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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3080, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555154

RESUMO

The exact chemical structure of non-crystallising natural products is still one of the main challenges in Natural Sciences. Despite tremendous advances in total synthesis, the absolute structural determination of a myriad of natural products with very sensitive chemical functionalities remains undone. Here, we show that a metal-organic framework (MOF) with alcohol-containing arms and adsorbed water, enables selective hydrolysis of glycosyl bonds, supramolecular order with the so-formed chiral fragments and absolute determination of the organic structure by single-crystal X-ray crystallography in a single operation. This combined strategy based on a biomimetic, cheap, robust and multigram available solid catalyst opens the door to determine the absolute configuration of ketal compounds regardless degradation sensitiveness, and also to design extremely-mild metal-free solid-catalysed processes without formal acid protons.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Hidrolases/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Adsorção , Álcoois/química , Catálise , Cristalografia por Raios X , Glicólise , Hidrólise , Cinética , Metais , Conformação Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Porosidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Difração de Raios X
2.
ChemCatChem ; 12(8): 2226-2232, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421028

RESUMO

The substitution of catalytic metals by p-block main elements has a tremendous impact not only in the fundamentals but also in the economic and ecological fingerprint of organic reactions. Here we show that few-layer black phosphorous (FL-BP), a recently discovered and now readily available 2D material, catalyzes different radical additions to alkenes with an initial turnover frequency (TOF0) up to two orders of magnitude higher than representative state-of-the-art metal complex catalysts at room temperature. The corresponding electron-rich BP intercalation compound (BPIC) KP6 shows a nearly twice TOF0 increase with respect to FL-BP. This increase in catalytic activity respect to the neutral counterpart also occurs in other 2D materials (graphene vs. KC8) and metal complex catalysts (Fe0 vs. Fe2- carbon monoxide complexes). This reactive parallelism opens the door for cross-fertilization between 2D materials and metal catalysts in organic synthesis.

3.
Acc Chem Res ; 53(2): 520-531, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027486

RESUMO

Since the advent of the first metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), we have witnessed an explosion of captivating architectures with exciting physicochemical properties and applications in a wide range of fields. This, in part, can be understood under the light of their rich host-guest chemistry and the possibility to use single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD) as a basic characterization tool. Moreover, chemistry on preformed MOFs, applying recent developments in template-directed synthesis and postsynthetic methodologies (PSMs), has shown to be a powerful synthetic tool to (i) tailor MOFs channels of known topology via single-crystal to single-crystal (SC-SC) processes, (ii) impart higher degrees of complexity and heterogeneity within them, and most importantly, (iii) improve their capabilities toward applications with respect to the parent MOFs. However, the unique properties of MOFs have been, somehow, limited and underestimated. This is clearly reflected on the use of MOFs as chemical nanoreactors, which has been barely uncovered. In this Account, we bring together our recent advances on the construction of MOFs with appealing properties to act as chemical nanoreactors and be used to synthesize and stabilize, within their channels, catalytically active species that otherwise could be hardly accessible. First, through two relevant examples, we present the potential of the metalloligand approach to build highly robust and crystalline oxamato- and oxamidato-MOFs with tailored channels, in terms of size, charge and functionality. These are initial requisites to have a playground where we can develop and fully take advantage of singular properties of MOFs as well as visualize/understand the processes that take place within MOFs pores and somehow make structure-functionalities correlations and develop more performant MOFs nanoreactors. Then, we describe how to exploit the unique and singular features that offer each of these MOFs confined space for (i) the incorporation and stabilization of metals salts and complexes, (ii) the in situ stepwise synthesis of subnanometric metal clusters (SNMCs), and (iii) the confined-space self-assembly of supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs), by means of PSMs and underpinned by SC-XRD. The strategy outlined here has led to unique rewards such as the highly challenging gram-scale preparation of stable and well-defined ligand-free SNMCs, exhibiting outstanding catalytic activities, and the preparation of unique SCCs, different to those assembled in solution, with enhanced stabilities, catalytic activities, recyclabilities, and selectivities. The results presented in this Accounts are just a few recent examples, but highly encouraging, of the large potential way of MOFs acting as chemical nanoreactors. More work is needed to found the boundaries and fully understand the chemistry in the confined space. In this sense, mastering the synthetic chemistry of discrete organic molecules and inorganic complexes has basically changed our way of live. Thus, achieving the same degree of control on extended hybrid networks will open new frontiers of knowledge with unforeseen possibilities. We aim to stimulate the interest of researchers working in broadly different fields to fully unleash the host-guest chemistry in MOFs as chemical nanoreactors with exclusive functional species.

4.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(10): 3846-3849, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538394

RESUMO

The carbonyl-olefin metathesis reaction has experienced significant advances in the last seven years with new catalysts and reaction protocols. However, most of these procedures involve soluble catalysts for intramolecular reactions in batch. Herein, we show that recoverable, inexpensive, easy to handle, non-toxic, and widely available simple solid acids, such as the aluminosilicate montmorillonite, can catalyze the intermolecular carbonyl-olefin metathesis of aromatic ketones and aldehydes with vinyl ethers in-flow, to give alkenes with complete trans stereoselectivity on multi-gram scale and high yields. Experimental and computational data support a mechanism based on a carbocation-induced Grob fragmentation. These results open the way for the industrial implementation of carbonyl-olefin metathesis over solid catalysts in continuous mode, which is still the origin and main application of the parent alkene-alkene cross-metathesis.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(26): 10350-10360, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194534

RESUMO

Supramolecular coordination compounds (SCCs) represent the power of coordination chemistry methodologies to self-assemble discrete architectures with targeted properties. SCCs are generally synthesized in solution, with isolated fully coordinated metal atoms as structural nodes, thus severely limited as metal-based catalysts. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) show unique features to act as chemical nanoreactors for the in situ synthesis and stabilization of otherwise not accessible functional species. Here, we present the self-assembly of PdII SCCs within the confined space of a pre-formed MOF (SCCs@MOF) and its post-assembly metalation to give a PdII-AuIII supramolecular assembly, crystallography underpinned. These SCCs@MOFs catalyze the coupling of boronic acids and/or alkynes, representative multi-site metal-catalyzed reactions in which traditional SCCs tend to decompose, and retain their structural integrity as a consequence of the synergetic hybridization between SCCs and MOFs. These results open new avenues in both the synthesis of novel SCCs and their use in heterogeneous metal-based supramolecular catalysis.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 509, 2019 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705264

RESUMO

Group 15 elements in zero oxidation state (P, As, Sb and Bi), also called pnictogens, are rarely used in catalysis due to the difficulties associated in preparing well-structured and stable materials. Here, we report on the synthesis of highly exfoliated, few layer 2D phosphorene and antimonene in zero oxidation state, suspended in an ionic liquid, with the native atoms ready to interact with external reagents while avoiding aerobic or aqueous decomposition pathways, and on their use as efficient catalysts for the alkylation of nucleophiles with esters. The few layer pnictogen material circumvents the extremely harsh reaction conditions associated to previous superacid-catalyzed alkylations, by enabling an alternative mechanism on surface, protected from the water and air by the ionic liquid. These 2D catalysts allow the alkylation of a variety of acid-sensitive organic molecules and giving synthetic relevancy to the use of simple esters as alkylating agents.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(5): 1928-1940, 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640461

RESUMO

The assumption that oxidative addition is the key step during the cross-coupling reaction of aryl halides has led to the development of a plethora of increasingly complex metal catalysts, thereby obviating in many cases the exact influence of the base, which is a simple, inexpensive, and necessary reagent for this paramount transformation. Here, a combined experimental and computational study shows that the oxidative addition is not the single kinetically relevant step in different cross-coupling reactions catalyzed by sub-nanometer Pt or Pd species, since the reactivity control is shifted toward subtle changes in the base. The exposed metal atoms in the cluster cooperate to enable an extremely easy oxidative addition of the aryl halide, even chlorides, and allow the base to bifurcate the coupling. With sub-nanometer Pd species, amines drive to the Heck reaction, carbonate drives to the Sonogahira reaction, and phosphate drives to the Suzuki reaction, while for Pt clusters and single atoms, good conversion is only achieved using acetate as a base. This base-controlled orthogonal reactivity with ligand-free catalysts opens new avenues in the design of cross-coupling reactions in organic synthesis.

8.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(17): 5763-5768, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30675972

RESUMO

The chemical bulk reductive covalent functionalization of thin-layer black phosphorus (BP) using BP intercalation compounds has been developed. Through effective reductive activation, covalent functionalization of the charged BP by reaction with organic alkyl halides is achieved. Functionalization was extensively demonstrated by means of several spectroscopic techniques and DFT calculations; the products showed higher functionalization degrees than those obtained by neutral routes.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(52): 17094-17099, 2018 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30398300

RESUMO

The synthesis and reactivity of single metal atoms in a low-valence state bound to just water, rather than to organic ligands or surfaces, is a major experimental challenge. Herein, we show a gram-scale wet synthesis of Pt1 1+ stabilized in a confined space by a crystallographically well-defined first water sphere, and with a second coordination sphere linked to a metal-organic framework (MOF) through electrostatic and H-bonding interactions. The role of the water cluster is not only isolating and stabilizing the Pt atoms, but also regulating the charge of the metal and the adsorption of reactants. This is shown for the low-temperature water-gas shift reaction (WGSR: CO + H2 O → CO2 + H2 ), where both metal coordinated and H-bonded water molecules trigger a double water attack mechanism to CO and give CO2 with both oxygen atoms coming from water. The stabilized Pt1+ single sites allow performing the WGSR at temperatures as low as 50 °C.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(28): 8827-8832, 2018 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29940112

RESUMO

The search for simple, earth-abundant, cheap, and nontoxic metal catalysts able to perform industrial hydrogenations is a topic of interest, transversal to many catalytic processes. Here, we show that isolated FeIII-O sites on solids are able to dissociate and chemoselectively transfer H2 to acetylene in an industrial process. For that, a novel, robust, and highly crystalline metal-organic framework (MOF), embedding FeIII-OH2 single sites within its pores, was prepared in multigram scale and used as an efficient catalyst for the hydrogenation of 1% acetylene in ethylene streams under front-end conditions. Cutting-edge X-ray crystallography allowed the resolution of the crystal structure and snapshotted the single-atom nature of the catalytic FeIII-O site. Translation of the active site concept to even more robust and inexpensive titania and zirconia supports enabled the industrially relevant hydrogenation of acetylene with similar activity to the Pd-catalyzed process.

11.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(21): 6186-6191, 2018 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29600831

RESUMO

The gram-scale synthesis, stabilization, and characterization of well-defined ultrasmall subnanometric catalytic clusters on solids is a challenge. The chemical synthesis and X-ray snapshots of Pt02 clusters, homogenously distributed and densely packaged within the channels of a metal-organic framework, is presented. This hybrid material catalyzes efficiently, and even more importantly from an economic and environmental viewpoint, at low temperature (25 to 140 °C), energetically costly industrial reactions in the gas phase such as HCN production, CO2 methanation, and alkene hydrogenations. These results open the way for the design of precisely defined catalytically active ultrasmall metal clusters in solids for technically easier, cheaper, and dramatically less-dangerous industrial reactions.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(9): 3215-3218, 2018 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460623

RESUMO

The reactive nature of carbenes can be modulated, and ultimately reversed, by receiving additional electron density from a metal. Here, it is shown that Au nanoparticles (NPs) generate an electron-rich carbene on surface after transferring electron density to the carbonyl group of an in situ activated diazoacetate, as assessed by Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR), and Raman spectroscopy. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations support the observed experimental values and unveil the participation of at least three different Au atoms during carbene stabilization. The surface stabilized carbene shows an extraordinary stability against nucleophiles and reacts with electrophiles to give new products. These findings showcase the ability of catalytic Au NPs to inject electron density in energetically high but symmetrically allowed valence orbitals of sluggish molecules.

13.
Nat Mater ; 16(7): 760-766, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604715

RESUMO

The development of catalysts able to assist industrially important chemical processes is a topic of high importance. In view of the catalytic capabilities of small metal clusters, research efforts are being focused on the synthesis of novel catalysts bearing such active sites. Here we report a heterogeneous catalyst consisting of Pd4 clusters with mixed-valence 0/+1 oxidation states, stabilized and homogeneously organized within the walls of a metal-organic framework (MOF). The resulting solid catalyst outperforms state-of-the-art metal catalysts in carbene-mediated reactions of diazoacetates, with high yields (>90%) and turnover numbers (up to 100,000). In addition, the MOF-supported Pd4 clusters retain their catalytic activity in repeated batch and flow reactions (>20 cycles). Our findings demonstrate how this synthetic approach may now instruct the future design of heterogeneous catalysts with advantageous reaction capabilities for other important processes.

14.
Chem Sci ; 8(1): 689-696, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28451218

RESUMO

A new approach is presented to form self-supported bimetallic nanosized solids with acid and redox catalytic properties. They are water-, air- and H2-stable, and are able to activate demanding C-C and C-H reactions. A detailed mechanistic study on the formation of the Ag-Fe bimetallic system shows that a rapid redox-coupled sequence between Ag+, O2 (air) and Fe2+ occurs, giving monodisperse Ag nanoparticles supported by O-bridged diatomic Fe3+ triflimides. The system can be expanded to Ag nanoparticles embedded within a matrix of Cu2+, Bi3+ and Yb3+ triflimide.

15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(23): 6435-6439, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28452171

RESUMO

HCl in solution accepts electron density from Au NPs and partially reduces at room temperature, as occurs with other simple diatomic molecules, such as O2 and H2 . The activation can be run catalytically in the presence of alkynes to give exclusively E-vinyl chlorides, after the regio- and stereoselective transfer of HCl. Based also on this method, vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) can be produced in a milder and greener way than current industrial processes.

16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(6): 1116-1119, 2017 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28054085

RESUMO

The synthesis of ligand-free sub-nanometric metal clusters on a large scale suffers typically from very low yields (<5% yield) and needs very high dilutions. Here we show that Au clusters can be prepared with ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOH), charcoal, and different metal oxides (CeO2, Al2O3, TiO2 and ZnO) in >15% yields, as unambiguously determined using a very simple and extremely sensitive analytical reaction test.

17.
Chemistry ; 23(7): 1702-1708, 2017 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27906484

RESUMO

The Pt-catalyzed hydrosilylation of alkynes is the procedure of choice to obtain vinylsilanes, and is claimed to be the most relevant application of Pt in organic synthesis. More than half a century after its discovery, only ß-vinylsilanes (anti-Markovnikov addition) are obtained with simple Pt catalysts, whereas α-vinylsilanes (Markovnikov addition) remain elusive compounds. Here the catalysis of the Markovnikov hydrosilylation of terminal alkynes by Pt3 clusters, in parts-per-million amounts, to give a wide variety of α-vinylsilanes in reasonable isolated yields and with turnover frequencies that can reach up to one million per hour is reported. Moreover, these α-vinylsilanes are reactive in well-stablished C-C bond-forming cascade reactions, in which the corresponding ß-isomers are unreactive. Besides its efficiency and synthetic usefulness, this catalytic system is an excellent example of how the atom-by-atom aggregation of a catalytic metal leads to a different selectivity for a given reaction.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(25): 7864-7, 2016 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27295383

RESUMO

A novel chiral 3D bioMOF exhibiting functional channels with thio-alkyl chains derived from the natural amino acid l-methionine (1) has been rationally prepared. The well-known strong affinity of gold for sulfur derivatives, together with the extremely high flexibility of the thioether "arms" decorating the channels, account for a selective capture of gold(III) and gold(I) salts in the presence of other metal cations typically found in electronic wastes. The X-ray single-crystal structures of the different gold adsorbates Au(III)@1 and Au(I)@1 suggest that the selective metal capture occurs in a metal ion recognition process somehow mimicking what happens in biological systems and protein receptors. Both Au(III)@1 and Au(I)@1 display high activity as heterogeneous catalyst for the hydroalkoxylation of alkynes, further expanding the application of these novel hybrid materials.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(36): 11832-7, 2015 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26312441

RESUMO

Insoluble precious metal chlorides in polymeric form (i.e., PtCl2, PdCl2, AuCl, RhCl3) are commonly used as catalysts for a plethora of organic reactions in solution. Here we show that only the minor soluble fraction of these precious metal chlorides (typically 5-30%) is catalytically active for the hydroamination, hydroalkoxylation, hydrosilylation, and cycloisomerization of alkynes and alkenes, and that the resting insoluble metal is catalytically useless. To circumvent this waste of precious metal and follow a rational design, we generate here well-dispersed Pt(II) and Pd(II) single sites on zeolite Y, with an exquisite control of the Lewis acidity, to catalyze different hydroaddition reactions to alkynes and alkenes with up to 10(4) catalytic cycles (at least 2 orders of magnitude superior to precious metal chlorides) and with high isolated yields (82-99%, >15 examples).

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