Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 58
Filtrar
1.
Hosp Pediatr ; 11(1): 79-87, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386296

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Understanding the risk factors, predictors, and clinical presentation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pediatric patients with severe disease. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of pediatric patients admitted between March 1, 2020, and May 31, 2020, to a large health network in New Jersey with positive test results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, rapid testing, or serum immunoglobulin G testing; we included demographic characteristics, clinical features, and outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 81 patients ≤21 years old were admitted with positive test results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and/or serum immunoglobulin testing. Sixty-seven patients (82.7%) were admitted for management of acute COVID-19 infection, whereas 14 (17.3%) were admitted for management of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Of the 81 hospitalized patients, 28 (34.6%) required intensive care. A majority of patients (42 [51.9%]) admitted for both acute COVID-19 infection and MIS-C were Hispanic. Underlying chronic health conditions were not present in most patients. Obesity (mean BMI of 41.1) was noted in the patients with MIS-C requiring ICU care, although not statistically significant. Absolute lymphopenia and elevated levels of inflammatory markers were statistically significant in the patients with MIS-C treated in the ICU. CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to the growing literature of potential risk factors for severe disease in pediatric patients due to COVID-19 infection and MIS-C. Patients of Hispanic ethnicity represented the majority of patients with both acute COVID-19 infection and MIS-C, despite only representing 10% to 20% of the population our hospitals serve. Infants and patients with chronic health conditions were not at increased risk for severe disease. Absolute lymphopenia and elevated levels of inflammatory markers were associated with more severe disease.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , /terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , New Jersey , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Pediatr ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197493

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the demographic and clinical features of pediatric SARS-CoV-2 syndromes and identify admission variables predictive of disease severity. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective and prospective study of pediatric patients hospitalized with acute SARS-CoV-2 infections and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) at eight sites in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. RESULTS: We identified 281 hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections and divided them into three groups based on clinical features. Overall, 143 (51%) had respiratory disease, 69 (25%) had MIS-C, and 69 (25%) had other manifestations including gastrointestinal illness or fever. Patients with MIS-C were more likely to identify as non-Hispanic black compared with patients with respiratory disease (35% versus 18%, P=.02). Seven patients (2%) died and 114 (41%) were admitted to the ICU. In multivariable analyses, obesity (OR=3.39, 95% CI:1.26-9.10, P=.02) and hypoxia on admission (OR=4.01; 95% CI:1.14-14.15; P=.03) were predictive of severe respiratory disease. Lower absolute lymphocyte count (OR=8.33 per unit decrease in 109 cells/L, 95% CI:2.32-33.33, P=.001) and higher C-reactive protein (OR=1.06 per unit increase in mg/dL, 95% CI:1.01-1.12, P=.017) were predictive of severe MIS-C. Race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status were not predictive of disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: We identified variables at the time of hospitalization that may help predict the development of severe SARS-CoV-2 disease manifestations in children and youth. These variables may have implications for future prognostic tools that inform hospital admission and clinical management.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211859

RESUMO

This is a retrospective chart review of 20 patients treated with a consensus driven treatment algorithm in MIS-C patients across a wide clinical spectrum. Their treatments and clinical status are described, as well as their favorable return to functional baseline by 30 days post presentation.

4.
Am Surg ; 86(9): 1078-1082, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols are widely utilized for elective colorectal surgery to improve outcomes and decrease costs, but few studies have evaluated the impact of ERAS protocols on cost with respect to anatomic site of resection. This study evaluated the impact of ERAS protocol on elective colon resections by site and longitudinal impact over time. METHODS: A single-center retrospective cohort study of 598 consecutive patients undergoing elective colorectal resection before and after implementation of ERAS protocol from 2013 to 2017 was performed. The primary outcomes were length of stay (LOS) and cost. Comparative and multivariate inferential statistics were used to assess additional outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 598 patients (100 pre-ERAS vs 498 post-ERAS) were evaluated with an overall median LOS of 4 days for right and left colectomies and 3 days for transverse colectomies. When comparing type of resection before and after ERAS protocol introduction, an increased LOS for left hemicolectomies from 3.09 to 4.03 days (P = .047) was noted, with all other comparisons failing to reach statistical significance. Over time, an initial decrease in LOS for MIS approach after protocol introduction was observed; however, this effect diminished in the ensuing years and had no significant effect overall. Total cost of care was significantly increased post-ERAS for all cohorts except transverse colectomies. No further statistically significant differences were found. CONCLUSION: After an initial improvement in outcomes, continued utilization of ERAS protocols demonstrated no improvement in LOS compared to pre-ERAS data and increased cost overall for patients regardless of site of resection.


Assuntos
Colectomia/economia , Recuperação Pós-Cirúrgica Melhorada , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Custos Hospitalares , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colectomia/métodos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Surg Endosc ; 34(7): 3145-3152, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463721

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The development of chronic groin pain after inguinal hernia repair is a complex problem with many potential factors contributing to its development. Surgical options for alleviation of symptoms are limited and only performed by a few centers dedicated to its treatment. Opportunities to apply the principles of a prehabilitation program, including Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), aim to improve the surgical outcomes for this condition. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A multi-disciplinary hernia team has implemented a clinical quality improvement (CQI) effort in an attempt to better measure and improve outcomes for patients suffering with chronic groin pain after inguinal hernia repair. Between April 2011 and August 2018, 129 patients (157 groins) underwent surgical treatment for chronic groin pain after inguinal hernia repair. Data were collected to compare outcomes for those undergoing preoperative CBT and patients who did not have CBT prior to their operation. RESULTS: Of 129 total patients, baseline demographics were similar in terms of gender, age, and BMI. In total, 27 patients (32 groins) underwent prehabilitation with CBT (20.93%). We found none of the patients who underwent preoperative CBT had new postoperative pain and all patient procedures were able to be performed on an outpatient basis. Overall, 15 (14.7%) patients had no improvement in symptoms after surgery from the non-CBT group, whereas there was improvement in chronic pain for all patients who underwent CBT. CONCLUSION: This attempt at process improvement demonstrated beneficial effects for patients who had CBT as part of a prehabilitation program prior to a surgical procedure to attempt to relieve groin pain after inguinal hernia repair. As with any CQI analysis, other factors may have contributed to these outcomes and these results may be different in another local environment.

6.
Am Surg ; 85(9): 956-960, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638506

RESUMO

Postoperative pain managed with opioids has contributed to the opioid crisis through overprescribing practices. We assessed opioid-prescribing habits and their use by patients undergoing surgery for cutaneous malignancies. An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective analysis was conducted for patients who underwent skin cancer resection between January 2018 and June 2018. Data were collected from the electronic medical record, and opioid-related data were collected from patient interviews and state registries. There were 120 study participants (42 females and 78 males) with a median age of 67 years (range, 21-94 years). All received preincision local anesthetic: 64 had liposomal bupivacaine (LB) (53%) and 56 had non-LB bupivacaine (47%). Most participants (n = 88) used 0 opioids (73%), including 43 LB-anesthetic (67%) and 45 non-LB-anesthetic (80%). No significance was seen between those with a diagnosis of chronic pain, narcotic tolerance, an area of resection, and nodal sampling groups in opioid use. Four patients (3%) requested a refill. Of 105 prescriptions written for opioids, 99 had leftover opioids for an overprescribing rate of 94 per cent. This study suggests pain after skin cancer surgery is manageable with very limited opioid requirements. Our results support prescribing no more than five opioid tablets for postoperative pain control in patients undergoing resection for skin malignancies.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Prescrição Inadequada/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Lipossomos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Am Surg ; 85(9): 1056-1060, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638524

RESUMO

Skin substitutes have shown success in complex wound reconstruction. We evaluate the use of a human acellular dermal matrix (ADM) as a viable alternative to autologous skin grafting for defects secondary to skin cancer excision. An institutional review board-approved, retrospective review of ADM-reconstructed defects secondary to skin cancer excision between 2012 and 2018 was conducted. ADM was indicated in patients with preclusive factors for general anesthesia, protracted procedure time, reluctance for additional donor site wound, and personal choice. We reviewed defect characteristics, healing time, postoperative outcomes, and patient demographics. The 228 participants (151 males, 77 females) had a median age of 72 years (range, 29-95 years), with melanoma diagnosed in 113 (49.6%), squamous cell carcinoma in 61 (26.8%), and basal cell carcinoma in 28 (12.2%) patients. The median interval to complete epidermal coverage was 42 days, with graft failure evident in six patients (2.6%). ADM is a viable, low-morbid alternative for reconstruction of defects secondary to skin cancer excision, with no donor site morbidity. With exception to complete healing time, outcomes are similar to those of autologous grafting.


Assuntos
Derme Acelular , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Transplante de Pele , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Basocelular/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Transplante Autólogo , Cicatrização
8.
Can J Kidney Health Dis ; 6: 2054358119871539, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523437

RESUMO

Background: Person-centered care (PCC) can benefit patients, clinical staff, and health care organizations, but has not yet been widely adopted into practice. Hemodialysis is a unique care environment in which clinical staff can be involved with patients for protracted periods of time each week and often over a number of years. While kidney care is arguably more holistic than other chronic condition management programs, most patients requiring hemodialysis do not receive care that is optimally person-centered. Objective: The purpose of this research was to explore how care is experienced and provided in a large urban hemodialysis program in western Canada in relation to key principles of PCC. In addition, we wanted to understand what factors at an individual, unit, and organizational level facilitate or inhibit PCC in this environment. Methods: We used a qualitative case-study approach to explore multiple perspectives of care provision using a number of data sources including semi-structured interviews with patients, family members, clinical staff, and administrative staff, as well as observing patterns of clinical practice in local hemodialysis units. Findings: In our study of a single hemodialysis program, we found limited evidence of PCC. Overall, patients reported that their care was good and they had positive relationships with their care team. However, they did not feel involved in decisions regarding their care or consider it to be individualized. In general, providers acknowledged the potential benefits of PCC but were constrained in their practice by a number of factors, including individual perceptions of their role, a prescriptive care environment, and an organizational focus on managing demand. Conclusions: Evidence of PCC within hemodialysis services was limited, with a number of individual, unit level, and organizational barriers mitigating against its adoption and spread.

9.
Epilepsia Open ; 4(3): 397-408, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440721

RESUMO

Objective: Molecular genetic etiologies in epilepsy have become better understood in recent years, creating important opportunities for precision medicine. Building on these advances, detailed studies of the complexities and outcomes of genetic testing for epilepsy can provide useful insights that inform and refine diagnostic approaches and illuminate the potential for precision medicine in epilepsy. Methods: We used a multi-gene next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel with simultaneous sequence and exonic copy number variant detection to investigate up to 183 epilepsy-related genes in 9769 individuals. Clinical variant interpretation was performed using a semi-quantitative scoring system based on existing professional practice guidelines. Results: Molecular genetic testing provided a diagnosis in 14.9%-24.4% of individuals with epilepsy, depending on the NGS panel used. More than half of these diagnoses were in children younger than 5 years. Notably, the testing had possible precision medicine implications in 33% of individuals who received definitive diagnostic results. Only 30 genes provided 80% of molecular diagnoses. While most clinically significant findings were single-nucleotide variants, ~15% were other types that are often challenging to detect with traditional methods. In addition to clinically significant variants, there were many others that initially had uncertain significance; reclassification of 1612 such variants with parental testing or other evidence contributed to 18.5% of diagnostic results overall and 6.1% of results with precision medicine implications. Significance: Using an NGS gene panel with key high-yield genes and robust analytic sensitivity as a first-tier test early in the diagnostic process, especially for children younger than 5 years, can possibly enable precision medicine approaches in a significant number of individuals with epilepsy.

10.
Can J Kidney Health Dis ; 6: 2054358119834283, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30899533

RESUMO

Background: A growing number of mobile applications (apps) target people with chronic illness as the primary user. There is increasing evidence that digital technology can improve health outcomes for users but the sheer number of apps available is likely to overwhelm many potential users. Objective: The purpose of this study was to systematically search for apps aimed at people with chronic kidney disease. An important secondary objective was to develop a search strategy that could be used to identify similar apps in the future. Design: A systematic review of the scientific and gray literature including app stores, clearinghouses, and Google. Setting/patients: The focus of this research was the identification of apps that may be of use to people interested in self-management of chronic kidney disease. Methods: Three reviewers independently searched app stores, websites, and databases to identify apps of potential interest and any information related to the function and efficacy of these. Apps that met the inclusion criteria were short-listed, reviewed in more detail, and cross-referenced with other sources such as clearinghouses, Google, and kidney care organizations. A population, intervention, comparison, outcome, and design framework was used to search selected databases. Results: Of the 1464 apps purporting to be for chronic kidney disease, only 15 were eligible for inclusion. Searching the 2 major app stores (iOS and Android) appeared to be the most productive way of identifying apps of potential interest. An increasing number of public and private clearinghouses have been established to assist users with finding apps. Privacy and security of user information is a particular and valid concern of health care professionals and organizations. Limitations: The breadth and depth of information relating to each app varied and made it difficult to systematize the evaluation of apps. Due to the large number of health care apps and the challenges to searching app stores and websites, it is possible that some apps were missed during our searches. Similarly, while there are many kidney care-related websites that contain useful information, these were not captured by our study. Conclusion: There are very few available apps aimed specifically at people with chronic kidney disease; those that are available are best identified by manually searching the 2 major app stores. Privacy and confidentiality of user information when using the apps is a concern among health care providers in particular.

11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(9): 2708-2716, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796035

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas (HGG) are usually managed with alkylating chemotherapy ± bevacizumab. However, prognosis remains very poor. Preclinically, we showed that HGGs are a target for arginine depletion with pegargiminase (ADI-PEG20) due to epimutations of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1) and/or argininosuccinate lyase (ASL). Moreover, ADI-PEG20 disrupts pyrimidine pools in ASS1-deficient HGGs, thereby impacting sensitivity to the antifolate, pemetrexed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We expanded a phase I trial of ADI-PEG20 with pemetrexed and cisplatin (ADIPEMCIS) to patients with ASS1-deficient recurrent HGGs (NCT02029690). Patients were enrolled (01/16-06/17) to receive weekly ADI-PEG20 36 mg/m2 intramuscularly plus pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 and cisplatin 75 mg/m2 intravenously once every 3 weeks for up to 6 cycles. Patients with disease control were allowed ADI-PEG20 maintenance. The primary endpoints were safety, tolerability, and preliminary estimates of efficacy. RESULTS: Ten ASS1-deficient heavily pretreated patients were treated with ADIPEMCIS therapy. Treatment was well tolerated with the majority of adverse events being Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.03 grade 1-2. The best overall response was stable disease in 8 patients (80%). Plasma arginine was suppressed significantly below baseline with a reciprocal increase in citrulline during the sampling period. The anti-ADI-PEG20 antibody titer rose during the first 4 weeks of treatment before reaching a plateau. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.2 months (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.5-20.8) and overall survival was 6.3 months (95% CI, 1.8-9.7). CONCLUSIONS: In this recurrent HGG study, ADIPEMCIS was well tolerated and compares favorably to historical controls. Additional trials of ADI-PEG20 in HGG are planned.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Arginina/metabolismo , Argininossuccinato Sintase/deficiência , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glioma/enzimologia , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Hidrolases/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/enzimologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Pemetrexede/administração & dosagem , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição Tecidual , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Musculoskelet Sci Pract ; 38: 69-76, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Bristol Impact of Hypermobility (BIoH) questionnaire is a condition-specific patient-reported outcome measure developed for adults with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome (JHS). It has previously demonstrated strong concurrent validity with the Short-Form 36 health questionnaire and excellent test-retest reliability. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate its appropriateness, validity, acceptability, feasibility and interpretability. DESIGN: A qualitative evaluation using semi-structured telephone interviews, incorporating a 'think aloud' exercise and additional prompts. METHOD: Adults with JHS (n = 11) were recruited through a patient organisation and physiotherapists with a professional interest in JHS (n = 9) were recruited through the same organisation and an online professional network. Interviews were transcribed and data synthesised using a framework matrix. FINDINGS: Patients and physiotherapists commented positively on the appropriateness, validity, acceptability and feasibility of the BIoH questionnaire. Physiotherapists assessed the interpretability of the questionnaire and commented that, whilst further information might be captured, the value of that information might be limited. The questionnaire was considered comprehensive with only a very limited number of potential missing areas related to use of hand-held technology, hair washing/drying and intimacy. Interestingly, keyboard use and hair washing were excluded during initial questionnaire development as they were rated as relatively unimportant. Intimacy was not considered a comfortable addition for all participants. CONCLUSIONS: Patients and physiotherapists regarded the BIoH questionnaire as a welcome addition to the toolkit available to assess those with JHS. It was broadly accepted as reflecting the experience of people with JHS in sufficient detail to support management.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Instabilidade Articular/diagnóstico , Instabilidade Articular/fisiopatologia , Limitação da Mobilidade , Fisioterapeutas/psicologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Nephrol ; 19(1): 137, 2018 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thermometers that measure core (internal) body temperature are the gold standard for monitoring temperature. Despite that most modern hemodialysis machines are equipped with an internal blood monitor that measures core body temperature, current practice is to use peripheral thermometers. A better understanding of how peripheral thermometers compare with the dialysis machine thermometer may help guide practice. METHODS: The study followed a prospective cross-sectional design. Hemodialysis patients were recruited from 2 sites in Calgary, Alberta (April - June 2017). Body temperatures were obtained from peripheral (temporal artery) and dialysis machine thermometers concurrently. Paired t-tests, Bland-Altman plots, and quantile-quantile plots were used to compare measurements from the two devices and to explore potential factors affecting temperature in hemodialysis patients. RESULTS: The mean body temperature of 94 hemodialysis patients measured using the temporal artery thermometer (36.7 °C) was significantly different than the dialysis machine thermometer (36.4 °C); p < 0.001. The mean difference (0.27 °C) appeared to be consistent across average temperature (range: 35.8-37.3 °C). CONCLUSIONS: Temperature measured by the temporal artery thermometer was statistically and clinically higher than that measured by the dialysis machine thermometer. Using the dialysis machine to monitor body temperature may result in more accurate readings and is likely to reduce the purchasing and maintenance costs associated with manual temperature readings, as well as easing the workload for dialysis staff.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Desenho de Equipamento/normas , Monitorização Fisiológica/normas , Diálise Renal/normas , Artérias Temporais/fisiologia , Termômetros/normas , Idoso , Alberta/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Desenho de Equipamento/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Diálise Renal/instrumentação , Diálise Renal/métodos
14.
J Neurotrauma ; 34(20): 2917-2923, 2017 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28594315

RESUMO

Survivors of traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI) have intense healthcare needs during acute and rehabilitation care and often through the rest of life. To prepare for a growing and aging population, simulation modeling was used to forecast the change in healthcare financial resources and long-term patient outcomes between 2012 and 2032. The model was developed with data from acute and rehabilitation care facilities across Canada participating in the Access to Care and Timing project. Future population and tSCI incidence for 2012 and 2032 were predicted with data from Statistics Canada and the Canadian Institute for Health Information. The projected tSCI incidence for 2012 was validated with actual data from the Rick Hansen SCI Registry of the participating facilities. Using a medium growth scenario, in 2032, the projected median age of persons with tSCI is 57 and persons 61 and older will account for 46% of injuries. Admissions to acute and rehabilitation facilities in 2032 were projected to increase by 31% and 25%, respectively. Because of the demographic shift to an older population, an increase in total population life expectancy with tSCI of 13% was observed despite a 22% increase in total life years lost to tSCI between 2012 and 2032. Care cost increased 54%, and rest of life cost increased 37% in 2032, translating to an additional CAD $16.4 million. With the demographics and management of tSCI changing with an aging population, accurate projections for the increased demand on resources will be critical for decision makers when planning the delivery of healthcare after tSCI.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/tendências , Modelos Econômicos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/economia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/epidemiologia , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Sistema de Registros
15.
J Neurotrauma ; 34(20): 2848-2855, 2017 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28367684

RESUMO

Specialized centers of care for persons sustaining a traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI) have been established in many countries, but the ideal system of care has not been defined. The objective of this study was to describe care delivery, with a focus on structures and services, for persons with tSCI in Canada. A survey was sent to 26 facilities (12 acute, 11 rehabilitation, and three integrated) from eight provinces participating in the Access to Care and Timing project. The survey included questions about: 1) care provision; 2) structural attributes and; 3) service availability. Survey completion rate was 100%. Data sources used to complete the survey were the Rick Hansen Spinal Cord Injury Registry, other hospital databases, clinical protocols, and subject matter experts. Acute and rehabilitation care provided by integrated facilities were described separately, resulting in data from 15 acute and 14 rehabilitation facilities. The number of admissions for tSCI over a 12-month period between 2009-2011 ranged from 17 to 104 (median 39), and 11 to 96 (median 32), for acute and rehabilitation facilities, respectively. Grouping of patients was reported by 8/15 acute and 10/14 rehabilitation facilities. Criteria for admission to the inpatient rehabilitation facilities varied among facilities (25 different criteria reported). Results from the survey revealed similarities in the basic structure and the provision of general services, but also some differences in the degree of specialization of care for persons with tSCI. Continued work on the impact of specialized care for both the patient and healthcare system is needed.

16.
J Neurotrauma ; 34(20): 2843-2847, 2017 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28285549

RESUMO

Despite the relatively low incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI), the management and care of persons with tSCI can be resource intensive and complex, spanning multiple phases of care and disciplines. Using a simulation model built with a system level view of the healthcare system allows for prediction of the impact of interventions on patient and system outcomes from injury through to community reintegration after tSCI. As has been previously described, the Access to Care and Timing (ACT) project developed a simulation model for tSCI care using techniques from operations research. The objective of this article is to briefly describe the methodology and the application of the ACT Model, as it was used in several of the articles in this focus issue. The approaches employed in this model provide a framework to look into the complexity of interactions both within and among the different SCI programs, sites, and phases of care.

17.
Health Technol Assess ; 20(47): 1-264, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27365226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) is a heritable disorder associated with laxity and pain in multiple joints. Physiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment, but there is little research investigating its clinical effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: To develop a comprehensive physiotherapy intervention for adults with JHS; to pilot the intervention; and to conduct a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) to determine the feasibility of conducting a future definitive RCT. DESIGN: Patients' and health professionals' perspectives on physiotherapy for JHS were explored in focus groups (stage 1). A working group of patient research partners, clinicians and researchers used this information to develop the physiotherapy intervention. This was piloted and refined on the basis of patients' and physiotherapists' feedback (stage 2). A parallel two-arm pilot RCT compared 'advice' with 'advice and physiotherapy' (stage 3). Random allocation was via an automated randomisation service, devised specifically for the study. Owing to the nature of the interventions, it was not possible to blind clinicians or patients to treatment allocation. SETTING: Stage 1 - focus groups were conducted in four UK locations. Stages 2 and 3 - piloting of the intervention and the pilot RCT were conducted in two UK secondary care NHS trusts. PARTICIPANTS: Stage 1 - patient focus group participants (n = 25, three men) were aged > 18 years, had a JHS diagnosis and had received physiotherapy within the preceding 12 months. The health professional focus group participants (n = 16, three men; 14 physiotherapists, two podiatrists) had experience of managing JHS. Stage 2 - patient participants (n = 8) were aged > 18 years, had a JHS diagnosis and no other musculoskeletal conditions causing pain. Stage 3 - patient participants for the pilot RCT (n = 29) were as for stage 2 but the lower age limit was 16 years. INTERVENTION: For the pilot RCT (stage 3) the advice intervention was a one-off session, supplemented by advice booklets. All participants could ask questions specific to their circumstances and receive tailored advice. Participants were randomly allocated to 'advice' (no further advice or physiotherapy) or 'advice and physiotherapy' (an additional six 30-minute sessions over 4 months). The physiotherapy intervention was supported by a patient handbook and was delivered on a one-to-one patient-therapist basis. It aimed to increase patients' physical activity through developing knowledge, understanding and skills to better manage their condition. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Data from patient and health professional focus groups formed the main outcome from stage 1. Patient and physiotherapist interview data also formed a major component of stages 2 and 3. The primary outcome in stage 3 related to the feasibility of a future definitive RCT [number of referrals, recruitment and retention rates, and an estimate of the value of information (VOI) of a future RCT]. Secondary outcomes included clinical measures (physical function, pain, global status, self-reported joint count, quality of life, exercise self-efficacy and adverse events) and resource use (to estimate cost-effectiveness). Outcomes were recorded at baseline, 4 months and 7 months. RESULTS: Stage 1 - JHS is complex and unpredictable. Physiotherapists should take a long-term holistic approach rather than treating acutely painful joints in isolation. Stage 2 - a user-informed physiotherapy intervention was developed and evaluated positively. Stage 3 - recruitment to the pilot RCT was challenging, primarily because of a perceived lack of equipoise between advice and physiotherapy. The qualitative evaluation provided very clear guidance to inform a future RCT, including enhancement of the advice intervention. Some patients reported that the advice intervention was useful and the physiotherapy intervention was again evaluated very positively. The rate of return of questionnaires was low in the advice group but reasonable in the physiotherapy group. The physiotherapy intervention showed evidence of promise in terms of primary and secondary clinical outcomes. The advice arm experienced more adverse events. The VOI analysis indicated the potential for high value from a future RCT. Such a trial should form the basis of future research efforts. CONCLUSION: A future definitive RCT of physiotherapy for JHS seems feasible, although the advice intervention should be made more robust to address perceived equipoise and subsequent attrition. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN29874209. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 20, No. 47. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Instabilidade Articular/congênito , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Instabilidade Articular/reabilitação , Masculino , Limitação da Mobilidade , Dor/reabilitação , Satisfação do Paciente , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida , Autoeficácia , Reino Unido
18.
Mol Med ; 22: 361-379, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27257787

RESUMO

Colon cancer cells contain high levels of cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS). Its product, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) promotes the growth and proliferation of colorectal tumor cells. In order to improve the antitumor efficacy of the prototypical CBS inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), we have designed and synthesized YD0171, a methyl ester derivative of AOAA. The antiproliferative effect of YD0171 exceeded the antiproliferative potency of AOAA in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. The esterase inhibitor paraoxon prevented the cellular inhibition of CBS activity by YD0171. YD0171 suppressed mitochondrial respiration and glycolytic function and induced G0/G1 arrest, but did not induce tumor cell apoptosis or necrosis. Metabolomic analysis in HCT116 cells showed that YD0171 affects multiple pathways of cell metabolism. The efficacy of YD0171 as an inhibitor of tumor growth was also tested in nude mice bearing subcutaneous HCT116 cancer cell xenografts. Animals were treated via subcutaneous injection of vehicle, AOAA (1, 3 or 9 mg/kg/day) or YD0171 (0.1, 0.5 or 1 mg/kg/day) for 3 weeks. Tumor growth was significantly reduced by 9 mg/kg/day AOAA, but not at the lower doses. YD0171 was more potent: tumor volume was significantly inhibited at 0.5 and 1 mg/kg/day. Thus, the in vivo efficacy of YD0171 is 9-times higher than that of AOAA. YD0171 (1 mg/kg/day) attenuated tumor growth and metastasis formation in the intracecal HCT116 tumor model. YD0171 (3 mg/kg/day) also reduced tumor growth in patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) bearing athymic mice. YD0171 (3 mg/kg/day) induced the regression of established HCT116 tumors in vivo. A 5-day safety study in mice demonstrated that YD0171 at 20 mg/kg/day (given in two divided doses) does not increase plasma markers of organ injury, nor does it induce histological alterations in the liver or kidney. YD0171 caused a slight elevation in plasma homocysteine levels. In conclusion, the prodrug approach improves the pharmacological profile of AOAA; YD0171 represents a prototype for CBS inhibitory anticancer prodrugs. By targeting colorectal cancer bioenergetics, an emerging important hallmark of cancer, the approach exemplified herein may offer direct translational opportunities.

19.
Musculoskeletal Care ; 13(2): 101-11, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25784539

RESUMO

Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) is a heritable disorder associated with excessive joint range of motion and pain in the absence of inflammatory joint disease. It is a relatively common cause of musculoskeletal pain but is generally understood to be under-recognized and poorly managed in clinical practice. The present study therefore aimed to identify how JHS is diagnosed, managed and assessed in routine physiotherapy practice. A survey tool was developed from similar physiotherapy surveys of musculoskeletal practice, a review of the literature, and consultation with researchers and clinicians. Paper copies of the final survey were sent to 201 randomly selected secondary care organizations across the UK and an electronic version was advertised through physiotherapy professional networks. A total of 66 responses (80% women) were received from physiotherapists, with a wide range of clinical experience. Only 32% of respondents reported that they had received formal training in JHS management. The Brighton diagnostic criteria for JHS were not often used (only 31% of respondents). The stated aims of physiotherapy and the specific interventions employed seem well matched, with a focus on advice, education, exercise and self-management. Although pain relief was not reported as a high priority in terms of treatment aims, pain was most often assessed as an outcome, suggesting a mismatch between what clinicians aim to achieve and what they measure. The results suggest that reported management strategies are broadly appropriate to long-term musculoskeletal conditions but additional training specific to JHS may be required, particularly in diagnosis and assessment.


Assuntos
Instabilidade Articular/diagnóstico , Instabilidade Articular/reabilitação , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Padrões de Prática Médica , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Síndrome , Reino Unido
20.
Genet Med ; 17(8): 623-9, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25356966

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Detection of copy-number variation (CNV) is important for investigating many genetic disorders. Testing a large clinical cohort by array comparative genomic hybridization provides a deep perspective on the spectrum of pathogenic CNV. In this context, we describe a bioinformatics approach to extract CNV information from whole-exome sequencing and demonstrate its utility in clinical testing. METHODS: Exon-focused arrays and whole-genome chromosomal microarray analysis were used to test 14,228 and 14,000 individuals, respectively. Based on these results, we developed an algorithm to detect deletions/duplications in whole-exome sequencing data and a novel whole-exome array. RESULTS: In the exon array cohort, we observed a positive detection rate of 2.4% (25 duplications, 318 deletions), of which 39% involved one or two exons. Chromosomal microarray analysis identified 3,345 CNVs affecting single genes (18%). We demonstrate that our whole-exome sequencing algorithm resolves CNVs of three or more exons. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate the clinical utility of single-exon resolution in CNV assays. Our whole-exome sequencing algorithm approaches this resolution but is complemented by a whole-exome array to unambiguously identify intragenic CNVs and single-exon changes. These data illustrate the next advancements in CNV analysis through whole-exome sequencing and whole-exome array.Genet Med 17 8, 623-629.


Assuntos
Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Exoma , Algoritmos , Estudos de Coortes , DNA/análise , DNA/sangue , DNA/genética , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA