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2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150314

RESUMO

AIMS: Patient-reported quality of life (QOL) is a highly prognostic and clinically relevant endpoint in patients with heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The relationships between QOL and different markers of HF severity remain unclear, particularly as they relate to functional capacity and directly measured activity levels. We hypothesized that QOL would demonstrate a stronger relationship with measures of exercise capacity and adiposity compared to other disease measures. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a secondary analysis of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored RELAX, NEAT-HFpEF and INDIE-HFpEF trials to determine the relationships between QOL (assessed by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire and Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire) and different domains reflecting HF severity, including maximal aerobic capacity (peak oxygen consumption), submaximal exercise capacity (6-min walk distance), volume of daily activity (accelerometry), physician-estimated functional class, resting echocardiography, and plasma natriuretic peptide levels. A total of 408 unique patients with chronic HFpEF were split into tertiles of QOL scores defined as QOLworst, QOLintermediate , QOLbest . The QOLworst HFpEF group was youngest, with a higher body mass index, greater prevalence of class II obesity and diabetes, and the lowest N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels. After adjustment for age, sex and body mass index, poorer QOL was associated with worse physical capacity and activity levels, assessed by peak oxygen consumption, 6-min walk distance and actigraphy, but was not associated with NT-proBNP or indices from resting echocardiography. QOL was similarly reduced in patients with and without prior HF hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Quality of life in HFpEF is poorest in patients who are young, obese and have diabetes, and is more robustly tied to measures reflecting functional capacity and daily activity levels rather than elevations in NT-proBNP or prior HF hospitalization. These findings have major implications for the understanding of QOL in HFpEF and for the design of future clinical trials targeting symptom improvement in HFpEF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: RELAX, NCT00763867; NEAT-HFpEF, NCT02053493; INDIE-HFpEF, NCT02742129.

3.
Am Heart J ; 222: 183-190, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exercise intolerance is the main symptom of HFpEF and is associated with a poor quality of life and increased mortality. Currently, there are no approved medications for the treatment of HFpEF. Praliciguat (IW-1973), a novel soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator that may help restore deficient nitric oxide-soluble guanylate cyclase-cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate signaling, is being investigated for the treatment of patients with HFpEF. METHODS: CAPACITY HFpEF is a phase 2, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of praliciguat over 12 weeks in approximately 184 patients with HFpEF. Eligible patients must have evidence supporting clinical HFpEF and at least 2 of the following 4 conditions associated with NO deficiency: diabetes/prediabetes, hypertension, obesity, and age >70 years. The primary efficacy end point is the change from baseline in peak VO2 by cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). Secondary end points include the change from baseline in 6-minute walk test distance and the change in ventilatory efficiency on CPET, as well as number of CPET responders. Other exploratory end points include changes in echocardiographic parameters, New York Heart Association functional classification, cardiac events, blood and urine biomarkers pathophysiologically relevant to heart failure, and patient-reported outcomes including Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: The CAPACITY HFpEF trial will provide data on short-term safety and efficacy of praliciguat on peak exercise capacity, as well as multiple secondary end points of submaximal functional capacity, patient-reported outcomes, and biomarkers.

4.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101252

RESUMO

Importance: Aortic dilatation is frequently encountered in clinical practice among aging endurance athletes, but the distribution of aortic sizes in this population is unknown. It is additionally uncertain whether this may represent aortic adaptation to long-term exercise, similar to the well-established process of ventricular remodeling. Objective: To assess the prevalence of aortic dilatation among long-term masters-level male and female athletes with about 2 decades of exercise exposure. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study evaluated aortic size in veteran endurance athletes. Masters-level rowers and runners aged 50 to 75 years were enrolled from competitive athletic events across the United States from February to October 2018. Analysis began January 2019. Exposures: Long-term endurance exercise. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was aortic size at the sinuses of Valsalva and the ascending aorta, measured using transthoracic echocardiography in accordance with contemporary guidelines. Aortic dimensions were compared with age, sex, and body size-adjusted predictions from published nomograms, and z scores were calculated where applicable. Results: Among 442 athletes (mean [SD] age, 61 [6] years; 267 men [60%]; 228 rowers [52%]; 214 runners [48%]), clinically relevant aortic dilatation, defined by a diameter at sinuses of Valsalva or ascending aorta of 40 mm or larger, was found in 21% (n = 94) of all participants (83 men [31%] and 11 women [6%]). When compared with published nomograms, the distribution of measured aortic size displayed a rightward shift with a rightward tail (all P < .001). Overall, 105 individuals (24%) had at least 1 z score of 2 or more, indicating an aortic measurement greater than 2 SDs above the population mean. In multivariate models adjusting for age, sex, body size, hypertension, and statin use, both elite competitor status (rowing participation in world championships or Olympics or marathon time under 2 hours and 45 minutes) and sport type (rowing) were independently associated with aortic size. Conclusions and Relevance: Clinically relevant aortic dilatation is common among aging endurance athletes, raising the possibility of vascular remodeling in response to long-term exercise. Longitudinal follow-up is warranted to establish corollary clinical outcomes in this population.

5.
J Card Fail ; 26(3): 276-280, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have compared clinical characteristics, echocardiographic parameters, exercise capacity, and quality of life between women and men with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Subjects in the NIH-sponsored RELAX (N = 216) and NEAT (N = 107) trials completed baseline echocardiography, the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ), and 6-minute walk test (6MWT). In an exploratory analysis, multivariable linear regression models were used to associate clinical and imaging characteristics with baseline 6MWT distance and MLHFQ score in women and men. Our cohort included 158 (49%) men and 165 (51%) women. Men had higher prevalence of atrial arrhythmias, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, anemia, and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. 6MWT and MLHFQ score did not differ between sexes. In multivariable analysis, ischemic heart disease, diastolic dysfunction, and exercise capacity predicted MLHFQ score for men, whereas only age and body mass index predicted MLHFQ score for women. CONCLUSIONS: Men with HFpEF had more comorbidities and LV hypertrophy than women with HFpEF. In men, quality of life was associated with diastolic dysfunction, ischemic heart disease, and exercise capacity. Further research is needed to identify determinants of quality of life in women with HFpEF.

6.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913407

RESUMO

Importance: Obesity is a major determinant of disease burden worldwide. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) have been posited as key predictors of obesity. How a PRS can be translated to the clinical encounter (especially in the context of fitness, activity, and parental history of overweight) remains unclear. Objective: To quantify the relative importance of a PRS, fitness, activity, parental history of overweight, and body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) in young adulthood on BMI trends over 25 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based prospective cohort study at 4 US centers included white individuals and black individuals with assessments of polygenic risk of obesity, fitness, activity, and BMI in young adulthood (in their 20s) and up to 25 years of follow-up. Data collected between March 1985 and August 2011 were analyzed from April 25, 2019, to September 29, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Body mass index at the initial visit and 25 years later. Results: This study evaluated an obesity PRS from a recently reported study of 1608 white individuals (848 women [52.7%]) and 909 black individuals (548 women [60.3%]) across the United States. At baseline (year 0), mean (SD) overall BMI was 24.2 (4.5), which increased to 29.6 (6.9) at year 25. Among white individuals, the PRS (combined with age, sex, self-reported parental history of overweight, and principal components of ancestry) explained 11.9% (at year 0) and 13.6% (at year 25) of variation in BMI. Although the addition of fitness increased the explanatory capability of the model (24.0% variance at baseline and up to 18.1% variance in BMI at year 25), baseline BMI in young adulthood was the strongest factor, explaining 52.3% of BMI in midlife in combination with age, sex, and self-reported parental history of overweight. Accordingly, models that included baseline BMI (especially BMI surveillance over time) were better in predicting BMI at year 25 compared with the PRS. In fully adjusted models, the effect sizes for fitness and the PRS on BMI were comparable in opposing directions. The added explanatory capacity of the PRS among black individuals was lower than among white individuals. Among white individuals, addition of baseline BMI and surveillance of BMI over time was associated with improved precision of predicted BMI at year 25 (mean error in predicted BMI 0 kg/m2 [95% CI, -11.4 to 11.4] to 0 kg/m2 [95% CI, -8.5 to 8.5] for baseline BMI and mean error 0 kg/m2 [95% CI, -5.3 to 5.3] for BMI surveillance). Conclusions and Relevance: Cardiorespiratory fitness in young adulthood and a PRS are modestly associated with midlife BMI, although future BMI is associated with BMI in young adulthood. Fitness has a comparable association with future BMI as does the PRS. Caution should be exercised in the widespread use of polygenic risk for obesity prevention in adults, and close clinical surveillance and fitness may have prime roles in limiting the adverse consequences of elevated BMI on health.

7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(1): 17-26, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormal pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) responses to exercise have been described in select individuals; however, clinical and prognostic implications of exercise pulmonary hypertension (exPH) among broader samples remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the association of exPH with clinical determinants and outcomes. METHODS: The authors studied individuals with chronic exertional dyspnea and preserved ejection fraction who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing with invasive hemodynamic monitoring. Exercise pulmonary hypertension was ascertained using minute-by-minute PAP and cardiac output (CO) measurements to calculate a PAP/CO slope, and exPH defined as a PAP/CO slope >3 mm Hg/l/min. The primary outcome was cardiovascular (CV) hospitalization or all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Among 714 individuals (age 57 years, 59% women), 296 (41%) had abnormal PAP/CO slopes. Over a mean follow-up of 3.7 ± 2.9 years, there were 208 CV or death events. Individuals with abnormal PAP/CO slope had a 2-fold increased hazard of future CV or death event (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio: 2.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.48 to 2.78; p < 0.001). The association of abnormal PAP/CO slope with outcomes remained significant after excluding rest PH (n = 146, hazard ratio: 1.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.21 to 2.54; p = 0.003). Both pre- and post-capillary contributions to exPH independently predicted adverse events (p < 0.001 for both). CONCLUSIONS: Exercise pulmonary hypertension is independently associated with CV event-free survival among individuals undergoing evaluation of chronic dyspnea. These findings suggest incremental value of exercise hemodynamic assessment to resting measurements alone in characterizing the burden of PH in individuals with dyspnea. Whether PH and PH subtypes unmasked by exercise can be used to guide targeted therapeutic interventions requires further investigation.

8.
Am Heart J ; 220: 97-107, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is closely linked to health status and clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF) patients. We aimed to test whether biomarkers can reflect CRF and its change over time. METHODS: This post hoc analysis used data from ambulatory cohorts of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) (IRONOUT) and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) (RELAX). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), and serum biomarkers were measured at baseline and 16- or 24-week follow-up (for IRONOUT and RELAX respectively). Biomarkers included N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), soluble ST2, growth differentiation factor-15, and Galectin-3. RESULTS: Analysis included 225 patients with HFrEF and 216 with HFpEF. Baseline peak VO2, VE/VCO2 slope, and 6MWD showed a mild correlation with the doubling of all 4 tested biomarkers in HFrEF and HFpEF. Following multivariable adjustment (including all biomarkers), the only significant association between change in biomarker and functional parameter in HFrEF was change in NT-proBNP and change in VE/VCO2 slope (3.596% increase per doubling, 95% CI 0.779-6.492, P = .012). In HFpEF, a decrease in peak VO2 was associated with an increase in NT-proBNP (-0.726 mL/min/kg per doubling, 95% CI -1.100 to -0.353, P < .001), and a decrease in 6MWD was associated with an increase in growth differentiation factor-15 (-31.606 m per doubling, 95% CI -61.404 to -1.809, P = .038). CONCLUSIONS: In these ambulatory trial cohorts, NT-proBNP was associated with baseline and change in CRF in HFrEF and HFpEF. In contrast, novel biomarkers do not appear suitable as a reliable surrogate for serial assessment of exercise capacity in HF patients given lack of consistent independent association with CRF beyond traditional risk factors and NT-proBNP.

9.
J Card Fail ; 26(2): 101-107, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and obesity display a number of pathophysiologic features that may render them more or less vulnerable to negative effects of decongestion on renal function, including greater right ventricular remodeling, plasma volume expansion and pericardial restraint. We aimed to contrast the renal response to decongestion in obese compared to nonobese patients with HFpEF METHODS AND RESULTS: National Institutes of Health heart failure network studies that enrolled patients with acute decompensated HFpEF (EF ≥ 50%) were included (DOSE, CARRESS, ROSE, and ATHENA). Obese HFpEF was defined as a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2. Compared to nonobese HFpEF (n = 118), patients with obese HFpEF (n = 214) were an average of 9 years younger (71 vs 80 years,< 0.001), were more likely to have diabetes (64% vs 31%, P< 0.001) but had less atrial fibrillation (56% vs 75%, P< 0.001). Renal dysfunction (glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73m2) was present in 82% of patients, and there was no difference at baseline between obese and nonobese patients. Despite similar weight loss through decongestive therapies, obese patients with HFpEF demonstrated greater rise in creatinine (Cr) and decline in glomerular filtration rate, with a 2-fold higher incidence of mild worsening renal function (rise in Cr ≥ 0.3 mg/dL) (28 vs 14%, P = 0.008) and a substantially greater increase in severe worsening of renal function (rise in Cr > 0.5 mg/dL) (9 vs 0%, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Despite being nearly a decade younger, obese patients with HFpEF experience greater deterioration in renal function during decongestion than do nonobese patients with HFpEF. Further study to elucidate the complex relationships between volume distribution, cardiorenal hemodynamics and adiposity in HFpEF is needed.

10.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(12): e006231, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The VANISH trial (Valsartan for Attenuating Disease Evolution in Early Sarcomeric Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy) targeted young sarcomeric gene mutation carriers with early-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) to test whether valsartan can modify disease progression. We describe the baseline characteristics of the VANISH cohort and compare to previous trials evaluating angiotensin receptor blockers. METHODS: Applying a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design, 178 participants with nonobstructive HCM (age, 23.3±10.1 years; 61% men) were randomized in the primary cohort and 34 (age, 16.5±4.9 years; 50% men) in the exploratory cohort of sarcomeric mutation carriers without left ventricular hypertrophy. RESULTS: In the primary cohort, maximal left ventricular wall thickness was 17±4 mm for adults and Z score 7.0±4.5 for children. Nineteen percent had late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance. Mean peak oxygen consumption was 33 mL/kg per minute, and 92% of participants were New York Heart Association functional class I. New York Heart Association class II was associated with older age, MYH7 variants, and more prominent imaging abnormalities. Six previous trials of angiotensin receptor blockers in HCM enrolled a median of 24 patients (range, 19-133) with mean age of 51.2 years; 42% of patients were in New York Heart Association class ≥II, and sarcomeric mutations were not required. CONCLUSIONS: The VANISH cohort is much larger, younger, less heterogeneous, and has less advanced disease than prior angiotensin receptor blocker trials in HCM. Participants had relatively normal functional capacity and mild HCM features. New York Heart Association functional class II symptoms were associated with older age, more prominent imaging abnormalities, and MYH7 variants, suggesting both phenotype and genotype contribute to disease manifestations. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01912534.

11.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664435

RESUMO

Importance: Sex differences in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have been established, but insights into the mechanistic drivers of these differences are limited. Objective: To examine sex differences in cardiometabolic profiles and exercise hemodynamic profiles among individuals with HFpEF. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a single-center tertiary care referral hospital from December 2006 to June 2017 and included 295 participants who met hemodynamic criteria for HFpEF based on invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing results. We examined sex differences in distinct components of oxygen transport and utilization during exercise using linear and logistic regression models. The data were analyzed from June 2018 to May 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Resting and exercise gas exchange and hemodynamic parameters obtained during cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Results: Of 295 participants, 121 (41.0%) were men (mean [SD] age, 64 [12] years) and 174 (59.0%) were women (mean [SD] age, 61 [13] years). Compared with men, women with HFpEF in this tertiary referral cohort had fewer comorbidities, including diabetes, insulin resistance, and hypertension, and a more favorable adipokine profile. Exercise capacity was similar in men and women (percent predicted peak oxygen [O2] consumption: 66% in women vs 68% in men; P = .38), but women had distinct deficits in components of the O2 pathway, including worse biventricular systolic reserve (multivariable-adjusted analyses: ΔLVEF ß = -1.70; SE, 0.86; P < .05; ΔRVEF ß = -2.39, SE=0.80; P = .003), diastolic reserve (PCWP/CO: ß = 0.63; SE, 0.31; P = .04), and peripheral O2 extraction (C(a-v)O2 ß=-0.90, SE=0.22; P < .001)). Conclusions and Relevance: Despite a lower burden of cardiometabolic disease and a similar percent predicted exercise capacity, women with HFpEF demonstrated greater cardiac and extracardiac deficits, including systolic reserve, diastolic reserve, and peripheral O2 extraction. These sex differences in cardiac and skeletal muscle responses to exercise may illuminate the pathophysiology underlying the development of HFpEF and should be investigated further.

12.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(7): 1199-1209, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272568

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the obese heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) phenotype in a multicenter cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the randomized clinical trial RELAX (Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibition to Improve Clinical Status and Exercise Capacity in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction) performed between October 1, 2008, and February 1, 2012. Patients with HFpEF were classified by body mass index (BMI) as obese (BMI≥35 kg/m2) and nonobese (BMI<30 kg/m2) for comparison. RESULTS: Obese patients with HFpEF (n=81) were younger (median age, 64 [interquartile range (IQR), 67-79] years vs 73 [IQR, 56-70] years; P<.001) but had greater peripheral edema (31% [25] vs 9% [6]; P<.001), more orthopnea (76% [56] vs 53% [35]; P=.005), worse New York Heart Association class (P=.006), and more impaired quality of life (P<.001) as compared with nonobese patients with HFpEF (n=70). Despite more severe signs and symptoms, obese patients with HFpEF had lower N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide level (median, 481 [IQR, 176-1183] pg/mL vs 825 [IQR, 380-1679] pg/mL [to convert to pmol/L, multiply by 0.118]; P=.007) and lower left atrial volume index (median, 38 [IQR, 31-47] mL/m2 vs 54 [IQR, 41-63] mL/m2; P<.001). Serum C-reactive protein (median, 5.0 [IQR, 2.4-9.9] mg/dL vs 2.7 [IQR, 1.6-5.4] mg/dL [to convert to mg/L, multiply by 10-3]; P<.001) and uric acid (median, 7.8 [IQR, 6.1-8.7] mg/dL vs 6.8 [IQR, 5.5-8.3] mg/dL; P=.03) levels were higher in obese HFpEF, indicating greater systemic inflammation, than in nonobese HFpEF. Peak oxygen consumption was impaired in obese HFpEF (median, 11.1 [IQR, 9.6-14.4] mL/kg per minute vs 13.1 [IQR, 11.3-14.7] mL/kg per minute; P=.008), as was submaximal exercise capacity (6-minute walk distance, 272 [IQR, 200-332] m vs 355 [IQR, 290-415] m; P<.0001). CONCLUSION: Obese HFpEF is associated with decreased quality of life, worse symptoms of heart failure, greater systemic inflammation, worse exercise capacity, and higher metabolic cost of exertion as compared with nonobese HFpEF. Further study is required to understand the pathophysiology and potential distinct treatments for patients with the obese phenotype of HFpEF. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00763867.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Idoso , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Citrato de Sildenafila/administração & dosagem
13.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 4(10): 771-780, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low donor heart availability underscores the need to identify all potentially transplantable organs. We sought to determine whether pre-emptive administration of pangenotypic direct-acting antiviral therapy can safely prevent the development of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in uninfected recipients of HCV-infected donor hearts. METHODS: Patients were recruited for this an open-label, single-centre, proof-of-concept study from Nov 1, 2017, to Nov 30, 2018. Following enrolment, the recipient's status on the heart transplantation waiting list was updated to reflect a willingness to accept either an HCV-positive or HCV-negative heart donor. Patients who underwent transplantation with a viraemic donor heart, as determined by nucleic acid testing (NAT), received pre-emptive oral glecaprevir-pibrentasvir before transport to the operating room followed by an 8-week course of glecaprevir-pibrentasvir after transplantation. Patients receiving HCV antibody-positive donor hearts without detectable circulating HCV RNA were followed using a reactive approach and started glecaprevir-pibrentasvir only if they developed viraemia. The primary outcome was achievement of sustained virological response 12 weeks after completion of glecaprevir-pibrentasvir therapy (SVR12). Patients were followed from study enrolment to 1 year after transplantation. This is an interim analysis, initiated after all enrolled patients reached the primary outcome. Results reflect data from Nov 1, 2017, to May 30, 2019. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03208244. FINDINGS: 55 patients were assessed for eligibility and 52 consented to enrolment. 25 patients underwent heart transplantation with HCV-positive donor hearts (20 NAT-positive, five NAT-negative), three of whom underwent simultaneous heart-kidney transplantation. All 20 recipients of NAT-positive hearts tolerated glecaprevir-pibrentasvir and showed rapid viral suppression (median time to clearance 3·5 days, IQR 0·0-8·3), with the subsequent achievement of SVR12 by all 20. The five recipients of NAT-negative grafts did not become viraemic. Median pre-transplant waiting time for patients following enrolment in the HCV protocol was 20 days (IQR 8-57). Patient and allograft survival were 100% at a median follow-up of 10·7 months (range 6·5-18·0). INTERPRETATION: Pre-emptive administration of glecaprevir-pibrentasvir therapy results in expedited organ transplantation, rapid HCV suppression, prevention of chronic HCV infection, and excellent early allograft function in patients receiving HCV-infected donor hearts. Long-term outcomes are not yet known. FUNDING: American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, National Institutes of Health, and the Massachusetts General Hospital.

15.
Am J Transplant ; 19(11): 3185-3190, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207062

RESUMO

Although end-organ damage caused by AL amyloidosis historically portends a poor prognosis, advances in therapy in combination with solid organ transplantation can lead to significant improvements in survival. Immunomodulatory agents (IMiDs), such as lenalidomide and pomalidomide, are an effective class of drugs in the treatment of AL amyloidosis. However, there is growing concern that these agents may precipitate acute transplant rejection via upregulation of interleukin-2 and inhibition of immune tolerance. This case series describes three patients who underwent orthotopic heart transplantation for AL amyloidosis and later had progression of their underlying plasma cell dyscrasia, leading to treatment with IMiD therapy. Two patients subsequently developed acute allograft rejection, including the first reported case of pomalidomide-associated allograft rejection. The third patient tolerated long-term therapy without signs of rejection: the first reported case of IMiD tolerability after heart transplant. These cases, together with a review of the literature, demonstrate variable outcomes and elucidate the potential risk of organ rejection associated with the use of IMiDs. When treatment with IMiDs is necessary, close surveillance and modification of immunosuppression may mitigate risks of rejection and complications.

16.
Circulation ; 140(5): 353-365, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is common, yet there is currently no consensus on how to define HFpEF according to various society and clinical trial criteria. How clinical and hemodynamic profiles of patients vary across definitions is unclear. We sought to determine clinical characteristics, as well as physiologic and prognostic implications of applying various criteria to define HFpEF. METHODS: We examined consecutive patients with chronic exertional dyspnea (New York Heart Association class II to IV) and ejection fraction ≥50% referred for comprehensive cardiopulmonary exercise testing with invasive hemodynamic monitoring. We applied societal and clinical trial HFpEF definitions and compared clinical profiles, exercise responses, and cardiovascular outcomes. RESULTS: Of 461 patients (age 58±15 years, 62% women), 416 met American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA), 205 met European Society of Cardiology (ESC), and 55 met Heart Failure Society of America (HFSA) criteria for HFpEF. Clinical profiles and exercise capacity varied across definitions, with peak oxygen uptake of 16.2±5.2 (ACC/AHA), 14.1±4.2 (ESC), and 12.7±3.1 mL·kg-1·min-1 (HFSA). A total of 243 patients had hemodynamic evidence of HFpEF (abnormal rest or exercise filling pressures), of whom 222 met ACC/AHA, 161 met ESC, and 41 met HFSA criteria. Over a mean follow-up of 3.8 years, the incidence of cardiovascular outcomes ranged from 75 (ACC/AHA) to 298 events per 1000 person-years (HFSA). Application of clinical trial definitions of HFpEF similarly resulted in distinct patient classification and prognostication. CONCLUSIONS: Use of different HFpEF classifications variably enriches for future cardiovascular events, but at the expense of not including up to 85% of individuals with physiologic evidence of HFpEF. Comprehensive phenotyping of patients with suspected heart failure highlights the limitations and heterogeneity of current HFpEF definitions and may help to refine HFpEF subgrouping to test therapeutic interventions.

17.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(12): 2044-2050, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982540

RESUMO

Clinical guidelines advocate for customization of exercise testing to address patient-specific diagnostic goals, including reproduction of presenting exertional symptoms. However, the diagnostic yield of adding customized exercise testing to graded exercise in patients presenting with exertional complaints has not been rigorously examined and is the focus of this study. Using prospectively collected data, we analyzed the diagnostic yield of customized additional exercise provocation following inconclusive graded exercise test with measurement of gas exchange. Additional testing was defined as "positive" if it revealed a clinically-actionable diagnosis related to the chief complaint or reproduced symptoms in the absence of an explanatory diagnosis or pathology. Of 1,110 patients who completed a graded test, 122 (11%) symptomatic patients underwent additional customized exercise testing (e.g., sprint intervals and race simulations). Compared with those who did not undergo additional testing, this group was younger (29 [interquartile range 19 to 45] vs 46 [25 to 58] year old) and disproportionately female (43% vs 27%). Presenting symptoms included palpitations (46%), lightheadedness/syncope (25%), chest pain (14%), dyspnea (11%), and exertional intolerance (3%). Additional testing was "positive" in 48 of 122 (39%) of patients by revealing a clinically actionable diagnosis in 26 of 48 (54%) or reproducing symptoms without an explanatory diagnosis in 22 of 48 (46%). In conclusion, while patient-centered customization of exercise testing is suggested by clinical guidelines, these data are the first to demonstrate that the selective addition of customized exercise provocation following inconclusive graded exercise testing improves the diagnostic yield of exercise assessment.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Teste de Esforço , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar/fisiologia , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Avaliação de Sintomas , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Transplant ; 19(3): 876-883, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30106231

RESUMO

Hearts from older donors are increasingly utilized for transplantation due to unmet demand. Conflicting evidence exists regarding the prognosis of recipients of advanced age donor hearts, especially in young recipients. A retrospective analysis was performed on 11 433 patients aged 18 to 45 who received a cardiac transplant from 2000 to 2017. Overall, 10 279 patients received hearts from donors less than 45 and 1145 from donors greater than 45. Recipients of older donors were older (37 vs. 34 years, P < .01) and had higher rates of inotropic dependence (48% vs. 42%, P < .01). However, groups were similar in terms of comorbidities and dependence on mechanical circulatory support. Median survival for recipients of older donors was reduced by 2.6 years (12.6 vs. 15.2, P < .01). Multivariable analysis demonstrated donor age greater than 45 to be a predictor of mortality (HR 1.18 [1.05-1.33], P = .01). However, when restricting the analysis to patients who received a donor with a negative preprocurement angiogram, donor age only had a borderline association with mortality (HR 1.20 [0.98-1.46], P = .06). Older donor hearts in young recipients are associated with decreased long-term survival, however this risk is reduced in donors without atherosclerosis. The long-term hazard of this practice should be carefully weighed against the risk of waitlist mortality.

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