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1.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 102(2): 136-140, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012303

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the efficacy and safety of toripalimab combined with axitinib in the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma. Methods: Clinical data of 50 patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma who received axitinib combined with toripalimab were retrospectively collected from the database of Peking University Cancer Hospital. ORR, DCR, PFS, and OS were analyzed. Results: Among the 50 patients, 37 were males; median age was 56 (22-73) years; 38 were pathologically diagnosed as clear cell renal cell carcinoma and 12 were non-clear cell carcinoma. Common metastatic sites included lung, bone, lymph node, liver, and so on. 90% of the patients had received at least one-line of systemic therapy. With a median follow-up time of 11.9 months (0.8-24), 27 of the 50 patients are still on treatment, ORR was 34%, DCR was 86%, median PFS was 13.1 months (95%CI 5.8-20.4), and median OS has not yet reached. One-year OS rate was 84.6%. Common adverse reactions were proteinuria, diarrhea, hypertension, abnormal thyroid function, elevated transaminase, and hand-foot syndrome. Most adverse events were grade 1-2. Conclusion: Toripalimab combined with axitinib was efficient in the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma, and had manageable adverse reactions.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos , Axitinibe , Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Axitinibe/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 45(1): 106-110, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000315

RESUMO

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare respiratory disease, but this disease has slow research progress. Animal model is an effective tool for basic research. Current PAP animal models are based on the main pathogenesis of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulation factor (GM-CSF) signal disorder and environmental homeostasis imbalance in the alveoli. Application researches focus on the treatment strategies of PAP. The existing PAP animal models cannot fully reflect to the development of human PAP, which should be further developed and improved to provide the basis for clinical practice.


Assuntos
Proteinose Alveolar Pulmonar , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos , Humanos , Pulmão , Proteinose Alveolar Pulmonar/terapia , Alvéolos Pulmonares
3.
Clin Transl Oncol ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988920

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Medulloblastomas (MB) are highly malignant brain tumors that predominantly occur in young infants. Immunotherapy to boost the immune system is emerging as a novel promising approach, but is often hampered by inhibitory immune checkpoints. In the present study, we have studied immune checkpoint B7-H3 expression in a tissue cohort of human pediatric MB. METHODS: Expression of B7-H3 was detected by immunohistochemistry and classified via B7-H3 staining intensity and percentage of B7-H3 positive tumor cells. Subsequently, B7-H3 protein expression was distinguished in MB molecular subtypes and correlated to immune cell infiltrates, patient characteristics, and survival. RESULTS: B7-H3 protein expression was found in 23 out of 24 (96%) human pediatric MB cases and in 17 out of 24 (71%) MB cases > 25% of tumor cells had any level of B7-H3 expression. B7-H3 protein expression was more frequent on Group-4 MB as compared with other molecular subtypes (p = 0.02). Tumors with high B7-H3 expression showed less influx of γδT cells (p = 0.002) and CD3+ T cells (p = 0.041). CONCLUSION: Immune checkpoint B7-H3 is differentially expressed by the large majority of pediatric MB. This further warrants the development of novel B7-H3-directed (immuno)therapeutic methods for children with incurable, metastatic, or chemo-resistant MB.

5.
Br J Anaesth ; 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this systematic review we aimed to appraise the evidence relating to the measurement properties of unidimensional tools to quantify pain after surgery. Furthermore, we wished to identify the tools used to assess interference of pain with functional recovery. METHODS: Four electronic sources (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO) were searched in August 2020. Two reviewers independently screened articles and assessed risk of bias using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. RESULTS: Thirty-one studies with a total of 12 498 participants were included. Most of the studies failed to meet the methodological quality standards required by COSMIN. Studies of unidimensional assessment tools were underpinned by low-quality evidence for reliability (five studies), and responsiveness (seven studies). Convergent validity was the most studied property (13 studies) with moderate to high correlation ranging from 0.5 to 0.9 between unidimensional tools. Interpretability results were available only for the visual analogue scale (seven studies) and numerical rating scale (four studies). Studies on functional assessment tools were scarce in which only one study included an 'Objective Pain Score;' a tool assessing pain interference with respiratory function and had low-quality for convergent validity. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review challenges the validity and reliability of unidimensional tools in patients after surgery. We found no evidence that any one unidimensional tool has superior measurement properties in assessing postoperative pain. In addition, because promoting function is a crucial perioperative goal, psychometric validation studies of functional pain assessment tools are needed to improve pain assessment and management. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020213495.

6.
Clin Radiol ; 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000761

RESUMO

AIM: To determine whether magnetic resonance imaging volumetry on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) could be used to assess lymph node metastases (LNM) and lymphovascular invasion (LVSI) in resectable cervical cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-five consecutive patients with cervical cancer were enrolled retrospectively. Tumour size, including maximum transverse diameter, tumour length, and gross tumour volume (GTV), was evaluated on DWI and T2WI. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured. Univariate, multivariate, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to determine whether tumour size and ADC could be used to assess LNM and LVSI. RESULTS: Tumour length on both T2WI and DWI, and T2WI-based and DWI-based GTVs could be used to assess LNM (p=0.002, 0.004, 0.001, and <0.001, respectively). Tumour length on T2WI, T2WI-based GTV, DWI-based GTV, and ADC value could be used assess LVSI (p=0.039, 0.038, 0.012, 0.039, respectively). Multivariate analyses showed both T2WI-based GTV (odds ratio [OR] = 1.044; p=0.008) and DWI-based GTV (OR=1.941; p=0.019) were independent risk factors for LNM. T2WI-based GTV (OR=1.023, p=0.038) and DWI-based GTV (OR=3.275, p=0.008) were independent risk factors for LVSI. No statistically significant difference was identified between the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the DWI-based GTV and the T2WI-based GTV (0.790 versus 0.775, p=0.113), or the tumour length on both T2WI (0.790 versus 0.734, p=0.185) and DWI (0.790 versus 0.737, p=0.333) for LNM. For LVSI, the AUC of DWI-based GTV was higher than T2WI-based GTV (0.720 versus 0.682, p=0.006). CONCLUSION: GTV on both T2WI and DWI could be used assess LNM and LVSI. DWI-based GTV might show the greatest potential for assessing LNM and LVSI in resectable cervical cancer.

7.
Sci Robot ; 7(62): eabj6660, 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35044796

RESUMO

The lunar nearside has been investigated by many uncrewed and crewed missions, but the farside of the Moon remains poorly known. Lunar farside exploration is challenging because maneuvering rovers with efficient locomotion in harsh extraterrestrial environment is necessary to explore geological characteristics of scientific interest. Chang'E-4 mission successfully targeted the Moon's farside and deployed a teleoperated rover (Yutu-2) to explore inside the Von Kármán crater, conveying rich information regarding regolith, craters, and rocks. Here, we report mobile exploration on the lunar farside with Yutu-2 over the initial 2 years. During its journey, Yutu-2 has experienced varying degrees of mild slip and skid, indicating that the terrain is relatively flat at large scales but scattered with local gentle slopes. Cloddy soil sticking on its wheels implies a greater cohesion of the lunar soil than encountered at other lunar landing sites. Further identification results indicate that the regolith resembles dry sand and sandy loam on Earth in bearing properties, demonstrating greater bearing strength than that identified during the Apollo missions. In sharp contrast to the sparsity of rocks along the traverse route, small fresh craters with unilateral moldable ejecta are abundant, and some of them contain high-reflectance materials at the bottom, suggestive of secondary impact events. These findings hint at notable differences in the surface geology between the lunar farside and nearside. Experience gained with Yutu-2 improves the understanding of the farside of the Moon, which, in return, may lead to locomotion with improved efficiency and larger range.

8.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 44(5): 500-504, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865373
9.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 59(12): 1048-1054, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856664

RESUMO

Objective: To summarize the clinical characteristics of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD) and compare the differences in efficacy of different disease-modifying drugs. Methods: An ambispective cohort study was conducted in 42 children diagnosed with MOGAD at Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital from January 2012 to March 2021 and conducted long-term follow-up to analyze clinical phenotypes and compare the efficacy of different disease-modifying drugs such as rituximab, mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine. Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to compare the annual relapse rate of disease-modifying drugs at different times, expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score at the last follow-up, and Wilcoxon rank test was used to compare the annual relapse rate before and after modified disease therapy. The Log-rank (Mantel-Cox) survival curve was used to compare the relapse rate of different disease-modifying drugs. Results: Of the 42 cases, 22 were male and 20 were female, with the age at disease onset of 5.96 (2.33-12.90) years. The disease duration was 4.46 (1.25-13.00) years at the last follow-up with 161 clinical acute attacks. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was the most common phenotype of first attack and all attacks during disease course ((60% (25/42) for first attack, 38% (61/161) for all attacks). The most common clinical syndrome was neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) (50%, 21/42). Of the 42 children, 5 (12%) showed encephalitis and 6 (14%) combined with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibody overlap syndrome. The most commonly involved areas of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were subcortical white matter (71%, 88/124), cortex (26%, 32/124) and periventricular white matter (25%, 32/124). Spinal cord MRI was most frequently involved in cervical (70%, 16/23) and thoracic (61%, 14/23) medulla, and 43% (10/23) longitudinally extensive transeverse myelitis. Disease-modifying drugs were used in 34 patients. The annual relapse rate after treatment with rituximab, mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine decreased (all P<0.05) and there was no statistically significant difference in the annual relapse proportion among the groups (P=0.307). Conclusions: The most common clinical attack of first and all of MOGAD in children is ADEM, and the most common clinical syndrome is NMOSD. Rituximab, mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine can reduce the annual relapse rate, but it is not clear effect of which treatment is better.

10.
Clin Radiol ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34857380

RESUMO

AIM: To explore the utility of multiple energy spectrum computed tomography (CT) parameters in distinguishing thymic epithelial tumours (TETs) from thymic cysts among lesions <5 cm in diameter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data pertaining to 56 patients with TETs and thymic cysts <5 cm in diameter were assessed retrospectively. All patients underwent surgical resection and the diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically. Thirty-five patients with TETs (average age, 51.97 years) and 21 patients with thymic cysts (average age, 50.54 years) were included. The region of interest for the lesion on the energy spectrum CT was delineated on the post-processing workstation, and multiple parameters of the energy spectrum CT were obtained. The diagnostic efficacies of the parameters were analysed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS: To distinguish small TETs from thymic cysts, a single-energy CT value of 60 keV showed good differential diagnostic performance in the arterial phase (cut-off value = 68.42 HU; area under the curve [AUC] = 0.978), a single-energy CT value of 70 keV showed good differential diagnostic performance in the venous phase (cut-off value = 59.77 HU; AUC = 0.956). In the arterial and venous phases, effective atomic numbers of 8.065 and 8.175, respectively, were used as cut-off values to distinguish small TETs from thymic cysts (AUC = 0.972 and AUC = 0.961, respectively). Iodine concentrations of 10.99 and 11.05 were used as cut-off values to distinguish small TETs from thymic cysts (AUC = 0.956 and AUC = 0.924, respectively). CONCLUSION: According to the present study, energy spectrum CT parameters may have clinical value in the differential diagnosis of TETs and thymic cysts.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34924270

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to report the use of digital guides to locate impacted residual roots (IRR) (location guide) and to simultaneously insert dental implants (surgical guide). This case series included five patients. The IRR was first removed through a lateral window approach using the digital location guide, then the implant was placed simultaneously with the implant surgical guide. Definitive restorations were completed after a 6-month healing period. An average of 13.0 ± 3.1 minutes was required to locate the IRR. The implant stability quotient (ISQ) was obtained during surgery and before digital coping using a non-invasive resonance frequency measurement. The average ISQ during surgery for the five dental implants was 60.2 ± 6.3, and the value increased to 66.6 ± 4.8 before final restoration. The average deviations at the implant neck and root apex were 0.48 ± 0.25 mm and 0.74 ± 0.46 mm, respectively. The average angular deviation was 3.5 ± 1.4°. Bone resorption at the implant neck was a mean 0.072 ± 0.041 mm before final restoration. All implants functioned well at 1 year after final restoration. The application of surgical guides in the extraction of IRR enabled crestal bone preservation and simultaneous implant placement.

13.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 43(12): 1269-1274, 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915635

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics and outcome of hydronephrosis associated with advanced or metastatic colorectal carcinoma. Methods: Clinical data of 311 patients with locally advanced or metastatic colorectal carcinoma between June 2017 and March 2020 in National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital & Shenzhen Hospital were retrospectively collected. Thirty-nine patients with hydronephrosis diagnosed by CT scan were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis, Log rank method was used for comparison of survival between the two groups with or without hydronephrosis, and univariate and multivariate analyses was performed by Cox proportional risk regression model. Results: The incidence rate of malignant hydronephrosis associated with metastatic colorectal carcinoma was 12.5% (39/311), 26 were male, and 13 were female. The median age was 43 years (23-74 years). Among the 39 patients, 29 had unilateral hydronephrosis and 10 had bilateral hydronephrosis. Eleven patients with hydronephrosis at the initiate diagnosis, 28 patients with hydronephrosis at relapse or advanced course, and the median time to hydronephrosis was 17 months (4-62 months). The disease control rate (DCR, 77.8% and 84.6%, respectively) and progression free survival (PFS were 6 and 7 months) were not significantly different between patients with hydronephrosis and without hydronephrosis received the first-line chemotherapy (P>0.05). The median overall survival (OS) after presence of hydronephrosis was 26 months (95%CI: 8.3, 43.7). Multivariate analyses showed that the blood vessel invasion (LVSI) was an independent risk factor for OS (P<0.05). Conclusions: Malignant hydronephrosis had no effect on the efficacy of the first-line chemotherapy and PFS of patients with colorectal carcinoma received the first-line chemotherapy. LVSI was the independent prognostic factor for OS of patients with malignant hydronephrosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Hidronefrose , Adulto , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Hidronefrose/etiologia , Masculino , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(12): 1253-1260, 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915661

RESUMO

Objective: To develop a prototype artificial intelligence image recognition system for detecting dental caries, especially those without cavities, in children. Methods: Seven hundred and twelve intraoral photos, which were taken by dental professionals using a digital camera from October 2013 to June 2020 in the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, were collected from the children who received dental treatment under general anesthesia. The well-documented post-treatment electronic dental record of each child was identified as label standard to determine whether the teeth were carious and the type of caries types such as caries that had become cavities (caries with cavities), pit and fissure caries that had not become cavities (pit and fissure caries) and proximal caries which the marginal ridge enamel had not been destroyed (proximal caries). The various teeth and caries types were labeled by pediatric dentists using VoTT software (Windows 2.1.0, Microsoft, U S A). There were five labeled groups: pit and fissure caries, approximal caries, non-carious approximal surfaces, caries with cavities and teeth without caries (including intact fillings). Each group was randomly divided into training dataset, validation dataset and test dataset at a ratio of 6.4∶1.6∶2.0 by using random number table. After using the labeled training dataset for deep learning training, a deep learning-based artificial intelligence (AI) image recognition system for detecting dental caries was established, with the caries probability greater than 50.0% as the criterion for determining caries. Sensitivity and accuracy were used as indicators of recognition specificity. Results: Seven hundred and twelve single-jaw intraoral photographs were segmented and annotated into 953 pit and fissure caries, 1 002 approximal caries, 3 008 caries with cavities, 3 189 teeth without caries and 862 non-carious approximal surfaces, totaly 9 014 labels. The sensitivities and specificities of the test set were 96.0% and 97.0% for caries with cavities, 95.8% and 99.0% for pit and fissure caries and 88.1% and 97.1% for approximal caries. Conclusions: The current AI system developed based on deep learning of the intra-oral photos in the present study showed the ability to detect dental caries. Furthermore, the AI system could accurately verify different types of dental caries such as caries with cavities, pit and fissure caries and proximal caries.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Cárie Dentária , Dente , Inteligência Artificial , Criança , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Esmalte Dentário , Humanos
16.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 24(12): 1073-1078, 2021 Dec 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34923790

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the mid-term efficacy of sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) for chronic constipation. Methods: A descriptive case series study was conducted. Patients with chronic constipation were treated in Xijing Hospital of Digestive Disease from February 2013 to December 2018 were retrospectively enrolled. The types of constipation were confirmed based on colon slow transit test, anorectal manometry and defecography in Xi'an Mayinglong Coloproctological Hospital. This study has been registered in China clinical trial registry (Registration No.: ChiCTR-ROC-16008945). Case inclusion criteria: (1) constipation was diagnosed according to Rome III criteria; (2) traditional treatment, including education, diet adjustment, laxative, biofeedback treatment, failed for at least 1 year; (3) there were no constipation-related organic diseases. After excluding neurogenic diseases, including spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis, 21 patients were included in this study. There were 10 males and 11 females, with an average age of 50.9 (14-76) years. After the relevant examination and evaluation of patients, they underwent percutaneous nerve evaluation (PNE). If patient experienced a good response to PNE after 2 or 3 weeks (≥50%), permanent SNS implantation was performed. The improvement of clinical symptoms and quality of life between the baseline, PNE, and latest follow-up time points were compared. Improvement of clinical symptoms, including autonomic stool frequency per week, autonomic stool days per week, defecation time, visual analogue scale (VAS, lower score indicates more serious symptoms) score and Cleveland clinic constipation score (CCCS, higher score indacates more serious symptoms) criteria. The change of quality of life was scored by SF-36 questionnaires (the higher score indicates better quality of life). Results: Of 21 patients, 18 (85.7%) experienced significant improvement in symptoms with PNE, and 2 patients discontinued treatment due to their dissatisfaction. Sixteen patients (76.2%) received permanent SNS implantation, two of whom underwent bilateral PNE implantation. These patients were followed-up for mean 56 (34-72) months. The treatment was continuously effective in 13 patients (61.9%), including 3 of ODS, 1 of STC and 9 of mixed constipation. Compared with baseline, the score of constipation patients receiving permanent SNS implantation at latest follow-up was shown. The median autonomic stool frequency per week increased from 1.0 (0-7) to 7.5 (0-10) (P<0.001), the median autonomic stool days per week increased from 1.0 (0-7) d to 4.5 (0-7) d (P<0.001), the median defecation time decreased from 19.0 (8-40) minutes to 4.0 (3-31) minutes (P<0.001), the median CCCS decreased from 20.0 (13-30) to 9.0 (6-30) (P<0.001), and the median VAS score increased from 9.0 (7-40) to 80.0 (15-90) (P<0.001). The values of the 8 parts of the SF-36 questionnaire increased (all P<0.05). Conclusion: SNS implantation is safe and has obvious effects on severe constipation with stable mid-term efficacy.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal , Qualidade de Vida , China , Constipação Intestinal/terapia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 44(12): 1071-1077, 2021 Dec 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915620

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the robotic assisted bronchoscope system for localizing and removing the spring coils that placed in the peripheral lung of beagle dogs. Methods: The study was conducted from June 18th to June 20th, 2021. Metallic lung coils were placed as the simulated lesions to the periphery of the lungs of two adult male beagle dogs using a bronchoscope under general anesthesia. The navigation path was planned by the navigation function that built in the robotic bronchoscope system. After training, the doctors operated the robotic bronchoscope system to locate and remove the coils from the lung. The navigation success rate, sampling success rate, position of the coil, navigation time, sampling time, and operation time were evaluated. The damage to the airway mucosa during the operation and the vital signs of the beagles during and post-operation were accessed. Chest computerized tomography (CT) was performed post-operation to detect if there were complications such as pneumothorax and bleeding. Results: A total of 12 spring coils were successfully inserted into the two beagles. All the navigation paths of the simulated lesions were successfully planned. The navigation success rate was 12/12. The navigation time was (43.9±19.8) seconds. The distance between the tip of the flexible endoscope arm and the target point measured by the navigation system was (6.93±2.15) mm. The locations of the simulated lesions were distributed in the 6th-8th generation of bronchi. The sampling success rate was 12/12. The sampling time was (42.4±11.3) seconds. There was no pneumothorax or mediastinal emphysema after the placement of the coil. The vital signs of the beagle dogs were stable throughout the operation, and no operation-related or postoperative complications occurred. Conclusions: The robotic bronchoscope system can be used to locate and remove the spring coils from the peripheral lung of beagle dogs, and the procedure is simple and safe. It suggests that the robotic bronchoscopy system has great clinical significance in the sampling and diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Animais , Broncoscópios , Cães , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/cirurgia , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
19.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; : 10556656211068306, 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) risk and related risk factors among children and adolescents of Hong Kong with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P). DESIGN: Retrospective survey study adopting three questionnaires, obstructive sleep apnea-18 (OSA-18), pediatric sleep questionnaire-22 (PSQ-22), and modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). SETTINGS: Multicenter study in two public hospitals. PATIENTS: A total of 351 Chinese children and adolescents with non-syndromic CL/P (6-18-year-old, 57% males) visited between September 2017 and November 2019, with primary palatal repair surgery done before 3-year-old. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Positive OSAS risk was determined based on cut-off ≥60 for OSA-18, ≥8 for PSQ-22, and >8 for ESS. Age, sex, overweight presence, cleft type, embryonic secondary palate involvement, palatal repair surgery, palatal revision surgery, and orthodontic treatment were analyzed as possible risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 9.5% of patients had positive OSAS risk based on OSA-18, 13.6% based on PSQ-22, and 13.2% according to ESS. A higher prevalence of patients with positive OSAS risk was of younger age (OSA-18, p = .034), had cleft involving embryonic secondary palate (PSQ-22, p = .009), and history of fixed orthodontic treatment (ESS, p = .002). The regression model identified only involvement of embryonic secondary palate as a risk factor (PSQ-22, odds ratio = 3.7, p = .015). CONCLUSIONS: OSAS risk among children and adolescents of Hong Kong with CL/P was 9.5% to 13.6%. Patients at higher risk were those with cleft involving embryonic secondary palate. OSAS risk assessment may be influenced by different aspects of the disease spectrum, and a multimodal approach should be considered for such assessment.

20.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 29(11): 1046-1052, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933421

RESUMO

Objective: To study the real-world outcome of China FDA-approved Sofosbuvir (SOF)/Velpatasvir (VEL) in Northwest China. Methods: In this multicenter, prospective, real-world cohort study, we recruited patients from 10 sites from Northwest China, who were chronically infected with HCV GTs 1-6 from 06/2018 to 09/2019. Patients received SOF (400mg)/VEL (100mg) for 12 weeks, and with ribavirin 900-1200 mg for GT3 cirrhosis and for any genotype decompensated cirrhosis. The primary endpoint was sustained virological response at 12-weeks post-treatment (SVR12) and safety. The secondary endpoint was the change of liver function after the achievement of SVR12. Results: Totally, 143 patients were enrolled in the study, four patients were lost to follow-up and one died during the follow-up, 138 patients were included in per-protocol analysis. Of the 138 patients, the mean age 53 years, 53.6% male, 94.2% Han nationality, 53.6% liver cirrhosis, 10.1% HBsAg(+), 6.5% renal dysfunction, 5.1% treatment-experienced, and 16.7% patients received ribavirin treatment. The genotype distribution was as follows: 35.5% GT1, 42.8% GT2, 15.9% GT3, and 5.8% un-typed. The SVR12 rate was 96.5% (138/143, 95%CI: 93.5%-99.6%) for intention-to-treat analysis, and in per-protocol analysis, all 138 patients obtained SVR12 (100%). Compared with baseline, the serum total bilirubin, ALT and AFP levels decreased (all P < 0.05), as well as increased ALB and platelet count (all P < 0.001) at post-treatment 12-weeks. Overall adverse events (AEs) rate is 29.0%, and the most common AEs were anemia (14.5%) and fatigue (8.0%). Severe side effects (edema and fatigue) occurred in 2 patients, one of whom needed a short-term interruption of treatment due to fatigue. Conclusion: In this real-world cohort study, 12-week SOF/VEL regimen with or without ribavirin achieved high SVR12 rates (96.5%-100% overall) with excellent safety profile among patients with HCV GT1/2/3 infection including patients with GT3 and cirrhosis, and led to improvement of liver function.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Sofosbuvir , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carbamatos , Estudos de Coortes , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
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