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1.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176830

RESUMO

Mutations in SQSTM1 are strongly associated with Paget's disease of bone (PDB), but little is known about the clinical characteristics of those with early disease. Radionuclide bone scans, biochemical markers of bone turnover, and clinical characteristics were analyzed in SQSTM1 mutation carriers who took part in the Zoledronic acid in the Prevention of Paget's disease (ZiPP) study. We studied 222 individuals, of whom 54.9% were female, with mean ± SE age of 50.1 ± 0.6 years. Twelve SQSTM1 mutations were observed, including p.Pro392Leu, which was present in 141 of 222 (63.5%) subjects. Bone scan examination revealed evidence of PDB in 20 subjects (9.0%), ten of whom (50%) had a single affected site. Participants with lesions were older than those without lesions but the difference was not significant (53.6 ± 9.1 versus 49.8 ± 8.9; p = .07). The mean age of participants with lesions was not significantly different from the age at which their parents were diagnosed with PDB (55 years versus 59 years, p = .17). All individuals with lesions were asymptomatic. Serum concentrations of total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) normalized to the upper limit of normal in each center were higher in those with lesions (0.75 ± 0.69 versus 0.42 ± 0.29 arbitary units; p < .0001). Similar findings were observed for other biochemical markers of bone turnover, but the sensitivity of ALP and other markers in detecting lesions was poor. Asymptomatic PDB is present in about 9% of SQSTM1 mutation carriers by the fifth decade. Further follow-up of this cohort will provide important information on the natural history of early PDB and its response to treatment. © 2020 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

2.
Stroke ; 50(12): 3439-3448, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735137

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- This analysis was performed to assess the association between perioperative and clinical variables and the 30-day risk of stroke or death after carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis. Methods- Individual patient-level data from the 5 largest randomized controlled carotid trials were pooled in the Carotid Stenosis Trialists' Collaboration database. A total of 4181 patients who received carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic stenosis per protocol were included. Determinants of outcome included carotid endarterectomy technique, type of anesthesia, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, shunting, antiplatelet medication, and clinical variables. Stroke or death within 30 days after carotid endarterectomy was the primary outcome. Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) were estimated in multilevel multivariable analyses using a Poisson regression model. Results- Mean age was 69.5±9.2 years (70.7% men). The 30-day stroke or death rate was 4.3%. In the multivariable regression analysis, local anesthesia was associated with a lower primary outcome rate (versus general anesthesia; aRR, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.50-0.99]). Shunting (aRR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.05-1.95]), a contralateral high-grade carotid stenosis or occlusion (aRR, 1.58 [95% CI, 1.02-2.47]), and a more severe neurological deficit (mRS, 3-5 versus 0-2: aRR, 2.51 [95% CI, 1.30-4.83]) were associated with higher primary outcome rates. None of the other characteristics were significantly associated with the perioperative stroke or death risk. Conclusions- The current results indicate lower perioperative stroke or death rates in patients operated upon under local anesthesia, whereas a more severe neurological deficit and a contralateral high-grade carotid stenosis or occlusion were identified as potential risk factors. Despite a possible selection bias and patients not having been randomized, these findings might be useful to guide surgeons and anesthetists when treating patients with symptomatic carotid disease.

3.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e030689, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488492

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is characterised by increased and disorganised bone remodelling affecting one or more skeletal sites. Complications include bone pain, deformity, deafness and pathological fractures. Mutations in sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1) are strongly associated with the development of PDB. Bisphosphonate therapy can improve bone pain in PDB, but there is no evidence that treatment alters the natural history of PDB or prevents complications. The Zoledronate in the Prevention of Paget's disease trial (ZiPP) will determine if prophylactic therapy with the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (ZA) can delay or prevent the development of PDB in people who carry SQSTM1 mutations. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: People with a family history of PDB aged >30 years who test positive for SQSTM1 mutations are eligible to take part. At the baseline visit, participants will be screened for the presence of bone lesions by radionuclide bone scan. Biochemical markers of bone turnover will be measured and questionnaires completed to assess pain, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), anxiety and depression. Participants will be randomised to receive a single intravenous infusion of 5 mg ZA or placebo and followed up annually for between 4 and 8 years at which point baseline assessments will be repeated. The primary endpoint will be new bone lesions assessed by radionuclide bone scan. Secondary endpoints will include changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover, pain, HRQoL, anxiety, depression and PDB-related skeletal events. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the Fife and Forth Valley Research Ethics Committee on 22 December 2008 (08/S0501/84). Following completion of the trial, a manuscript will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. The results of this trial will inform clinical practice by determining if early intervention with ZA in presymptomatic individuals with SQSTM1 mutations can prevent or slow the development of bone lesions with an adverse event profile that is acceptable. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN11616770.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine whether ticagrelor reduces high-sensitivity troponin I concentrations in patients with established coronary artery disease and high-risk coronary plaque. BACKGROUND: High-risk coronary atherosclerotic plaque is associated with higher plasma troponin concentrations suggesting ongoing myocardial injury that may be a target for dual antiplatelet therapy. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients with multivessel coronary artery disease underwent coronary 18F-fluoride positron emission tomography/coronary computed tomography scanning and measurement of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I. Patients were randomized (1:1) to receive ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily or matched placebo. The primary endpoint was troponin I concentration at 30 days in patients with increased coronary 18F-fluoride uptake. RESULTS: In total, 202 patients were randomized to treatment, and 191 met the pre-specified criteria for inclusion in the primary analysis. In patients with increased coronary 18F-fluoride uptake (120 of 191), there was no evidence that ticagrelor had an effect on plasma troponin concentrations at 30 days (ratio of geometric means for ticagrelor vs. placebo: 1.11; 95% confidence interval: 0.90 to 1.36; p = 0.32). Over 1 year, ticagrelor had no effect on troponin concentrations in patients with increased coronary 18F-fluoride uptake (ratio of geometric means: 0.86; 95% confidence interval: 0.63 to 1.17; p = 0.33). CONCLUSIONS: Dual antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor did not reduce plasma troponin concentrations in patients with high-risk coronary plaque, suggesting that subclinical plaque thrombosis does not contribute to ongoing myocardial injury in this setting. (Dual Antiplatelet Therapy to Reduce Myocardial Injury [DIAMOND]; NCT02110303).

5.
Trials ; 19(1): 25, 2018 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29321053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing demand by non-commercial funders that trialists should provide access to trial data once the primary analysis is completed. This has to take into account concerns about identifying individual trial participants, and the legal and regulatory requirements. METHODS: Using the good practice guideline laid out by the work funded by the Medical Research Council Hubs for Trials Methodology Research (MRC HTMR), we anonymised a dataset from a recently completed trial. Using this example, we present practical guidance on how to anonymise a dataset, and describe rules that could be used on other trial datasets. We describe how these might differ if the trial was to be made freely available to all, or if the data could only be accessed with specific permission and data usage agreements in place. RESULTS: Following the good practice guidelines, we successfully created a controlled access model for trial data sharing. The data were assessed on a case-by-case basis classifying variables as direct, indirect and superfluous identifiers with differing methods of anonymisation assigned depending on the type of identifier. A final dataset was created and checks of the anonymised dataset were applied. Lastly, a procedure for release of the data was implemented to complete the process. CONCLUSIONS: We have implemented a practical solution to the data anonymisation process resulting in a bespoke anonymised dataset for a recently completed trial. We have gained useful learnings in terms of efficiency of the process going forward, the need to balance anonymity with data utilisation and future work that should be undertaken.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Disseminação de Informação , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Anonimização de Dados , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos
6.
Trials ; 18(1): 590, 2017 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29221458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The DAMOCLES project established a widely used Data Monitoring Committee (DMC) Charter for randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Typically, within the UK, the DMC is advisory and recommends to another executive body; the Trial Steering Committee (TSC). Despite the executive role of the TSC, the CONSORT Statement does not explicitly require reporting of TSC activity, although is included as an example of good reporting. A lack of guidance on TSC reporting can impact transparency of trial oversight, ultimately leading to a misunderstanding regarding role and, subsequently, further variation in practice. This review aimed to establish reporting practice of TSC involvement in RCTs, and thus make recommendations for reporting. METHODS: A cohort examination identifying reporting practice was undertaken. The cohort comprised RCTs published in three leading medical journals (the British Medical Journal, The Lancet and the New England Journal of Medicine) within 6 months in 2012 and the full NIHR HTA Monograph series. Details of TSC constitution and impact were extracted from main publications and published supplements. RESULTS: Of 415 publications, 264 were eligible. These were typical in terms of trial design. Variations in reporting between journals and monographs was notable. TSC presence was identified in approximately half of trials (n = 144), of which 109 worked alongside a DMC. No publications justified not convening a TSC. When reported, the role of the committee and examples of impact in design, conduct and analysis were summarised. CONCLUSIONS: We present the first review of reporting TSC activity in the published academic literature. An absence of reporting standards with regards to TSC constitution, activity and impact on trial conduct was identified which can influence transparency of reporting trial oversight. Consistent reporting is vital for the benefits and impact of the TSC role to be understood to support adoption of this oversight structure and reduce global variations in practice.


Assuntos
Comitês Consultivos , Comitês de Monitoramento de Dados de Ensaios Clínicos , Papel Profissional , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Comitês Consultivos/normas , Comitês de Monitoramento de Dados de Ensaios Clínicos/normas , Estudos de Coortes , Consenso , Humanos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências
7.
Am J Epidemiol ; 185(8): 641-649, 2017 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28369174

RESUMO

Incorrectly handling missing data can lead to imprecise and biased estimates. We describe the effect of applying different approaches to handling missing data in an analysis of the association between body mass index and all-cause mortality among people with type 2 diabetes. We used data from the Scottish diabetes register that were linked to hospital admissions data and death registrations. The analysis was based on people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between 2004 and 2011, with follow-up until May 31, 2014. The association between body mass index and mortality was investigated using Cox proportional hazards models. Findings were compared using 4 different missing-data methods: complete-case analysis, 2 multiple-imputation models, and nearest-neighbor imputation. There were 124,451 cases of type 2 diabetes, among which there were 17,085 deaths during 787,275 person-years of follow-up. Patients with missing data (24.8%) had higher mortality than those without missing data (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval: 1.31, 1.41). A U-shaped relationship between body mass index and mortality was observed, with the lowest hazard ratios occurring among moderately obese people, regardless of the chosen approach for handling missing data. Missing data may affect absolute and relative risk estimates differently and should be considered in analyses of routinely collected data.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Mortalidade , Idoso , Viés , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Escócia/epidemiologia
8.
Trials ; 17(1): 579, 2016 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27923390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency department attendances with chest pain requiring assessment for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are a major global health issue. Standard assessment includes history, examination, electrocardiogram (ECG) and serial troponin testing. Computerised tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) enables additional anatomical assessment of patients for coronary artery disease (CAD) but has only been studied in very low-risk patients. This trial aims to investigate the effect of early CTCA upon interventions, event rates and health care costs in patients with suspected/confirmed ACS who are at intermediate risk. METHODS/DESIGN: Participants will be recruited in about 35 tertiary and district general hospitals in the UK. Patients ≥18 years old with symptoms with suspected/confirmed ACS with at least one of the following will be included: (1) ECG abnormalities, e.g. ST-segment depression >0.5 mm; (2) history of ischaemic heart disease; (3) troponin elevation above the 99th centile of the normal reference range or increase in high-sensitivity troponin meeting European Society of Cardiology criteria for 'rule-in' of myocardial infarction (MI). The early use of ≥64-slice CTCA as part of routine assessment will be compared to standard care. The primary endpoint will be 1-year all-cause death or recurrent type 1 or type 4b MI at 1 year, measured as the time to such event. A number of secondary clinical, process and safety endpoints will be collected and analysed. Cost effectiveness will be estimated in terms of the lifetime incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. We plan to recruit 2424 (2500 with ~3% drop-out) evaluable patients (1212 per arm) to have 90% power to detect a 20% versus 15% difference in 1-year death or recurrent type 1 MI or type 4b MI, two-sided p < 0.05. Analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis. The relationship between intervention and the primary outcome will be analysed using Cox proportional hazard regression adjusted for study site (used to stratify the randomisation), age, baseline Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events score, previous CAD and baseline troponin level. The results will be expressed as a hazard ratio with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals and p value. DISCUSSION: The Rapid Assessment of Potential Ischaemic Heart Disease with CTCA (RAPID-CTCA) trial will recruit 2500 participants across about 35 hospital sites. It will be the first study to investigate the role of CTCA in the early assessment of patients with suspected or confirmed ACS who are at intermediate risk and including patients who have raised troponin measurements during initial assessment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN19102565 . Registered on 3 October 2014. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02284191.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/economia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Protocolos Clínicos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/economia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Circulação Coronária , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Custos Hospitalares , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido
9.
PLoS One ; 11(4): e0153037, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27070434

RESUMO

Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) affects 2.1-24% of women. Frequently, no underlying pathology is identified, and the pain is difficult to manage. Gabapentin is prescribed for CPP despite no robust evidence of efficacy. We performed a pilot trial in two UK centres to inform the planning of a future multicentre RCT to evaluate gabapentin in CPP management. Our primary objective was to determine levels of participant recruitment and retention. Secondary objectives included estimating potential effectiveness, acceptability to participants of trial methodology, and cost-effectiveness of gabapentin. Women with CPP and no obvious pelvic pathology were assigned to an increasing regimen of gabapentin (300-2700 mg daily) or placebo. We calculated the proportion of eligible women randomised, and of randomised participants who were followed up to six months. The analyses by treatment group were by intention-to-treat. Interviews were conducted to evaluate women's experiences of the trial. A probabilistic decision analytical model was used to estimate cost-effectiveness. Between September 2012-2013, 47 women (34% of those eligible) were randomised (22 to gabapentin, 25 to placebo), and 25 (53%) completed six-month follow-up. Participants on gabapentin had less pain (BPI difference 1.72 points, 95% CI:0.07-3.36), and an improvement in mood (HADS difference 4.35 points, 95% CI:1.97-6.73) at six months than those allocated placebo. The majority of participants described their trial experience favorably. At the UK threshold for willingness-to-pay, the probabilities of gabapentin or no treatment being cost-effective are similar. A pilot trial assessing gabapentin for CPP was feasible, but uncertainty remains, highlighting the need for a large definitive trial.


Assuntos
Aminas/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Cicloexanocarboxílicos/uso terapêutico , Dor Pélvica/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminas/economia , Analgésicos/economia , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Crônica/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Ácidos Cicloexanocarboxílicos/economia , Feminino , Gabapentina , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pélvica/economia , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/economia
10.
Trials ; 16: 597, 2015 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26715378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The independent oversight of clinical trials, which is recommended by the Medical Research Council (MRC) Guidelines for Good Clinical Practice, is typically provided by an independent advisory Data Monitoring Committee (DMC) and an independent executive committee, to whom the DMC makes recommendations. The detailed roles and function of this executive committee, known as the Trial Steering Committee (TSC), have not previously been studied or reviewed since those originally proposed by the MRC in 1998. METHODS: An expert panel (n = 7) was convened comprising statisticians, clinicians and trial methodologists with prior TSC experience. Twelve questions about the role and responsibilities of the TSC were discussed by the panel at two full-day meetings. Each meeting was transcribed in full and the discussions were summarised. RESULTS: The expert panel reached agreement on the role of the TSC, to which it was accountable, the membership, the definition of independence, and the experience and training needed. The management of ethical issues, difficult/complex situations and issues the TSC should not ask the DMC to make recommendations on were more difficult to discuss without specific examples, but support existed for further work to help share issues and to provide appropriate training for TSC members. Additional topics discussed, which had not been identified by previous work relating to the DMCs but were pertinent to the role of the TSC, included the following: review of data sharing requests, indemnity, lifespan of the TSC, general TSC administration, and the roles of both the Funder and the Sponsor. CONCLUSIONS: This paper presents recommendations that will contribute to the revision and update of the MRC TSC terms of reference. Uncertainty remains in some areas due to the absence of real-life examples; future guidance on these issues would benefit from a repository of case studies. Notably, the role of a patient and public involvement (PPI) contributor was not discussed, and further work is warranted to explore the role of a PPI contributor in independent trial oversight.


Assuntos
Comitês Consultivos/normas , Comitês de Monitoramento de Dados de Ensaios Clínicos/normas , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Membro de Comitê , Papel Profissional , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Pesquisadores/normas , Comitês Consultivos/economia , Comitês Consultivos/ética , Comitês de Monitoramento de Dados de Ensaios Clínicos/economia , Comitês de Monitoramento de Dados de Ensaios Clínicos/ética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/economia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/ética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Conflito de Interesses , Consenso , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisadores/economia , Pesquisadores/ética , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Health Technol Assess ; 19(71): i-xxiii, 1-172, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26364905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no randomised trials of peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) targets in acute respiratory infection. Two national guidelines recommended different targets for the management of acute viral bronchiolitis. OBJECTIVES: To compare the American Academy of Pediatrics guideline target of SpO2 ≥ 90% with the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network target of SpO2 ≥ 94%. DESIGN: A multicentre, parallel-group, double-blind, randomised controlled, equivalence trial with economic evaluation. SETTING: Eight paediatric hospital departments in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: Infants > 6 weeks and ≤ 12 months of age (corrected for prematurity) with physician-diagnosed bronchiolitis admitted to hospital from a paediatric emergency assessment area. Follow-up for 6 months by standardised telephone contacts. INTERVENTION: Infants were randomised to a target oxygen saturation of ≥ 94% (standard care) or ≥ 90% (modified care) displayed by a pulse saturation oximeter (Masimo Corporation Limited, CA, USA). ROUTINE CARE: All infants received routine care in addition to the study intervention. Infants were eligible for discharge when they exhibited a SpO2 of ≥ 94% in room air for 4 hours including a period of sleep and were also feeding adequately (≥ 75% usual volume). PRIMARY OUTCOME: A total of 615 infants were recruited, of whom 308 were allocated to the standard care group and 307 to the modified care group. The primary outcome was time to cough resolution. There was equivalence at the prespecified variance of ± 2 days [time to cough resolution: standard care group, 15 days; modified care group, 15 days; median difference 1 day (benefit modified), 95% confidence interval (CI) -1 to 2 days]. SECONDARY RESULTS: Return to adequate feeding occurred sooner in infants in the modified care group than in those in the standard care group (19.5 vs. 24.1 hours). This difference was non-equivalent [median difference 2.7 hours (95% CI -0.3 to 7.0 hours) versus prespecified ± 4 hours; post-hoc hazard ratio 1.22 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.44 (p-value = 0.015)]. Parent perspective of the time taken to return to normal was not equivalent, being 12 days in the standard care group compared with 11 days in the modified care group [median difference 1.0 day (95% CI 0.0 to 3.0 days) versus prespecified ± 2 days; post-hoc hazard ratio 1.19 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.41); p-value = 0.043]. At 28 days, SpO2 was equivalent [mean difference 0.11% (95% CI -0.35% to 0.57%), within the 1% prespecified]. The modified care group (55.6%) required oxygen less than the standard care group (73.1%), and for a shorter period (5.7 hours vs. 27.6 hours). Infants in the modified care group were fit for discharge (30.2 hours vs. 44.2 hours, hazard ratio 1.46, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.73; p-value < 0.001) and were discharged (40.9 hours vs. 50.9 hours; hazard ratio 1.28, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.50; p-value < 0.003) sooner than those in the standard care group. There were 35 serious adverse events in the standard care group, compared with 25 in the modified care group. Eight infants in the standard care group and 12 in the modified care group were admitted to a high-dependency unit. By 28 days, 23 infants had been readmitted to hospital in the standard care group and 12 infants in the modified care group. Parents of infants in the modified care group did not experience higher levels of anxiety and, by 14 days, had lost 28% fewer hours to usual activities. NHS costs were £290 lower in the modified care group than in the standard care group, with additional societal costs also being lower in the modified care group. CONCLUSIONS: Management of infants to a SpO2 target of ≥ 90% is as clinically effective as ≥ 94%, gives rise to no additional safety concerns, and appears to be cost-effective. Future work could focus on the safety and effectiveness of using intermittent oxygen saturation monitoring in secondary care, and to consider what are safe and effective oxygen saturation targets for children with bronchiolitis managed in primary care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered as ISRCTN28405428. FUNDING: This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme. Masimo Corporation Limited, CA, USA, kindly provided oxygen saturation monitors with standard and altered algorithms.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite Viral/terapia , Oximetria/métodos , Bronquiolite Viral/sangue , Análise Custo-Benefício , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Alta do Paciente , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Equivalência Terapêutica , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Lancet ; 386(9998): 1041-8, 2015 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26382998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a permissive hypoxaemic target for an oxygen saturation of 90% for children with bronchiolitis, which is consistent with the WHO recommendations for targets in children with lower respiratory tract infections. No evidence exists to support this threshold. We aimed to assess whether the 90% or higher target for management of oxygen supplementation was equivalent to a normoxic 94% or higher target for infants admitted to hospital with viral bronchiolitis. METHODS: We did a parallel-group, randomised, controlled, equivalence trial of infants aged 6 weeks to 12 months of age with physician-diagnosed bronchiolitis newly admitted into eight paediatric hospital units in the UK (the Bronchiolitis of Infancy Discharge Study [BIDS]). A central computer randomly allocated (1:1) infants, in varying length blocks of four and six and without stratification, to be clipped to standard oximeters (patients treated with oxygen if pulse oxygen saturation [SpO2] <94%) or modified oximeters (displayed a measured value of 90% as 94%, therefore oxygen not given until SpO2 <90%). All parents, clinical staff, and outcome assessors were masked to allocation. The primary outcome was time to resolution of cough (prespecified equivalence limits of plus or minus 2 days) in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN28405428. FINDINGS: Between Oct 3, and March 30, 2012, and Oct 1, and March 29, 2013, we randomly assigned 308 infants to standard oximeters and 307 infants to modified oximeters. Cough resolved by 15·0 days (median) in both groups (95% CI for difference -1 to 2) and so oxygen thresholds were equivalent. We recorded 35 serious adverse events in 32 infants in the standard care group and 25 serious adverse events in 24 infants in the modified care group. In the standard care group, eight infants transferred to a high-dependency unit, 23 were readmitted, and one had a prolonged hospital stay. In the modified care group, 12 infants were transferred to a high-dependency unit and 12 were readmitted to hospital. Recorded adverse events did not differ significantly. INTERPRETATION: Management of infants with bronchiolitis to an oxygen saturation target of 90% or higher is as safe and clinically effective as one of 94% or higher. Future research should assess the benefits and risks of different oxygen saturation targets in acute respiratory infection in older children, particularly in developing nations where resources are scarce. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research, Health Technology Assessment programme.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite Viral/sangue , Bronquiolite Viral/terapia , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Oxigênio/sangue , Bronquiolite Viral/complicações , Tosse/virologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Oximetria/métodos , Oxigenoterapia/efeitos adversos , Pressão Parcial , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Clin Trials ; 12(6): 664-76, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26085545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Medical Research Council Guidelines for Good Clinical Practice outlines a three-committee trial oversight structure--the day-to-day Trial Management Group, the Data Monitoring Committee and the Trial Steering Committee. In this model, the Trial Steering Committee is the executive committee that oversees the trial and considers the recommendations from the Data Monitoring Committee. There is yet to be in-depth consideration establishing the Trial Steering Committee's role and functionality. METHODS: A survey to establish Trial Steering Committee's current practices, role and the use and opinion on the Medical Research Council guidelines was undertaken within UK Clinical Research Collaborative registered Clinical Trials Units. RESULTS: Completed surveys were obtained from 38 of 47 fully and partially registered Units. Individual items in the survey were analysed and reported spanning current Trial Steering Committee practices including its role, requirement and experience required for membership; methods to identify members; and meeting frequency. Terms (a document describing the committee's remit, objectives and functionality) were obtained and analysed from 21 of 33 Units with documents in place at their Unit. A total of 20 responders suggested aspects of the current Medical Research Council Guidelines that need improvement. CONCLUSION: We present the first survey reporting on practices within UK Clinical Research Collaborative registered Clinical Trials Units on the experience and remits of Trial Steering Committees. We have identified a widespread adoption of Medical Research Council Guidelines for Trial Steering Committees in the United Kingdom, but limitations in this existing provision have been identified that need to be addressed.


Assuntos
Comitês Consultivos , Consenso , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Open Heart ; 2(1): e000234, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26019881

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Observer variability can influence the assessment of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) and the subsequent diagnosis of angina pectoris due to coronary heart disease. METHODS: We assessed 210 CTCAs from the Scottish COmputed Tomography of the HEART (SCOT-HEART) trial for intraobserver and interobserver variability. Calcium score, coronary angiography and image quality were evaluated. Coronary artery disease was defined as none (<10%), mild (10-49%), moderate (50-70%) and severe (>70%) luminal stenosis and classified as no (<10%), non-obstructive (10-70%) or obstructive (>70%) coronary artery disease. Post-CTCA diagnosis of angina pectoris due to coronary heart disease was classified as yes, probable, unlikely or no. RESULTS: Patients had a mean body mass index of 29 (28, 30) kg/m(2), heart rate of 58 (57, 60)/min and 62% were men. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements for the presence or absence of coronary artery disease were excellent (95% agreement, κ 0.884 (0.817 to 0.951) and good (91%, 0.791 (0.703 to 0.879)). Intraobserver and interobserver agreement for the presence or absence of angina pectoris due to coronary heart disease were excellent (93%, 0.842 (0.918 to 0.755) and good (86%, 0.701 (0.799 to 0.603)), respectively. Observer variability of calcium score was excellent for calcium scores below 1000. More segments were categorised as uninterpretable with 64-multidetector compared to 320-multidetector CTCA (10.1% vs 2.6%, p<0.001) but there was no difference in observer variability. CONCLUSIONS: Multicentre multidetector CTCA has excellent agreement in patients under investigation for suspected angina due to coronary heart disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01149590.

15.
PLoS One ; 9(3): e89809, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24608161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There are no long-term medical treatments for uterine fibroids, and non-invasive biomarkers are needed to evaluate novel therapeutic interventions. The aim of this study was to determine whether serial dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and magnetization transfer MRI (MT-MRI) are able to detect changes that accompany volume reduction in patients administered GnRH analogue drugs, a treatment which is known to reduce fibroid volume and perfusion. Our secondary aim was to determine whether rapid suppression of ovarian activity by combining GnRH agonist and antagonist therapies results in faster volume reduction. METHODS: Forty women were assessed for eligibility at gynaecology clinics in the region, of whom thirty premenopausal women scheduled for hysterectomy due to symptomatic fibroids were randomized to three groups, receiving (1) GnRH agonist (Goserelin), (2) GnRH agonist+GnRH antagonist (Goserelin and Cetrorelix) or (3) no treatment. Patients were monitored by serial structural, DCE-MRI and MT-MRI, as well as by ultrasound and serum oestradiol concentration measurements from enrolment to hysterectomy (approximately 3 months). RESULTS: A volumetric treatment effect assessed by structural MRI occurred by day 14 of treatment (9% median reduction versus 9% increase in untreated women; P = 0.022) and persisted throughout. Reduced fibroid perfusion and permeability assessed by DCE-MRI occurred later and was demonstrable by 2-3 months (43% median reduction versus 20% increase respectively; P = 0.0093). There was no apparent treatment effect by MT-MRI. Effective suppression of oestradiol was associated with early volume reduction at days 14 (P = 0.041) and 28 (P = 0.0061). CONCLUSION: DCE-MRI is sensitive to the vascular changes thought to accompany successful GnRH analogue treatment of uterine fibroids and should be considered for use in future mechanism/efficacy studies of proposed fibroid drug therapies. GnRH antagonist administration does not appear to accelerate volume reduction, though our data do support the role of oestradiol suppression in GnRH analogue treatment of fibroids. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00746031.


Assuntos
Leiomioma/tratamento farmacológico , Leiomioma/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias Uterinas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Uterinas/patologia , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Menopausa , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Lancet ; 383(9918): 697-704, 2014 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24290406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paracetamol poisoning is common worldwide. It is treated with intravenous acetylcysteine, but the standard regimen is complex and associated with frequent adverse effects related to concentration, which can cause treatment interruption. We aimed to ascertain whether adverse effects could be reduced with either a shorter modified acetylcysteine schedule, antiemetic pretreatment, or both. METHODS: We undertook a double-blind, randomised factorial study at three UK hospitals, between Sept 6, 2010, and Dec 31, 2012. We randomly allocated patients with acute paracetamol overdose to either the standard intravenous acetylcysteine regimen (duration 20·25 h) or a shorter (12 h) modified protocol, with or without intravenous ondansetron pretreatment (4 mg). Masking was achieved by infusion of 5% dextrose (during acetylcysteine delivery) or saline (for antiemetic pretreatment). Randomisation was done via the internet and included a minimisation procedure by prognostic factors. The primary outcome was absence of vomiting, retching, or need for rescue antiemetic treatment at 2 h. Prespecified secondary outcomes included a greater than 50% increase in alanine aminotransferase activity over the admission value. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier NCT01050270). FINDINGS: Of 222 patients who underwent randomisation, 217 were assessable 2 h after the start of acetylcysteine treatment. Vomiting, retching, or need for rescue antiemetic treatment at 2 h was reported in 39 of 108 patients assigned to the shorter modified protocol compared with 71 of 109 allocated to the standard acetylcysteine regimen (adjusted odds ratio 0·26, 97·5% CI 0·13-0·52; p<0·0001), and in 45 of 109 patients who received ondansetron compared with 65 of 108 allocated placebo (0·41, 0·20-0·80; p=0·003). Severe anaphylactoid reactions were recorded in five patients assigned to the shorter modified acetylcysteine regimen versus 31 who were allocated to the standard protocol (adjusted common odds ratio 0·23, 97·5% CI 0·12-0·43; p<0·0001). The proportion of patients with a 50% increase in alanine aminotransferase activity did not differ between the standard (9/110) and shorter modified (13/112) regimens (adjusted odds ratio 0·60, 97·5% CI 0·20-1·83); however, the proportion was higher with ondansetron (16/111) than with placebo (6/111; 3·30, 1·01-10·72; p=0·024). INTERPRETATION: In patients with paracetamol poisoning, a 12 h modified acetylcysteine regimen resulted in less vomiting, fewer anaphylactoid reactions, and reduced need for treatment interruption. This study was not powered to detect non-inferiority of the shorter protocol versus the standard approach; therefore, further research is needed to confirm the efficacy of the 12 h modified acetylcysteine regimen. FUNDING: Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/antagonistas & inibidores , Acetaminofen/envenenamento , Acetilcisteína/efeitos adversos , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Ondansetron/administração & dosagem , Vômito/prevenção & controle , Acetilcisteína/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Falência Hepática Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Falência Hepática Aguda/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/prevenção & controle , Envenenamento/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , Vômito/induzido quimicamente
17.
Syst Rev ; 2: 80, 2013 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24280020

RESUMO

The Statistical Methods Group has played a pivotal role in The Cochrane Collaboration over the past 20 years. The Statistical Methods Group has determined the direction of statistical methods used within Cochrane reviews, developed guidance for these methods, provided training, and continued to discuss and consider new and controversial issues in meta-analysis. The contribution of Statistical Methods Group members to the meta-analysis literature has been extensive and has helped to shape the wider meta-analysis landscape.In this paper, marking the 20th anniversary of The Cochrane Collaboration, we reflect on the history of the Statistical Methods Group, beginning in 1993 with the identification of aspects of statistical synthesis for which consensus was lacking about the best approach. We highlight some landmark methodological developments that Statistical Methods Group members have contributed to in the field of meta-analysis. We discuss how the Group implements and disseminates statistical methods within The Cochrane Collaboration. Finally, we consider the importance of robust statistical methodology for Cochrane systematic reviews, note research gaps, and reflect on the challenges that the Statistical Methods Group faces in its future direction.


Assuntos
Serviços de Informação/história , Metanálise como Assunto , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Estatística como Assunto/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Serviços de Informação/organização & administração , Estatística como Assunto/métodos , Estatística como Assunto/normas
18.
Res Synth Methods ; 4(4): 342-50, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26053947

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Meta-analyses are regularly used to inform healthcare decisions. Concerns have been expressed about the quality of meta-analyses and, in particular, about those supported by the pharmaceutical industry. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to compare the quality of pharmaceutical-industry-supported meta-analyses with academic meta-analyses and of meta-analyses published before and after companies started to disclose their data. DATA SOURCES: We identified industry-supported meta-analyses by searching the Scopus bibliographic database, using author affiliations. We matched each industry-supported meta-analysis with an academic meta-analysis using high-level MeSH terms in PubMed. STUDY SELECTION: We included meta-analyses of randomized trials assessing the efficacy or safety of any pharmaceutical intervention in humans, published in 2002-2004 or 2008-2009. Cochrane reviews were excluded. Two individuals independently selected papers, with discrepancies resolved by two further individuals. ASSESSMENT: We developed and piloted a quality-assessment tool, consisting of 43 questions in four domains, with a key summary question covering each domain. Two individuals independently assessed each meta-analysis. RESULTS: We examined 126 meta-analysis publications in 63 matched pairs. The average quality was low, with fewer than 50% adequate in three of the four domains. Industry-supported meta-analyses less often demonstrated adequate methods for locating studies and assessing their quality (odds ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.21 to 0.92), for analysing the included studies (0.52, 0.25 to 1.06), for undertaking meta-analyses (0.82, 0.40 to 1.68) and in reaching sound conclusions (0.62, 0.30 to 1.28). Quality generally improved over time, particularly for some aspects of industry reports. CONCLUSIONS: Academic meta-analysis papers are generally of higher quality than industry-supported ones. This is largely due to less detailed reporting in industry-supported meta-analyses and a tendency for them to take the included studies at face value, probably arising from the implicit assumption that these studies already have high methodological standards to meet licensing requirements. The improved quality over time does not appear to be due to the use of data disclosed by industry. The main limitations of this study are the small sample of papers and the subjective nature of some of the assessment processes.


Assuntos
Análise por Pareamento , Metanálise como Assunto , Academias e Institutos , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Indústria Farmacêutica , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto
19.
Res Synth Methods ; 4(4): 351-66, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26053948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because meta-analyses are increasingly prevalent and cited in the medical literature, it is important that tools are available to assess their methodological quality. When performing an empirical study of the quality of published meta-analyses, we found that existing tools did not place a strong emphasis on statistical and interpretational issues. METHODS: We developed a quality-assessment tool using existing materials and expert judgment as a starting point, followed by multiple iterations of input from our working group, piloting, and discussion. After having used the tool for our empirical study, agreement for four key items in the tool was measured using weighted kappa coefficients. RESULTS: Our tool contained 43 items divided into four key areas (data sources, analysis of individual studies, meta-analysis methods, and interpretation), and each area ended with a summary question. We also produced guidance for completing the tool. Agreement between raters was fair to moderate. CONCLUSIONS: The tool should usefully inform subsequent initiatives to develop quality-assessment tools for meta-analysis. We advocate use of consensus between independent raters when assessing statistical appropriateness and adequacy of interpretation in meta-analyses.


Assuntos
Metanálise como Assunto , Viés , Bioestatística , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos
20.
Trials ; 13: 184, 2012 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23036114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid access chest pain clinics have facilitated the early diagnosis and treatment of patients with coronary heart disease and angina. Despite this important service provision, coronary heart disease continues to be under-diagnosed and many patients are left untreated and at risk. Recent advances in imaging technology have now led to the widespread use of noninvasive computed tomography, which can be used to measure coronary artery calcium scores and perform coronary angiography in one examination. However, this technology has not been robustly evaluated in its application to the clinic. METHODS/DESIGN: The SCOT-HEART study is an open parallel group prospective multicentre randomized controlled trial of 4,138 patients attending the rapid access chest pain clinic for evaluation of suspected cardiac chest pain. Following clinical consultation, participants will be approached and randomized 1:1 to receive standard care or standard care plus ≥64-multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography and coronary calcium score. Randomization will be conducted using a web-based system to ensure allocation concealment and will incorporate minimization. The primary endpoint of the study will be the proportion of patients diagnosed with angina pectoris secondary to coronary heart disease at 6 weeks. Secondary endpoints will include the assessment of subsequent symptoms, diagnosis, investigation and treatment. In addition, long-term health outcomes, safety endpoints, such as radiation dose, and health economic endpoints will be assessed. Assuming a clinic rate of 27.0% for the diagnosis of angina pectoris due to coronary heart disease, we will need to recruit 2,069 patients per group to detect an absolute increase of 4.0% in the rate of diagnosis at 80% power and a two-sided P value of 0.05. The SCOT-HEART study is currently recruiting participants and expects to report in 2014. DISCUSSION: This is the first study to look at the implementation of computed tomography in the patient care pathway that is outcome focused. This study will have major implications for the management of patients with cardiovascular disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01149590.


Assuntos
Angina Pectoris/diagnóstico por imagem , Serviço Hospitalar de Cardiologia , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Projetos de Pesquisa , Angina Pectoris/etiologia , Angina Pectoris/terapia , Protocolos Clínicos , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Doença das Coronárias/terapia , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Escócia , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento
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