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1.
Adv Biosyst ; : e1900265, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515079

RESUMO

Cultured limbal and oral epithelial cells have been successfully used to treat patients with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). The most common culture method for these cell therapies utilizes amniotic membrane as a cell support and/or murine 3T3s as feeder fibroblasts. The aim of this study is to refine the production of autologous oral mucosal cell therapy for the treatment of LSCD. Real architecture for 3D tissue (RAFT) is used as an alternative cell culture support. In addition, oral mucosal cells (epithelial and fibroblast) are used as autologous alternatives to donor human limbal epithelial cells (HLE) and murine 3T3s. The following tissue equivalents are produced and characterized: first, for patients with bilateral LSCD, an oral mucosa tissue equivalent consisting of human oral mucosal epithelial cells on RAFT supported by human oral mucosal fibroblasts (HOMF). Second, for patients with unilateral LSCD, HLE on RAFT supported by HOMF. For both tissue equivalent types, features of the cornea are observed including a multi-layered epithelium with small cells with a stem cell like phenotype in the basal layer and squamous cells in the top layers, and p63α and PAX6 expression. These tissue equivalents may therefore be useful in the treatment of LSCD.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7601, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372031

RESUMO

Mountain pine beetle (MPB) outbreaks have caused major economic losses and ecological consequences in North American pine forests. Ecological and environmental factors impacting MPB life-history and stands susceptibility can help with the detection of MPB infested trees and thereby, improve control. Temperatures, water stress, host characteristics, and beetle pressure are among those ecological and environmental factors. They play different roles on MPB population dynamics at the various stages of an outbreak and these roles can be affected by intensive management. However, to make detailed connections between ecological and environmental variables and MPB outbreak phases, a deeper quantitative analysis on local scales is needed. Here, we used logistic regressions on a highly-detailed and georeferenced data set to determine the factors driving MPB infestations for the different phases of the current isolated MPB outbreak in Cypress Hills. While we showed that the roles of ecological and environmental factors in a forest intensively controlled for MPB are consistent with the literature for uncontrolled forests, we determined how these factors shifted through onset, peak, and collapse phases of the intensively controlled forest. MPB presence mostly depends on nearby beetle pressure, notably for the outbreak peak. However additional weather and host variables are necessary to achieve high predictive ability for MPB outbreak locations. Our results can help managers make appropriate decisions on where and how to focus their effort, depending on which phase the outbreak is in.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(20): 10897-10903, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358200

RESUMO

Migrations allow animals to track seasonal changes in resources, find mates, and avoid harsh climates, but these regular, long-distance movements also have implications for parasite dynamics and animal health. Migratory animals have been dubbed "superspreaders" of infection, but migration can also reduce parasite burdens within host populations via migratory escape from contaminated habitats and transmission hotspots, migratory recovery due to parasite mortality, and migratory culling of infected individuals. Here, we show that a single migratory host-macroparasite model can give rise to these different phenomena under different parametrizations, providing a unifying framework for a mechanistic understanding of the parasite dynamics of migratory animals. Importantly, our model includes the impact of parasite burden on host movement capability during migration, which can lead to "parasite-induced migratory stalling" due to a positive feedback between increasing parasite burdens and reduced movement. Our results provide general insight into the conditions leading to different health outcomes in migratory wildlife. Our approach lays the foundation for tactical models that can help understand, predict, and mitigate future changes of disease risk in migratory wildlife that may arise from shifting migratory patterns, loss of migratory behavior, or climate effects on parasite development, mortality, and transmission.

5.
Curr Treat Options Oncol ; 21(6): 50, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350690

RESUMO

OPINION STATEMENT: Oncologists should be able to discern the salient clinical features of the most common germline mutations that give rise to neuroendocrine tumors. Astute recognition of an index patient affected by a hereditary syndrome can lead to a "tip-of-the-iceberg" phenomenon whereby their entire kindred can then be proactively monitored and managed potentially with substantial reduction of morbidity and mortality. Through careful history-taking, as well as thoughtful assimilation of findings from the physical exam, biochemical laboratories, scans, and pathology reports, the clinician can spot phenotypic clues that distinguish these familial patterns from sporadic cases of tumorigenesis.

6.
Behav Brain Res ; 391: 112708, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461129

RESUMO

Repetitive behaviors (e.g., stereotypic movements, compulsions, rituals) are common features of a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. Clinical and animal model studies point to the importance of cortical-basal ganglia circuitry in the mediation of repetitive behaviors. In the current study, we tested whether a drug cocktail (dopamine D2 receptor antagonist + adenosine A2A receptor agonist + glutamate mGlu5 positive allosteric modulator) designed to activate the indirect basal ganglia pathway would reduce repetitive behavior in C58 mice after both acute and sub-chronic administration. In addition, we hypothesized that sub-chronic administration (i.e. 7 days of twice-daily injections) would increase the functional activation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), a key node of the indirect pathway. Functional activation of STN was indexed by dendritic spine density, analysis of GABA, glutamate, and synaptic plasticity genes, and cytochrome oxidase activity. The drug cocktail used significantly reduced repetitive motor behavior in C58 mice after one night as well as seven nights of twice-nightly injections. These effects did not reflect generalized motor behavior suppression as non-repetitive motor behaviors such as grooming, digging and eating were not reduced relative to vehicle. Sub-chronic drug treatment targeting striatopallidal neurons resulted in significant changes in the STN, including a four-fold increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression as well as a significant increase in dendritic spine density. The present findings are consistent with, and extend, our prior work linking decreased functioning of the indirect basal ganglia pathway to expression of repetitive motor behavior in C58 mice and suggest novel therapeutic targets.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6387, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286417

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterized by a massive loss of CD4 T cells in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) that is accompanied by changes in the gut microbiome and microbial translocation that contribute to inflammation and chronic immune activation. Though highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to better long-term outcomes in HIV infected patients, it has not been as effective at reverting pathogenesis in the GIT. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection model, we show that combination antiretroviral therapy (c-ART) partially reverted microbial dysbiosis observed during SIV infection. Though the relative abundance of bacteria, their richness or diversity did not significantly differ between infected and treated animals, microbial dysbiosis was evident via multiple beta diversity metrics: Jaccard similarity coefficient, Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient, and Yue & Clayton theta similarity coefficient. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) clustered SIV-infected untreated animals away from healthy and treated animals that were clustered closely, indicating that c-ART partially reversed the gut dysbiosis associated with SIV infection. Metastats analysis identified specific operational taxonomic units (OTUs) falling within the Streptococcus, Prevotella, Acinetobacter, Treponema, and Lactobacillus genera that were differentially represented across the three groups. Our results suggest that complete viral suppression with c-ART could potentially revert microbial dysbiosis observed during SIV and HIV infections.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0228163, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130229

RESUMO

Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has been highly successful in controlling HIV replication, reducing viral burden, and preventing both progression to AIDS and viral transmission. Yet, ART alone cannot cure the infection. Even after years of successful therapy, ART withdrawal leads inevitably to viral rebound within a few weeks or months. Our hypothesis: effective therapy must control both the replicating virus pool and the reactivatable latent viral reservoir. To do this, we have combined ART and immunotherapy to attack both viral pools simultaneously. The vaccine regimen consisted of DNA vaccine expressing SIV Gag, followed by a boost with live attenuated rubella/gag vectors. The vectors grow well in rhesus macaques, and they are potent immunogens when used in a prime and boost strategy. We infected rhesus macaques by high dose mucosal challenge with virulent SIVmac251 and waited three days to allow viral dissemination and establishment of a reactivatable viral reservoir before starting ART. While on ART, the control group received control DNA and empty rubella vaccine, while the immunotherapy group received DNA/gag prime, followed by boosts with rubella vectors expressing SIV gag over 27 weeks. Both groups had a vaccine "take" to rubella, and the vaccine group developed antibodies and T cells specific for Gag. Five weeks after the last immunization, we stopped ART and monitored virus rebound. All four control animals eventually had a viral rebound, and two were euthanized for AIDS. One control macaque did not rebound until 2 years after ART release. In contrast, there was only one viral rebound in the vaccine group. Three out of four vaccinees had no viral rebound, even after CD8 depletion, and they remain in drug-free viral remission more than 2.5 years later. The strategy of early ART combined with immunotherapy can produce a sustained SIV remission in macaques and may be relevant for immunotherapy of HIV in humans.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/terapia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Vacinas contra a SAIDS/administração & dosagem , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/terapia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/sangue , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/virologia , Animais , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Produtos do Gene gag/genética , Produtos do Gene gag/imunologia , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Plasmídeos/administração & dosagem , Plasmídeos/genética , Vírus da Rubéola/imunologia , Vacinas contra a SAIDS/genética , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/sangue , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/genética , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de DNA/genética , Latência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Latência Viral/imunologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/imunologia
11.
Theor Popul Biol ; 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209326

RESUMO

Trade-offs between dispersal and reproduction are known to be important drivers of population dynamics, but their direct influence on the spreading speed of a population is not well understood. Using integrodifference equations, we develop a model that incorporates a dispersal-reproduction trade-off which allows for a variety of different shaped trade-off curves. We show there is a unique reproductive-dispersal allocation that gives the largest value for the spreading speed and calculate the sensitivities of the reproduction, dispersal, and trade-off shape parameters. Uncertainty in the model parameters affects the expected spread of the population and we calculate the optimal allocation of resources to dispersal that maximizes the expected spreading speed. Higher allocation to dispersal arises from uncertainty in the reproduction parameter or the shape of the reproduction trade-off curve. Lower allocation to dispersal arises from uncertainty in the shape of the dispersal trade-off curve, but does not come from uncertainty in the dispersal parameter. Our findings give insight into how parameter sensitivity and uncertainty influence the spreading speed of a population with a dispersal-reproduction trade-off.

12.
Cancer Med ; 9(6): 2146-2152, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few adolescents and young adults (AYAs, 15-39 years old) enroll onto cancer clinical trials, which hinders research otherwise having the potential to improve outcomes in this unique population. Prior studies have reported that AYAs are more likely to receive cancer care in community settings. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has led efforts to increase trial enrollment through its network of NCI-designated cancer centers (NCICC) combined with community outreach through its Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP; replaced by the NCI Community Oncology Research Program in 2014). METHODS: Using AYA proportional enrollment (the proportion of total enrollments who were AYAs) as the primary outcome, we examined enrollment of AYAs onto SWOG therapeutic trials at NCICC, CCOP, and non-NCICC/non-CCOP sites from 2004 to 2013 by type of site, study period (2004-08 vs 2009-13), and patient demographics. RESULTS: Overall, AYA proportional enrollment was 10.1%. AYA proportional enrollment decreased between 2004-2008 and 2009-2013 (13.1% vs 8.5%, P < .001), and was higher at NCICCs than at CCOPs and non-NCICC/non-CCOPs (14.1% vs 8.3% and 9.2%, respectively; P < .001). AYA proportional enrollment declined significantly at all three site types. Proportional enrollment of AYAs who were Black or Hispanic was significantly higher at NCICCs compared with CCOPs or non-NCICC/non-CCOPs (11.5% vs 8.8, P = .048 and 11.5% vs 8.6%, P = .03, respectively). CONCLUSION: Not only did community sites enroll a lower proportion of AYAs onto cancer clinical trials, but AYA enrollment decreased in all study settings. Initiatives aimed at increasing AYA enrollment, particularly in the community setting with attention to minority status, are needed.

14.
J Environ Manage ; 260: 110167, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090789

RESUMO

The efficacy of direct control methods in bark beetle outbreaks is a disputed topic. While some studies report that control reduces tree mortality, others see little effect. Existing models, linking control rate to beetle population dynamics and tree infestations, give insights, but there is a need to take into account the environment spatial variability and its impact on beetle life cycle. Here, we use natural variability found in a carefully monitored and controlled infestation to simulate outbreak dynamics under different control effort and to explore the impact of control on outbreaks suppression and tree mortality. Our semi-empirical predictive model of the number of infested trees as a function of ecological and environmental variables is coupled to a simulation model for infestation dynamics. We show that even a little control can have a major impact on the number of infested trees after several years of sustained effort. However, a moderate control of 60% is required to reduce the beetle population on the long term. Furthermore, a control rate of 69%-83% is needed to achieve outbreak suppression in under 13 years depending on the abundance of incoming flights from outside sources.


Assuntos
Besouros , Pinus , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Dinâmica Populacional , Árvores
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 948, 2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075963

RESUMO

Eliciting protective titers of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a goal of HIV-1 vaccine development, but current vaccine strategies have yet to induce bnAbs in humans. Many bnAbs isolated from HIV-1-infected individuals are encoded by immunoglobulin gene rearrangments with infrequent naive B cell precursors and with unusual genetic features that may be subject to host regulatory control. Here, we administer antibodies targeting immune cell regulatory receptors CTLA-4, PD-1 or OX40 along with HIV envelope (Env) vaccines to rhesus macaques and bnAb immunoglobulin knock-in (KI) mice expressing diverse precursors of CD4 binding site HIV-1 bnAbs. CTLA-4 blockade augments HIV-1 Env antibody responses in macaques, and in a bnAb-precursor mouse model, CTLA-4 blocking or OX40 agonist antibodies increase germinal center B and T follicular helper cells and plasma neutralizing antibodies. Thus, modulation of CTLA-4 or OX40 immune checkpoints during vaccination can promote germinal center activity and enhance HIV-1 Env antibody responses.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas contra a AIDS/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anticorpos Bloqueadores/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Bloqueadores/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Antígenos CD4/genética , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Ativação Linfocitária , Macaca mulatta/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptores OX40/agonistas , Receptores OX40/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Transcriptoma , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia
16.
Cell Rep ; 30(5): 1553-1569.e6, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023469

RESUMO

HIV-1-infected infants develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) more rapidly than adults, suggesting differences in the neonatal versus adult responses to the HIV-1 envelope (Env). Here, trimeric forms of HIV-1 Env immunogens elicit increased gp120- and gp41-specific antibodies more rapidly in neonatal macaques than adult macaques. Transcriptome analyses of neonatal versus adult immune cells after Env vaccination reveal that neonatal macaques have higher levels of the apoptosis regulator BCL2 in T cells and lower levels of the immunosuppressive interleukin-10 (IL-10) receptor alpha (IL10RA) mRNA transcripts in T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and monocytes. In addition, immunized neonatal macaques exhibit increased frequencies of activated blood T follicular helper-like (Tfh) cells compared to adults. Thus, neonatal macaques have transcriptome signatures of decreased immunosuppression and apoptosis compared with adult macaques, providing an immune landscape conducive to early-life immunization prior to sexual debut.

17.
J Mol Endocrinol ; 64(3): 125-132, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990657

RESUMO

Hyperinsulinaemia potentially contributes to insulin resistance in metabolic tissues, such as skeletal muscle. The purpose of these experiments was to characterise glucose uptake, insulin signalling and relevant gene expression in primary human skeletal muscle-derived cells (HMDCs), in response to prolonged insulin exposure (PIE) as a model of hyperinsulinaemia-induced insulin resistance. Differentiated HMDCs from healthy human donors were cultured with or without insulin (100 nM) for 3 days followed by an acute insulin stimulation. HMDCs exposed to PIE were characterised by impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, blunted IRS-1 phosphorylation (Tyr612) and Akt (Ser473) phosphorylation in response to an acute insulin stimulation. Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), but not GLUT4, mRNA and protein increased following PIE. The mRNA expression of metabolic (PDK4) and inflammatory markers (TNF-α) was reduced by PIE but did not change lipid (SREBP1 and CD36) or mitochondrial (UCP3) markers. These experiments provide further characterisation of the effects of PIE as a model of hyperinsulinaemia-induced insulin resistance in HMDCs.

18.
Bull Math Biol ; 82(1): 9, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932972

RESUMO

In marine systems, adult populations confined to isolated habitat patches can be connected by larval dispersal. Source-sink theory provides effective tools to quantify the effect of specific habitat patches on the dynamics of connected populations. In this paper, we construct the next-generation matrix for a marine metapopulation and demonstrate how it can be used to calculate the source-sink dynamics of habitat patches. We investigate the effect of environmental variables on the source-sink dynamics and demonstrate how the next-generation matrix can provide useful biological insight into transient as well as asymptotic dynamics of the model.

19.
Bull Math Biol ; 82(1): 7, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932985

RESUMO

The method of inside dynamics provides a theory that can track the dynamics of neutral gene fractions in spreading populations. However, the role of mutations has so far been absent in the study of the gene flow of neutral fractions via inside dynamics. Using integrodifference equations, we develop a neutral genetic mutation model by extending a previously established scalar inside dynamics model. To classify the mutation dynamics, we define a mutation class as the set of neutral fractions that can mutate into one another. We show that the spread of neutral genetic fractions is dependent on the leading edge of population as well as the structure of the mutation matrix. Specifically, we show that the neutral fractions that contribute to the spread of the population must belong to the same mutation class as the neutral fraction found in the leading edge of the population. We prove that the asymptotic proportion of individuals at the leading edge of the population spread is given by the dominant right eigenvector of the associated mutation matrix, independent of growth and dispersal parameters. In addition, we provide numerical simulations to demonstrate our mathematical results, to extend their generality and to develop new conjectures about our model.

20.
Behav Neurosci ; 134(1): 21-33, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724406

RESUMO

Restricted, repetitive behavior (RRB) is diagnostic for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and characteristic of a number of neurodevelopmental, psychiatric, and neurological disorders. RRB seen in ASD includes repetitive motor behavior and behaviors reflecting resistance to change and insistence on sameness. C58 mice provide a robust model of repetitive motor behavior and have shown resistance to change in a reversal learning task. We further characterized resistance to change in this model by inducing habitual responding and testing for differences in the ability to suppress habitual behavior and shift to goal-directed responding. We found no differences between C58 and control (C57BL/6) mice in the acquisition of operant tasks, habit formation, and expression of habitual responding. Habitual responding, however, induced significant reversal learning and contingency reversal performance deficits in C58 mice compared with C57BL/6 mice. Decreased dendritic spine density of the dorsomedial striatum in C58 mice was related to higher repetitive motor behavior, whereas dendritic spine density in the subthalamic nucleus was significantly positively correlated with improved contingency reversal performance in both C58 and C57BL/6 mice. Our results demonstrate that induction of habitual responding markedly impaired the ability of C58 mice to shift to goal-directed behavior. Such impairment may have resulted from the effects of the induction of habitual responding on already compromised basal ganglia circuitry mediating repetitive motor behavior. These findings provide additional evidence for the translational value of the C58 model in modeling RRB in neurodevelopmental disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

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