Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 214
Filtrar
1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Integration of functional genomic annotations when estimating polygenic risk scores (PRS) can provide insight into aetiology and improve risk prediction. This study explores the predictive utility of gene expression risk scores (GeRS), calculated using imputed gene expression and transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) results. METHODS: The predictive utility of GeRS was evaluated using 12 neuropsychiatric and anthropometric outcomes measured in two target samples: UK Biobank and the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS). GeRS were calculated based on imputed gene expression levels and TWAS results, using 53 gene expression-genotype panels, termed SNP-weight sets, capturing expression across a range of tissues. We compare the predictive utility of elastic net models containing GeRS within and across SNP-weight sets, and models containing both GeRS and PRS. We estimate the proportion of SNP-based heritability attributable to cis-regulated gene expression. RESULTS: GeRS significantly predicted a range of outcomes, with elastic net models combining GeRS across SNP-weight sets improving prediction. GeRS were less predictive than PRS, but models combining GeRS and PRS improved prediction for several outcomes, with relative improvements ranging from 0.3% for Height (p = 0.023) to 4% for Rheumatoid Arthritis (p = 5.9 × 10-8). The proportion of SNP-based heritability attributable to cis-regulated expression was modest for most outcomes, even when restricting GeRS to colocalised genes. CONCLUSION: GeRS represent a component of PRS and could be useful for functional stratification of genetic risk. Only in specific circumstances can GeRS substantially improve prediction over PRS alone. Future research considering functional genomic annotations when estimating genetic risk is warranted.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand whether genetic risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with course of the disorder across childhood and into young adulthood. METHOD: Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a population-based birth cohort of 2,232 twins. ADHD was assessed at ages 5, 7, 10, and 12 with mother- and teacher-report and at age 18 with self-report. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were created using a genome-wide association study of ADHD case status. Associations with PRS were examined at multiple points in childhood, and longitudinally from early childhood to adolescence. We investigated ADHD PRS and course to young adulthood, as reflected by ADHD remission, persistence, and late-onset. RESULTS: Individuals with higher ADHD PRS had increased risk for meeting ADHD diagnostic criteria (ORs ranging from 1.17 at age 10 to 1.54 at age 12) and for elevated symptoms at ages 5, 7, 10 and 12. Higher PRS was longitudinally associated with more hyperactivity/impulsivity (IRR=1.18) and inattention (IRR=1.14) from age 5 to age 12. In young adulthood, persistent ADHD exhibited the highest PRS (mean PRS=0.37), followed by those with remission (mean=0.21); both had higher PRS than controls (mean=-0.03), but did not significantly differ from one another. Late-onset ADHD did not show elevated PRS for ADHD, depression, alcohol dependence, or marijuana use disorder. CONCLUSION: Genetic risk scores derived from case-control GWAS may have relevance for not only incidence of mental health disorders, but for understanding the longitudinal course of mental health problems.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738352

RESUMO

About 20-30% of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) develop treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and finding new effective treatments for TRD has been a challenge. This study aimed to identify new possible pharmacological options for TRD. Genes in pathways included in predictive models of TRD in a previous whole exome sequence study were compared with those coding for targets of drugs in any phase of development, nutraceuticals, proteins and peptides from Drug repurposing Hub, Drug-Gene Interaction database and DrugBank database. We tested if known gene targets were enriched in TRD-associated genes by a hypergeometric test. Compounds enriched in TRD-associated genes after false-discovery rate (FDR) correction were annotated and compared with those showing enrichment in genes associated with MDD in the last Psychiatric Genomics Consortium genome-wide association study. Among a total of 15,475 compounds, 542 were enriched in TRD-associated genes (FDR p < .05). Significant results included drugs which are currently used in TRD (e.g. lithium and ketamine), confirming the rationale of this approach. Interesting molecules included modulators of inflammation, renin-angiotensin system, proliferator-activated receptor agonists, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta inhibitors and the rho associated kinase inhibitor fasudil. Nutraceuticals, mostly antioxidant polyphenols, were also identified. Drugs showing enrichment for TRD-associated genes had a higher probability of enrichment for MDD-associated genes compared to those having no TRD-genes enrichment (p = 6.21e-55). This study suggested new potential treatments for TRD using a in silico approach. These analyses are exploratory only but can contribute to the identification of drugs to study in future clinical trials.

4.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depression (MD) is determined by a multitude of factors including genetic risk variants that regulate gene expression. We examined the genetic component of gene expression in MD by performing a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS), inferring gene expression-trait relationships from genetic, transcriptomic, and phenotypic information. METHODS: Genes differentially expressed in depression were identified with the TWAS FUSION method, based on summary statistics from the largest genome-wide association analysis of MD (n = 135,458 cases, n = 344,901 controls) and gene expression levels from 21 tissue datasets (brain; blood; thyroid, adrenal, and pituitary glands). Follow-up analyses were performed to extensively characterize the identified associations: colocalization, conditional, and fine-mapping analyses together with TWAS-based pathway investigations. RESULTS: Transcriptome-wide significant differences between cases and controls were found at 94 genes, approximately half of which were novel. Of the 94 significant genes, 6 represented strong, colocalized, and potentially causal associations with depression. Such high-confidence associations include NEGR1, CTC-467M3.3, TMEM106B, LRFN5, ESR2, and PROX2. Lastly, TWAS-based enrichment analysis highlighted dysregulation of gene sets for, among others, neuronal and synaptic processes. CONCLUSIONS: This study sheds further light on the genetic component of gene expression in depression by characterizing the identified associations, unraveling novel risk genes, and determining which associations are congruent with a causal model. These findings can be used as a resource for prioritizing and designing subsequent functional studies of MD.

5.
J Affect Disord ; 279: 585-598, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined associations between family status (living with a spouse or partner and number of children) and lifetime depression. METHODS: We used data from the UK Biobank, a large prospective study of middle-aged and older adults. Lifetime depression was assessed as part of a follow-up mental health questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between family status and depression. We included extensive adjustment for social, demographic and other potential confounders, including depression polygenic risk scores. RESULTS: 52,078 participants (mean age = 63.6, SD = 7.6; 52% female) were included in our analyses. Living with a spouse or partner was associated with substantially lower odds of lifetime depression (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.62-0.74). Compared to individuals without children, we found higher odds of lifetime depression for parents of one child (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.07-1.27) and parents of three (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20) or four or more children (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.14-1.42). Amongst those not cohabiting, having any number of children was associated with higher odds of lifetime depression. Our results were consistent across age groups, the sexes, neighbourhood deprivation and genetic risk for depression. Exploratory Mendelian randomisation analyses suggested a causal effect of number of children on lifetime depression. LIMITATIONS: Our data did not allow distinguishing between non-marital and marital cohabitation. Results may not generalise to all ages or populations. CONCLUSIONS: Living with a spouse or partner was strongly associated with reduced odds of depression. Having one or three or more children was associated with increased odds of depression, especially in individuals not living with a spouse or partner.

6.
J Affect Disord ; 279: 722-729, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Predictors of treatment outcome in major depressive disorder (MDD) could contribute to evidence-based therapeutic choices. Combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy show increased efficacy but higher cost compared with antidepressant pharmacotherapy; baseline predictors of pharmacotherapy resistance could be used to identify patients more likely to benefit from combined treatment. METHODS: We performed a proof-of-principle study of the cost-effectiveness of using previously identified pharmacogenetic and clinical risk factors (PGx-CL-R) of antidepressant resistance or clinical risk factors alone (CL-R) to guide the prescription of combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy vs pharmacotherapy. The cost-effectiveness of these two strategies was compared with standard care (ST, pharmacotherapy to all subjects) using a three-year Markov model. Model parameters were literature-based estimates of response to pharmacotherapy and combined treatment, costs (UK National Health System) and benefits (quality-adjusted life years [QALYs], one QALY=one year lived in perfect health). RESULTS: CL-R was more cost-effective than PGx-CL-R: the cost of one-QALY improvement was £2341 for CL-R and £3937 for PGx-CL-R compared to ST. PGx-CL-R had similar or better cost-effectiveness compared to CL-R when 1) the cost of genotyping was £100 per subject or less or 2) the PGx-CL-R test had sensitivity ≥ 0.90 and specificity ≥ 0.85. The cost of one-QALY improvement for CL-R was £3664 and of £4110 in two independent samples. LIMITATIONS: lack of validation in large samples from the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Using clinical risk factors to predict pharmacotherapy resistance and guide the prescription of pharmacotherapy combined with psychotherapy could be a cost-effective strategy.

7.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943772

RESUMO

In clinical practice, an antidepressant prescription is a trial and error approach, which is time consuming and discomforting for patients. This study investigated an in silico approach for ranking antidepressants based on their hypothetical likelihood of efficacy. We predicted the transcriptomic profile of citalopram remitters by performing an in silico transcriptomic-wide association study on STAR*D GWAS data (N = 1163). The transcriptional profile of remitters was compared with 21 antidepressant-induced gene expression profiles in five human cell lines available in the connectivity-map database. Spearman correlation, Pearson correlation, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were used to determine the similarity between antidepressant-induced profiles and remitter profiles, subsequently calculating the average rank of antidepressants across the three methods and a p value for each rank by using a permutation procedure. The drugs with the top ranks were those having a high positive correlation with the expression profiles of remitters and that may have higher chances of efficacy in the tested patients. In MCF7 (breast cancer cell line), escitalopram had the highest average rank, with an average rank higher than expected by chance (p = 0.0014). In A375 (human melanoma) and PC3 (prostate cancer) cell lines, escitalopram and citalopram emerged as the second-highest ranked antidepressants, respectively (p = 0.0310 and 0.0276, respectively). In HA1E (kidney) and HT29 (colon cancer) cell types, citalopram and escitalopram did not fall among top antidepressants. The correlation between citalopram remitters' and (es)citalopram-induced expression profiles in three cell lines suggests that our approach may be useful and with future improvements, it can be applicable at the individual level to tailor treatment prescription.

8.
Front Genet ; 11: 578, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714365

RESUMO

To date, interpretation of genomic information has focused on single variants conferring disease risk, but most disorders of major public concern have a polygenic architecture. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) give a single measure of disease liability by summarizing disease risk across hundreds of thousands of genetic variants. They can be calculated in any genome-wide genotype data-source, using a prediction model based on genome-wide summary statistics from external studies. As genome-wide association studies increase in power, the predictive ability for disease risk will also increase. Although PRSs are unlikely ever to be fully diagnostic, they may give valuable medical information for risk stratification, prognosis, or treatment response prediction. Public engagement is therefore becoming important on the potential use and acceptability of PRSs. However, the current public perception of genetics is that it provides "yes/no" answers about the presence/absence of a condition, or the potential for developing a condition, which in not the case for common, complex disorders with polygenic architecture. Meanwhile, unregulated third-party applications are being developed to satisfy consumer demand for information on the impact of lower-risk variants on common diseases that are highly polygenic. Often, applications report results from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and disregard effect size, which is highly inappropriate for common, complex disorders where everybody carries risk variants. Tools are therefore needed to communicate our understanding of genetic vulnerability as a continuous trait, where a genetic liability confers risk for disease. Impute.me is one such tool, whose focus is on education and information on common, complex disorders with polygenetic architecture. Its research-focused open-source website allows users to upload consumer genetics data to obtain PRSs, with results reported on a population-level normal distribution. Diseases can only be browsed by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) chapter-location or alphabetically, thus prompting the user to consider genetic risk scores in a medical context of relevance to the individual. Here, we present an overview of the implementation of the impute.me site, along with analysis of typical usage patterns, which may advance public perception of genomic risk and precision medicine.

9.
Stroke ; 51(8): 2454-2463, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is a complex disease with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Blacks endure a nearly 2-fold greater risk of stroke and are 2× to 3× more likely to die from stroke than European Americans. METHODS: The COMPASS (Consortium of Minority Population Genome-Wide Association Studies of Stroke) has conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of stroke in >22 000 individuals of African ancestry (3734 cases, 18 317 controls) from 13 cohorts. RESULTS: In meta-analyses, we identified one single nucleotide polymorphism (rs55931441) near the HNF1A gene that reached genome-wide significance (P=4.62×10-8) and an additional 29 variants with suggestive evidence of association (P<1×10-6), representing 24 unique loci. For validation, a look-up analysis for a 100 kb region flanking the COMPASS single nucleotide polymorphism was performed in SiGN (Stroke Genetics Network) Europeans, SiGN Hispanics, and METASTROKE (Europeans). Using a stringent Bonferroni correction P value of 2.08×10-3 (0.05/24 unique loci), we were able to validate associations at the HNF1A locus in both SiGN (P=8.18×10-4) and METASTROKE (P=1.72×10-3) European populations. Overall, 16 of 24 loci showed evidence for validation across multiple populations. Previous studies have reported associations between variants in the HNF1A gene and lipids, C-reactive protein, and risk of coronary artery disease and stroke. Suggestive associations with variants in the SFXN4 and TMEM108 genes represent potential novel ischemic stroke loci. CONCLUSIONS: These findings represent the most thorough investigation of genetic determinants of stroke in individuals of African descent, to date.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia
10.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(6): 309-330, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681593

RESUMO

It is imperative to understand the specific and shared etiologies of major depression and cardio-metabolic disease, as both traits are frequently comorbid and each represents a major burden to society. This study examined whether there is a genetic association between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits and if this association is stratified by age at onset for major depression. Polygenic risk scores analysis and linkage disequilibrium score regression was performed to examine whether differences in shared genetic etiology exist between depression case control status (N cases = 40,940, N controls = 67,532), earlier (N = 15,844), and later onset depression (N = 15,800) with body mass index, coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in 11 data sets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Generation Scotland, and UK Biobank. All cardio-metabolic polygenic risk scores were associated with depression status. Significant genetic correlations were found between depression and body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes. Higher polygenic risk for body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes was associated with both early and later onset depression, while higher polygenic risk for stroke was associated with later onset depression only. Significant genetic correlations were found between body mass index and later onset depression, and between coronary artery disease and both early and late onset depression. The phenotypic associations between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits may partly reflect their overlapping genetic etiology irrespective of the age depression first presents.

11.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a highly prevalent and heterogeneous disorder. This study aims to determine whether depression with atypical features shows different heritability and different degree of overlap with polygenic risk for psychiatric and immuno-metabolic traits than other depression subgroups. METHODS: Data included 30 069 European ancestry individuals from the UK Biobank who met criteria for lifetime major depression. Participants reporting both weight gain and hypersomnia were classified as ↑WS depression (N = 1854) and the others as non-↑WS depression (N = 28 215). Cases with non-↑WS depression were further classified as ↓WS depression (i.e. weight loss and insomnia; N = 10 142). Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for 22 traits were generated using genome-wide summary statistics (Bonferroni corrected p = 2.1 × 10-4). Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability of depression subgroups was estimated. RESULTS: ↑WS depression had a higher polygenic risk for BMI [OR = 1.20 (1.15-1.26), p = 2.37 × 10-14] and C-reactive protein [OR = 1.11 (1.06-1.17), p = 8.86 × 10-06] v. non-↑WS depression and ↓WS depression. Leptin PRS was close to the significance threshold (p = 2.99 × 10-04), but the effect disappeared when considering GWAS summary statistics of leptin adjusted for BMI. PRS for daily alcohol use was inversely associated with ↑WS depression [OR = 0.88 (0.83-0.93), p = 1.04 × 10-05] v. non-↑WS depression. SNP-based heritability was not significantly different between ↑WS depression and ↓WS depression (14.3% and 12.2%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: ↑WS depression shows evidence of distinct genetic predisposition to immune-metabolic traits and alcohol consumption. These genetic signals suggest that biological targets including immune-cardio-metabolic pathways may be relevant to therapies in individuals with ↑WS depression.

12.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depression (MD) is often characterised as a categorical disorder; however, observational studies comparing sub-threshold and clinical depression suggest MD is continuous. Many of these studies do not explore the full continuum and are yet to consider genetics as a risk factor. This study sought to understand if polygenic risk for MD could provide insight into the continuous nature of depression. METHODS: Factor analysis on symptom-level data from the UK Biobank (N = 148 957) was used to derive continuous depression phenotypes which were tested for association with polygenic risk scores (PRS) for a categorical definition of MD (N = 119 692). RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis showed a five-factor hierarchical model, incorporating 15 of the original 18 items taken from the PHQ-9, GAD-7 and subjective well-being questionnaires, produced good fit to the observed covariance matrix (CFI = 0.992, TLI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.038, SRMR = 0.031). MD PRS associated with each factor score (standardised ß range: 0.057-0.064) and the association remained when the sample was stratified into case- and control-only subsets. The case-only subset had an increased association compared to controls for all factors, shown via a significant interaction between lifetime MD diagnosis and MD PRS (p value range: 2.23 × 10-3-3.94 × 10-7). CONCLUSIONS: An association between MD PRS and a continuous phenotype of depressive symptoms in case- and control-only subsets provides support against a purely categorical phenotype; indicating further insights into MD can be obtained when this within-group variation is considered. The stronger association within cases suggests this variation may be of particular importance.

13.
PLoS Med ; 17(6): e1003137, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying causal risk factors for self-harm is essential to inform preventive interventions. Epidemiological studies have identified risk factors associated with self-harm, but these associations can be subject to confounding. By implementing genetically informed methods to better account for confounding, this study aimed to better identify plausible causal risk factors for self-harm. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using summary statistics from 24 genome-wide association studies (GWASs) comprising 16,067 to 322,154 individuals, polygenic scores (PSs) were generated to index 24 possible individual risk factors for self-harm (i.e., mental health vulnerabilities, substance use, cognitive traits, personality traits, and physical traits) among a subset of UK Biobank participants (N = 125,925, 56.2% female) who completed an online mental health questionnaire in the period from 13 July 2016 to 27 July 2017. In total, 5,520 (4.4%) of these participants reported having self-harmed in their lifetime. In binomial regression models, PSs indexing 6 risk factors (major depressive disorder [MDD], attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, alcohol dependence disorder, and lifetime cannabis use) predicted self-harm, with effect sizes ranging from odds ratio (OR) = 1.05 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.07, q = 0.008) for lifetime cannabis use to OR = 1.20 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.23, q = 1.33 × 10-35) for MDD. No systematic differences emerged between suicidal and non-suicidal self-harm. To further probe causal relationships, two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses were conducted, with MDD, ADHD, and schizophrenia emerging as the most plausible causal risk factors for self-harm. The genetic liabilities for MDD and schizophrenia were associated with self-harm independently of diagnosis and medication. Main limitations include the lack of representativeness of the UK Biobank sample, that self-harm was self-reported, and the limited power of some of the included GWASs, potentially leading to possible type II error. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to confirming the role of MDD, we demonstrate that ADHD and schizophrenia likely play a role in the aetiology of self-harm using multivariate genetic designs for causal inference. Among the many individual risk factors we simultaneously considered, our findings suggest that systematic detection and treatment of core psychiatric symptoms, including psychotic and impulsivity symptoms, may be beneficial among people at risk for self-harm.


Assuntos
Comportamento Autodestrutivo/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/etiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
14.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 44, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423490

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have shown unequivocally that common complex disorders have a polygenic genetic architecture and have enabled researchers to identify genetic variants associated with diseases. These variants can be combined into a polygenic risk score that captures part of an individual's susceptibility to diseases. Polygenic risk scores have been widely applied in research studies, confirming the association between the scores and disease status, but their clinical utility has yet to be established. Polygenic risk scores may be used to estimate an individual's lifetime genetic risk of disease, but the current discriminative ability is low in the general population. Clinical implementation of polygenic risk score (PRS) may be useful in cohorts where there is a higher prior probability of disease, for example, in early stages of diseases to assist in diagnosis or to inform treatment choices. Important considerations are the weaker evidence base in application to non-European ancestry and the challenges in translating an individual's PRS from a percentile of a normal distribution to a lifetime disease risk. In this review, we consider how PRS may be informative at different points in the disease trajectory giving examples of progress in the field and discussing obstacles that need to be addressed before clinical implementation.

16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2175, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358547

RESUMO

Cerebral small vessel disease is a major cause of stroke and dementia, but its genetic basis is incompletely understood. We perform a genetic study of three MRI markers of the disease in UK Biobank imaging data and other sources: white matter hyperintensities (N = 42,310), fractional anisotropy (N = 17,663) and mean diffusivity (N = 17,467). Our aim is to better understand the disease pathophysiology. Across the three traits, we identify 31 loci, of which 21 were previously unreported. We perform a transcriptome-wide association study to identify associations with gene expression in relevant tissues, identifying 66 associated genes across the three traits. This genetic study provides insights into the understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying small vessel disease.


Assuntos
Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/complicações , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Ontologia Genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Leucoencefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucoencefalopatias/genética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Especificidade de Órgãos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transcriptoma/genética
17.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 163, 2020 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448866

RESUMO

Depression is a common and clinically heterogeneous mental health disorder that is frequently comorbid with other diseases and conditions. Stratification of depression may align sub-diagnoses more closely with their underling aetiology and provide more tractable targets for research and effective treatment. In the current study, we investigated whether genetic data could be used to identify subgroups within people with depression using the UK Biobank. Examination of cross-locus correlations were used to test for evidence of subgroups using genetic data from seven other complex traits and disorders that were genetically correlated with depression and had sufficient power (>0.6) for detection. We found no evidence for subgroups within depression for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, anorexia nervosa, inflammatory bowel disease or obesity. This suggests that for these traits, genetic correlations with depression were driven by pleiotropic genetic variants carried by everyone rather than by a specific subgroup.

18.
Nat Genet ; 52(4): 437-447, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231276

RESUMO

Minimal phenotyping refers to the reliance on the use of a small number of self-reported items for disease case identification, increasingly used in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here we report differences in genetic architecture between depression defined by minimal phenotyping and strictly defined major depressive disorder (MDD): the former has a lower genotype-derived heritability that cannot be explained by inclusion of milder cases and a higher proportion of the genome contributing to this shared genetic liability with other conditions than for strictly defined MDD. GWAS based on minimal phenotyping definitions preferentially identifies loci that are not specific to MDD, and, although it generates highly predictive polygenic risk scores, the predictive power can be explained entirely by large sample sizes rather than by specificity for MDD. Our results show that reliance on results from minimal phenotyping may bias views of the genetic architecture of MDD and impede the ability to identify pathways specific to MDD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 77(7): 715-728, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293669

RESUMO

Importance: Adult mood disorders are often preceded by behavioral and emotional problems in childhood. It is yet unclear what explains the associations between childhood psychopathology and adult traits. Objective: To investigate whether genetic risk for adult mood disorders and associated traits is associated with childhood disorders. Design, Setting, and Participants: This meta-analysis examined data from 7 ongoing longitudinal birth and childhood cohorts from the UK, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, and Finland. Starting points of data collection ranged from July 1985 to April 2002. Participants were repeatedly assessed for childhood psychopathology from ages 6 to 17 years. Data analysis occurred from September 2017 to May 2019. Exposures: Individual polygenic scores (PGS) were constructed in children based on genome-wide association studies of adult major depression, bipolar disorder, subjective well-being, neuroticism, insomnia, educational attainment, and body mass index (BMI). Main Outcomes and Measures: Regression meta-analyses were used to test associations between PGS and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and internalizing and social problems measured repeatedly across childhood and adolescence and whether these associations depended on childhood phenotype, age, and rater. Results: The sample included 42 998 participants aged 6 to 17 years. Male participants varied from 43.0% (1040 of 2417 participants) to 53.1% (2434 of 4583 participants) by age and across all cohorts. The PGS of adult major depression, neuroticism, BMI, and insomnia were positively associated with childhood psychopathology (ß estimate range, 0.023-0.042 [95% CI, 0.017-0.049]), while associations with PGS of subjective well-being and educational attainment were negative (ß, -0.026 to -0.046 [95% CI, -0.020 to -0.057]). There was no moderation of age, type of childhood phenotype, or rater with the associations. The exceptions were stronger associations between educational attainment PGS and ADHD compared with internalizing problems (Δß, 0.0561 [Δ95% CI, 0.0318-0.0804]; ΔSE, 0.0124) and social problems (Δß, 0.0528 [Δ95% CI, 0.0282-0.0775]; ΔSE, 0.0126), and between BMI PGS and ADHD and social problems (Δß, -0.0001 [Δ95% CI, -0.0102 to 0.0100]; ΔSE, 0.0052), compared with internalizing problems (Δß, -0.0310 [Δ95% CI, -0.0456 to -0.0164]; ΔSE, 0.0074). Furthermore, the association between educational attainment PGS and ADHD increased with age (Δß, -0.0032 [Δ 95% CI, -0.0048 to -0.0017]; ΔSE, 0.0008). Conclusions and Relevance: Results from this study suggest the existence of a set of genetic factors influencing a range of traits across the life span with stable associations present throughout childhood. Knowledge of underlying mechanisms may affect treatment and long-term outcomes of individuals with psychopathology.

20.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Daily use of high-potency cannabis has been reported to carry a high risk for developing a psychotic disorder. However, the evidence is mixed on whether any pattern of cannabis use is associated with a particular symptomatology in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. METHOD: We analysed data from 901 FEP patients and 1235 controls recruited across six countries, as part of the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. We used item response modelling to estimate two bifactor models, which included general and specific dimensions of psychotic symptoms in patients and psychotic experiences in controls. The associations between these dimensions and cannabis use were evaluated using linear mixed-effects models analyses. RESULTS: In patients, there was a linear relationship between the positive symptom dimension and the extent of lifetime exposure to cannabis, with daily users of high-potency cannabis having the highest score (B = 0.35; 95% CI 0.14-0.56). Moreover, negative symptoms were more common among patients who never used cannabis compared with those with any pattern of use (B = -0.22; 95% CI -0.37 to -0.07). In controls, psychotic experiences were associated with current use of cannabis but not with the extent of lifetime use. Neither patients nor controls presented differences in depressive dimension related to cannabis use. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide the first large-scale evidence that FEP patients with a history of daily use of high-potency cannabis present with more positive and less negative symptoms, compared with those who never used cannabis or used low-potency types.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA