESUMO

Importance: The 2018 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Multisociety Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol identified patients with recent (past 12 months) myocardial infarction (MI) as very high risk, in whom a PCSK9 inhibitor is reasonable to add to maximally tolerated statin combined with ezetimibe if their low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level is 70 mg/dL or greater or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level is 100 mg/dL or greater. Objective: To examine the clinical efficacy of evolocumab in patients with recent MI. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prespecified secondary analysis of the Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research With PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects With Elevated Risk (FOURIER) trial, in which 27 564 patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease treated with a statin were randomized to evolocumab vs placebo. Patients with prior MI with a known date (n = 22 320) were stratified as having a recent MI (within 12 months of randomization) or a remote MI (more than 12 months prior to randomization). Per protocol, patients with MI within 4 weeks prior to randomization were excluded from the FOURIER trial. Data were collected from February 2013 to November 2016, and data were analyzed from May 2019 to February 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary composite end point was cardiovascular death, MI, stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina, or coronary revascularization. The key secondary composite end point was cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke. Results: Of 22 320 included patients, 17 516 (78.5%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 62.2 (9.0) years. Compared with 16 609 patients with a remote MI, 5711 patients with a recent MI were younger and more likely to be treated with high-intensity statin (77.3% [4415] vs 69.3% [11 506]). In the placebo arm, the 3-year Kaplan-Meier rate for the primary end point was 17.2% in patients with recent MI compared with 14.4% in those with remote MI (adjusted HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.29-1.64; P < .001). Similarly, the 3-year Kaplan-Meier rates for the key secondary end point was also higher in those with recent MI (10.9% vs 9.5%; adjusted HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.24-1.69; P < .001). In patients with a recent MI, evolocumab reduced the risk of the primary and key secondary end points by 19% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.93) and 25% (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.62-0.91), respectively. In patients with a remote MI, evolocumab reduced the risk of the primary and key secondary end points by 8% (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.84-1.01; P for interaction = .13) and 15% (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.96; P for interaction = .24), respectively. Given the higher event rates in patients with a recent MI, the absolute risk reductions over 3 years with evolocumab were 3.7% in those with recent MI vs 1.1% in those with remote MI for the primary end point and 3.2% vs 1.3%, respectively, for the key secondary end point. Conclusions and Relevance: Patients with a recent MI were at higher risk of cardiovascular events and tended to experience greater absolute risk reductions with evolocumab than those with remote MIs. These findings support the concept in US and European guidelines to aggressively lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in very high-risk patients, such as those with a recent MI. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01764633.

11.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(7): 787-793, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347885

RESUMO

Importance: The PCSK9 inhibitor evolocumab reduced major vascular events in the Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research With PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects With Elevated Risk (FOURIER) trial, yet the types and sizes of myocardial outcomes in FOURIER have not been previously explored. Objective: To assess the types and sizes of myocardial infarction (MI) and the effect of evolocumab on MI by subtype. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prespecified analysis of a multicenter double-blind randomized clinical trial. Patients were randomized to evolocumab or placebo and followed up for a median of 2.2 years. The study included 27 564 patients with stable atherosclerotic disease receiving statin therapy. Clinical end points were evaluated by the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction clinical events committee. Rates presented are 3-year Kaplan-Meier estimates. Data were collected from 2013 to 2016 and analyzed from June 2017 to December 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Myocardial infarction was defined based on the third universal MI definition, and further classified according to MI type (universal MI subclass, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] vs non-STEMI) and by MI size (determined by peak troponin level). Results: A total of 27 564 patients were randomized, with a mean (SD) age of 62.5 (9.0) years, and 20 795 (75%) were male. Of these, 1107 patients experienced a total of 1288 MIs. Most MIs (68%) were atherothrombotic (type 1), with 15% from myocardial oxygen supply-demand mismatch (type 2) and 15% percutaneous coronary intervention-related (type 4). Sudden death (type 3) and coronary artery bypass grafting-related (type 5) accounted for a total of 21 MIs (<2%). Evolocumab significantly reduced the risk of first MI by 27% (4.4% vs 6.3%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.73; 95% CI, 0.65-0.82; P < .001), type 1 by 32% (2.9% vs 4.5%; HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.59-0.79; P < .001), and type 4 by 35% (0.8% vs 1.1%; HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.48-0.87; P = .004), with no effect on type 2 (0.9% vs 0.8%; HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.82-1.45; P = .56). Most MIs (688 [59.8%]) had troponin levels greater than or equal to 10 times the upper limit of normal. The benefit was highly significant and consistent regardless of the size of MI with a 34% reduction in MIs with troponin level greater than or equal to 10 times the upper limit of normal (2.6% vs 3.7%; HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56-0.77; P < .001) and a 36% reduction in the risk of STEMI (1.0% vs 1.5%; HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.49-0.84; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering with evolocumab was highly effective in reducing the risk of MI. This reduction with evolocumab included benefit across multiple subtypes of MI related to plaque rupture, smaller and larger MIs, and both STEMI and non-STEMI. These data are consistent with the known benefit of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering and underscore the reduction in clinically meaningful events. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01764633.

12.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(6): 709-713, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347887

RESUMO

Importance: Despite recent advances in treatment of severe aortic valve stenosis (AS), AS remains a life-threatening condition with no proven disease-modifying therapy. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) have been implicated in the pathobiology of AS. The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor evolocumab reduces circulating LDL-C concentrations by 50% to 60% and Lp(a) by 20% to 30%. Objective: To determine whether evolocumab reduces the risk of AS events in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Interventions: Patients were randomized 1:1 to evolocumab or placebo. Design, Setting, and Participants: Exploratory analysis of the FOURIER trial, which enrolled 27 564 patients with stable atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease who were taking statin therapy at 1242 sites in 49 countries from February 2013 to November 2016. Patients were randomized to evolocumab or placebo and followed up for a median (interquartile range) of 2.2 (1.8-2.5) years. This post hoc analysis was performed from September 2019 to February 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Site-reported adverse events of new or worsening AS or aortic valve replacement (termed AS events). The adjusted risk of AS events was calculated with a multivariable model including concentrations of Lp(a) and LDL-C corrected for Lp(a) content, plus age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, current smoking, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Evolocumab efficacy was tested using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results: Aortic stenosis events occurred in 63 patients (48 men [76%]; mean [SD] age, 69 [9] years) over a median of 2.2 years. Elevated Lp(a) concentration was associated with higher rates of AS events (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.55 [95% CI, 1.17-2.05] per SD; P = .002), including aortic valve replacement (aHR, 2.22 [95% CI, 1.38-3.58] per SD; P = .001), after multivariable adjustment. The corrected LDL-C concentration was not significantly associated with AS events (aHR, 1.23 [95% CI, 0.93-1.61] per SD; P = .14). The overall HR for AS events with evolocumab was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.40-1.09), with no apparent association in the first year (HR, 1.09 [95% CI, 0.48-2.47]) but an HR of 0.48 (95% CI, 0.25-0.93) after the first year of treatment. Conclusions and Relevance: In this exploratory analysis of the FOURIER trial, higher Lp(a) levels, but not Lp(a)-corrected LDL-C levels, were associated with a higher risk of subsequent AS events, including aortic valve replacement. Long-term therapy with evolocumab may reduce AS events, and this raises the possibility that specific pharmacologic lipid-lowering therapy could offer a means to prevent or slow the progression of AS. These exploratory findings merit further investigation with a dedicated randomized clinical trial. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01764633.

13.
Circulation ; 141(23): 1841-1854, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with established coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease often have diabetes mellitus. These patients are at high risk of future vascular events. METHODS: In a prespecified analysis of the COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies), we compared the effects of rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin (100 mg daily) versus placebo plus aspirin in patients with diabetes mellitus versus without diabetes mellitus in preventing major vascular events. The primary efficacy end point was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Secondary end points included all-cause mortality and all major vascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or major adverse limb events, including amputation). The primary safety end point was a modification of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria for major bleeding. RESULTS: There were 10 341 patients with diabetes mellitus and 17 054 without diabetes mellitus in the overall trial. A consistent and similar relative risk reduction was seen for benefit of rivaroxaban plus aspirin (n=9152) versus placebo plus aspirin (n=9126) in patients both with (n=6922) and without (n=11 356) diabetes mellitus for the primary efficacy end point (hazard ratio, 0.74, P=0.002; and hazard ratio, 0.77, P=0.005, respectively, Pinteraction=0.77) and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.81, P=0.05; and hazard ratio, 0.84, P=0.09, respectively; Pinteraction=0.82). However, although the absolute risk reductions appeared numerically larger in patients with versus without diabetes mellitus, both subgroups derived similar benefit (2.3% versus 1.4% for the primary efficacy end point at 3 years, Gail-Simon qualitative Pinteraction<0.0001; 1.9% versus 0.6% for all-cause mortality, Pinteraction=0.02; 2.7% versus 1.7% for major vascular events, Pinteraction<0.0001). Because the bleeding hazards were similar among patients with and without diabetes mellitus, the prespecified net benefit for rivaroxaban appeared particularly favorable in the patients with diabetes mellitus (2.7% versus 1.0%; Gail-Simon qualitative Pinteraction=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In stable atherosclerosis, the combination of aspirin plus rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily provided a similar relative degree of benefit on coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral end points in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Given their higher baseline risk, the absolute benefits appeared larger in those with diabetes mellitus, including a 3-fold greater reduction in all-cause mortality. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01776424.

14.
Circulation ; 141(14): 1141-1151, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People using Anticoagulation Strategies) demonstrated that dual pathway inhibition (DPI) with rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin 100 mg once daily versus aspirin 100 mg once daily reduced the primary major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, as well as, mortality, in patients with chronic coronary syndromes or peripheral arterial disease. Whether this remains true in patients with a history of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. METHODS: In a prespecified subgroup analysis from COMPASS, we examined the outcomes of patients with chronic coronary syndrome with or without a previous PCI treated with DPI versus aspirin alone. Among patients with a previous PCI, we studied the effects of treatment according to the timing of the previous PCI. RESULTS: Of the 27 395 patients in COMPASS, 16 560 patients with a chronic coronary syndrome were randomly assigned to DPI or aspirin, and, of these, 9862 (59.6%) had previous PCI (mean age 68.2±7.8, female 19.4%, diabetes mellitus 35.7%, previous myocardial infarction 74.8%, multivessel PCI 38.0%). Average time from PCI to randomization was 5.4 years (SD, 4.4) and follow-up was 1.98 (SD, 0.72) years. Regardless of previous PCI, DPI versus aspirin produced consistent reductions in MACE (PCI: 4.0% versus 5.5%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.74 [95% CI, 0.61-0.88]; no PCI: 4.4% versus 5.7%; HR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.61-0.94], P-interaction=0.85) and mortality (PCI: 2.5% versus 3.5%; HR, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.58-0.92]; no PCI: 4.1% versus 5.0%; HR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.64-1.00], P-interaction=0.59), but increased major bleeding (PCI: 3.3% versus 2.0%; HR, 1.72 [95% CI, 1.34-2.21]; no PCI: 2.9% versus 1.8%; HR, 1.58 [95% CI, 1.15-2.17], P-interaction=0.68). In those with previous PCI, DPI compared with aspirin produced consistent (robust) reductions in MACE irrespective of time since previous PCI (as early as 1 year and as far as 10 years; P-interaction=0.65), irrespective of having a previous myocardial infarction (P-interaction=0.64). CONCLUSIONS: DPI compared with aspirin produced consistent reductions in MACE and mortality but with increased major bleeding with or without previous PCI. Among those with previous PCI 1 year and beyond, the effects on MACE and mortality were consistent irrespective of time since last PCI. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01776424.

15.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 6(2): 86-93, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392312

RESUMO

AIMS: The role and selection of antithrombotic therapy to improve limb outcomes in chronic lower extremity artery disease (LEAD) is still debated. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy and safety of antithrombotic and more intense antithrombotic therapy on limb outcomes and limb salvage in patients with chronic LEAD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Study inclusion criteria were: enrolment of patients with LEAD, randomized allocation to more vs. less intense antithrombotic therapy [more vs. less intense single-antiplatelet therapy (SAPT); dual-antiplatelet therapy vs. SAPT; dual antithrombotic therapy vs. SAPT or oral anticoagulant]; enrolment of ≥200 patients; reporting of at least one of following outcomes: limb amputation or revascularization. Seven randomized studies enrolling 30 447 patients were included. Over a median follow-up of 24 months, more vs. less intense antithrombotic therapy or placebo significantly reduced the risk of limb revascularization [relative risk (RR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-0.94] and limb amputation (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.46-0.86), as well as stroke (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.70-0.97). There was no statistically significant effect on the risk of myocardial infarction (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.87-1.11), all-cause (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86-1.01), and cardiovascular death (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.86-1.08). Risk of major bleeding increased (RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.44). CONCLUSION: In patients with LEAD, more intense antithrombotic therapy reduces the risk of limb amputation and revascularization as well as stroke with an increase in the risk of bleeding events.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Amputação , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Salvamento de Membro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 6(2): 97-103, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298686

RESUMO

Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are important and the Gold Standard for drugs in modern cardiovascular (CV) therapy. The cornerstone of RCTs is the recording of hard clinical endpoints instead of surrogates. It is important to select an appropriate endpoint. Efficacy endpoints must be clinically relevant and can be hierarchically divided. A very interesting innovation in endpoint acquisition is the total event paradigm.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Determinação de Ponto Final , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Lipídeos/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/mortalidade , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Hipolipemiantes/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(22): 2713-2723, 2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COMPLETE (Complete vs Culprit-only Revascularization to Treat Multi-vessel Disease After Early PCI for STEMI) trial demonstrated that staged nonculprit lesion percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) reduced major cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of nonculprit-lesion PCI timing on major CV outcomes and also the time course of the benefit of complete revascularization. METHODS: Following culprit-lesion PCI, 4,041 patients with STEMI and multivessel CAD were randomized to staged nonculprit-lesion PCI or culprit-lesion only PCI. Randomization was stratified according to investigator-planned timing of nonculprit-lesion PCI: during or after the index hospitalization. The first coprimary outcome was the composite of CV death or myocardial infarction (MI). In pre-specified analyses, hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for each time stratum. Landmark analyses of the entire population were performed within 45 days and after 45 days. RESULTS: For nonculprit-lesion PCI planned during the index hospitalization (actual time: median 1 day), CV death or MI was reduced with complete revascularization compared with culprit-lesion only PCI (HR: 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59 to 1.00). For nonculprit lesion PCI planned to occur after hospital discharge (actual time: median 23 days), CV death or MI was also reduced with complete revascularization (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.49 to 0.97; interaction p = 0.62). Landmark analyses demonstrated an HR of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.59 to 1.24) during the first 45 days and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.54 to 0.89) from 45 days to the end of follow-up for intended nonculprit lesion PCI versus culprit lesion only PCI. CONCLUSIONS: Among STEMI patients with multivessel disease, the benefit of complete revascularization over culprit-lesion only PCI was consistent irrespective of the investigator-determined timing of nonculprit-lesion intervention. The benefit of complete revascularization on hard clinical outcomes emerged mainly over the long term.


Assuntos
Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Angiografia Coronária , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Circulation ; 140(23): 1921-1932, 2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety and efficacy of antithrombotic regimens may differ between patients with atrial fibrillation who have acute coronary syndromes (ACS), treated medically or with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and those undergoing elective PCI. METHODS: Using a 2×2 factorial design, we compared apixaban with vitamin K antagonists and aspirin with placebo in patients with atrial fibrillation who had ACS or were undergoing PCI and were receiving a P2Y12 inhibitor. We explored bleeding, death and hospitalization, as well as death and ischemic events, by antithrombotic strategy in 3 prespecified subgroups: patients with ACS treated medically, patients with ACS treated with PCI, and those undergoing elective PCI. RESULTS: Of 4614 patients enrolled, 1097 (23.9%) had ACS treated medically, 1714 (37.3%) had ACS treated with PCI, and 1784 (38.8%) had elective PCI. Apixaban compared with vitamin K antagonist reduced International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding in patients with ACS treated medically (hazard ratio [HR], 0.44 [95% CI, 0.28-0.68]), patients with ACS treated with PCI (HR, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.52-0.89]), and patients undergoing elective PCI (HR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.64-1.04]; Pinteraction=0.052) and reduced death or hospitalization in the ACS treated medically (HR, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.54-0.92]), ACS treated with PCI (HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.74-1.06]), and elective PCI (HR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.72-1.04]; Pinteraction=0.345) groups. Compared with vitamin K antagonists, apixaban resulted in a similar effect on death and ischemic events in the ACS treated medically, ACS treated with PCI, and elective PCI groups (Pinteraction=0.356). Aspirin had a higher rate of bleeding than did placebo in patients with ACS treated medically (HR, 1.49 [95% CI, 0.98-2.26]), those with ACS treated with PCI (HR, 2.02 [95% CI, 1.53-2.67]), and those undergoing elective PCI (HR, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.48-2.47]; Pinteraction=0.479). For the same comparison, there was no difference in outcomes among the 3 groups for the composite of death or hospitalization (Pinteraction=0.787) and death and ischemic events (Pinteraction=0.710). CONCLUSIONS: An antithrombotic regimen consisting of apixaban and a P2Y12 inhibitor without aspirin provides superior safety and similar efficacy in patients with atrial fibrillation who have ACS, whether managed medically or with PCI, and those undergoing elective PCI compared with regimens that include vitamin K antagonists, aspirin, or both. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02415400.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Terapia Combinada , Gerenciamento Clínico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores
20.
Gastroenterology ; 157(2): 403-412, Aug., 2019. tabela, grafico
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1022748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are associated with increased upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated whether proton pump inhibitor therapy could reduce this risk. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo, as well as rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin 100 mg once daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or aspirin 100 mg alone. The primary outcome was time to first upper gastrointestinal event, defined as a composite of overt bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastroduodenal lesion or of unknown origin, occult bleeding, symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcer or ≥5 erosions, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, or perforation. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in upper gastrointestinal events between the pantoprazole group (102 of 8791 events) and the placebo group (116 of 8807 events) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.15). Pantoprazole significantly reduced bleeding of gastroduodenal lesions (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.94; P = .03); this reduction was greater when we used a post-hoc definition of bleeding gastroduodenal lesion (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.74), although the number needed to treat still was high (n = 982; 95% confidence interval, 609-2528).CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that routine use of proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving low-dose anticoagulation and/or aspirin for stable cardiovascular disease does not reduce upper gastrointestinal events, but may reduce bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions. ClinicalTrials. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem
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