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1.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611691
2.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e2000948, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169521

RESUMO

As the population affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) grows, so does the need for a noninvasive and accurate diagnostic tool. Current research reveals that AD pathogenesis begins as early as decades before clinical symptoms. The unique properties of nanoparticles (NPs) may be exploited to develop noninvasive diagnostics for early detection of AD. After exposure of NPs to biological fluids, the NP surface is altered by an unbiased but selective and reproducible adsorption of biomolecules commonly referred to as the biomolecular corona or protein corona (PC). The discovery that the plasma proteome may be differentially altered during health and disease leads to the concept of disease-specific PCs. Herein, the disease-specific PCs formed around NPs in a multi-NPs platform are employed to successfully identify subtle changes in plasma protein patterns and detect AD (>92% specificity and ≈100% sensitivity). Similar discrimination power is achieved using banked plasma samples from a cohort of patients several years prior to their diagnosis with AD. With the nanoplatform's analytic ability to analyze pathological proteomic changes into a disease-specific identifier, this promising, noninvasive technology with implications for early detection and intervention could benefit not only patients with AD but other diseases as well.

3.
Br J Haematol ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169861

RESUMO

Reducing preventable hospital re-admissions in Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) could potentially improve outcomes and decrease healthcare costs. In a retrospective study of electronic health records, we hypothesized Machine-Learning (ML) algorithms may outperform standard re-admission scoring systems (LACE and HOSPITAL indices). Participants (n = 446) included patients with SCD with at least one unplanned inpatient encounter between January 1, 2013, and November 1, 2018. Patients were randomly partitioned into training and testing groups. Unplanned hospital admissions (n = 3299) were stratified to training and testing samples. Potential predictors (n = 486), measured from the last unplanned inpatient discharge to the current unplanned inpatient visit, were obtained via both data-driven methods and clinical knowledge. Three standard ML algorithms, Logistic Regression (LR), Support-Vector Machine (SVM), and Random Forest (RF) were applied. Prediction performance was assessed using the C-statistic, sensitivity, and specificity. In addition, we reported the most important predictors in our best models. In this dataset, ML algorithms outperformed LACE [C-statistic 0·6, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0·57-0·64] and HOSPITAL (C-statistic 0·69, 95% CI 0·66-0·72), with the RF (C-statistic 0·77, 95% CI 0·73-0·79) and LR (C-statistic 0·77, 95% CI 0·73-0·8) performing the best. ML algorithms can be powerful tools in predicting re-admission in high-risk patient groups.

4.
Clin Liver Dis (Hoboken) ; 16(2): 73-76, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922754
5.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the current estimates of the disease burden of Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) infection in the setting of end-stage liver disease (ESLD) are emerging. AIMS: We examined the recent trends and predictors of hospitalizations and in-hospital mortality from C. difficile infection among hospitalizations with ESLD in the USA. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis using the National Inpatient Sample, 2005-2014. We defined ESLD and C. difficile infection using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the risk factors that impacted hospitalization and mortality. RESULTS: The prevalence of coding for C. difficile infection in decompensated cirrhosis increased from 1.3% in 2005 to 2.7% in 2014, with an annual rate of 7.8%. In hospitalizations with hepatocellular carcinoma, C. difficile infection increased steadily from 1.0 to 1.7% with an annual incremental rate of 6.4%. Among hospitalizations with ESLD, each passing 2-year period, increasing age, female, higher Charlson index, accompanying infection, hepatorenal syndrome, and ascites were associated with C. difficile infection. Although C. difficile infection was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality during hospitalization with decompensated cirrhosis (odds ratio 1.53, 95% confidence interval 1.44-1.63), the proportion of in-hospital mortality during hospitalization with C. difficile infection and decompensated cirrhosis decreased from 15.4% in 2005 to 11.1% in 2014, with an annual rate of - 3.1% (95% CI - 5.7% to - 0.3%). CONCLUSIONS: While the prevalence of C. difficile infection in hospitalized patients with ESLD increased approximately twofold, the in-hospital mortality decreased significantly during the past decade.

6.
Hepatology ; 72(5): 1556-1568, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In general, physical activity (PA) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have an inverse association. However, studies assessing the impact of the widely accepted Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (PA Guidelines) on NAFLD are lacking. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We performed a serial, cross-sectional analysis among adults by using the 2007-2016 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. NAFLD and advanced fibrosis were defined by using various noninvasive panels. A PA questionnaire assessed the leisure-time PA, occupation-related PA, transportation-related PA, and total sitting time as sedentary behavior. PA was categorized according to the PA Guidelines. Of the 24,588 individuals (mean age, 47.4 years; 47.9% males), leisure-time PA (≥150 minutes per week) demonstrated 40% lower odds of NAFLD, whereas transportation-related PA was associated with a 33% risk reduction in NAFLD. Analysis of total PA and sitting times simultaneously showed a dose-response association between sitting time and NAFLD (P for trend < 0.001). Compliance with the PA Guidelines was lower in individuals with NAFLD versus those without NAFLD. The trends in compliance with the PA Guidelines for any type of PA remained stable in individuals with NAFLD except for a downtrend in transportation-related PA. In contrast, an improvement in compliance with the PA Guidelines for leisure time was noted in the cohort without NAFLD. Although PA demonstrated a 10% stronger association with risk reduction of NAFLD in women, women showed a lower tendency of meeting the PA Guidelines. Trends in total sitting time increased significantly regardless of NAFLD status. CONCLUSIONS: Sedentary behavior emerged as an independent predictor of NAFLD. Overall compliance with the PA Guidelines was lower in the cohort with NAFLD, with sex- and ethnicity-based differences. Implementation of these observations in clinical practice may improve our understanding as well as clinical outcomes.

7.
Liver Int ; 40(4): 815-824, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Healthy diet has been recommended for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), although it is not clear whether improving diet quality can prevent mortality. We aim to assess the impact of quality of diet on NAFLD and mortality in subjects with and without NAFLD. METHODS: We performed cohort study using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1988 to 1994 and linked mortality data through 2015. We used the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores to define diet quality, with higher HEI scores (Q4) indicating better adherence to dietary recommendations. NAFLD was defined as ultrasonographic hepatic steatosis. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that subjects with higher diet quality were inversely associated with NAFLD in a dose-dependent manner. During the median follow-up of 23 years, having a higher diet quality was associated with reduction in risk of all-cause mortality in the age, sex, Race/ethnicity-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (Q4, HR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.52-0.68) and the multivariate model (Q4, HR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.71-0.92). Higher diet quality was associated with a lower risk for all-cause mortality in subjects without NAFLD; however, this protective association with diet quality was not noted in those with NAFLD. Furthermore, a high diet quality was associated with a lower risk for cancer-related mortality in the total population and among those without NAFLD. This association was not noted in those with NAFLD. CONCLUSIONS: High diet quality was inversely associated with NAFLD and was positively associated with a lower risk for cancer-related and all-cause mortality in those without NAFLD.

8.
Gut Liver ; 14(2): 168-178, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195434

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and encompasses a spectrum of pathology from simple steatosis to inflammation and significant fibrosis that leads to cirrhosis. NAFLD and its comorbid conditions extend well beyond the liver. It is a multisystemic clinical disease entity with extrahepatic manifestations such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, hypothyroidism, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and psoriasis. Indeed, the most common causes of mortality in subjects with NAFLD are cardiovascular disease, followed by malignancies and then liver-related complications as a distant third. This review focuses on several of the key extrahepatic manifestations of NAFLD and areas for future investigation. Clinicians should learn to screen and initiate treatment for these extrahepatic manifestations in a prompt and timely fashion before they progress to end-organ damage.

9.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 50(5): 590-598, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, the relationship between depression and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is not clearly defined. AIM: To determine whether depression is associated with NAFLD and NAFLD-related advanced fibrosis in a large population sample. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis using the 2007-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database among adults (20 years or older) in the United States (US). Depression and functional impairment due to depression were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). NAFLD was defined by utilising the US fatty liver index (USFLI), hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and the fatty liver index (FLI) in the absence of other causes of chronic liver disease. The presence and absence of advanced fibrosis in NAFLD were defined by Fibrosis-4 score. RESULTS: Of the 10 484 subjects (mean age 47.0 years; 48.8% men), the prevalence of depression and functional impairment due to depression was higher in subjects with NAFLD than in those without. Compared to subjects without depression, those with depression were 1.6-2.2-fold more likely to have NAFLD. In our multivariate analyses, depression_med was associated with increased risk of NAFLD using USFLI (odds ratio [OR] 1.48 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.87), HSI (OR 1.51 95% CI 1.04-2.19) and FLI (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.65-2.48), respectively. The addition of diabetes, obesity and lipid profile to the model reduced the ORs for depression, but the significance persisted. Depression was not associated with NAFLD-related advanced fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: In a nationally representative sample of US adults, depression was independently associated with NAFLD.


Assuntos
Depressão/complicações , Depressão/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/psicologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Nutr Metab Insights ; 12: 1178638819847480, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308686

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) develops when the liver is unable to oxidize or export excess free fatty acids generated by adipose tissue lipolysis, de novo lipogenesis, or dietary intake. Although treatment has generally been centered on reversing metabolic risk factors that increase the likelihood of NAFLD by influencing lifestyle modifications, therapeutic modalities are being studied at the cellular and molecular level. The endocannabinoid system has been of recent focus. The agonism and antagonism of cannabinoid receptors play roles in biochemical mechanisms involved in the development or regression of NAFLD. Exocannabinoids and endocannabinoids, the ligands which bind cannabinoid receptors, have been studied in this regard. Exocannabinoids found in cannabis (marijuana) may have a therapeutic benefit. Our recent study demonstrated an inverse association between marijuana use and NAFLD among adults in the United States. This commentary combines knowledge on the role of the endocannabinoid system in the setting of NAFLD with the findings in our article to hypothesize different potential mechanisms that may influence the inverse relationship between cannabis and NAFLD.

11.
Gastroenterology ; 157(4): 1055-1066.e11, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Trends of mortality associated with extrahepatic complications of chronic liver disease might be changing. We studied trends in mortality from extrahepatic complications of viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease (ALD), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the United States. METHODS: We performed a population-based study using US Census and the National Center for Health Statistics mortality records from 2007 through 2017. We identified trends in age-standardized mortality using Joinpoint trend analysis with estimates of annual percent change. RESULTS: The liver-related mortality among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased from 2007 through 2013 and then decreased once patients began receiving treatment with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents, from 2014 through 2017. Among patients with HCV infection, the age-standardized mortality for extrahepatic cancers was 2.6%, for cardiovascular disease was 1.9%, and for diabetes was 3.3%. Among individuals with hepatitis B virus infection, liver-related mortality decreased steadily from 2007 through 2017. During the study, age-standardized mortality from hepatitis B virus-related extrahepatic complications increased by an average of 2.0% each year. Although liver-related mortality from ALD continued to increase, mortality from extrahepatic complications of ALD did not change significantly during the 11-year study. Among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the cause of death was most frequently cardiovascular disease, which increased gradually over the study period, whereas liver-related mortality increased rapidly. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of US Census and the National Center for Health Statistics mortality records, we found that after widespread use of DAA agents for treatment of viral hepatitis, cause-specific mortality from extrahepatic cancers increased, whereas mortality from cardiovascular disease or diabetes increased only among patients with HCV infection. These findings indicate the need to reassess risk and risk factors for extrahepatic cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes in individuals successfully treated for HCV infection with DAA agents.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Hepatite B Crônica/mortalidade , Hepatite C Crônica/mortalidade , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/mortalidade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/mortalidade , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Censos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Atestado de Óbito , Feminino , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8312, 2019 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165776

RESUMO

Clinical decompensation immediately prior to liver transplantation may affect post-liver transplant (LT) outcomes. Using the serial Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores recorded in the United Network for Organ Sharing national registry (2010-2017), we analyzed post-LT mortality among adult LT recipients based on the degree of fluctuation in MELD score during the 30-day period prior to LT surgery. Delta-MELD (D-MELD) was defined as recipient MELD score at LT minus lowest MELD score within the preceding 30 days. Impact of D-MELD as a continuous and categorical variable (D-MELD 0-4, 5-10, >10) on early, 30-day post-LT mortality was assessed. Overall, a total of 12,785 LT recipients were analyzed, of which 8,862 (67.9%) had a pre-operative D-MELD 0-4; 2,574 (20.1%) with a D-MELD 5-10; and 1,529 (12.0%) with a D-MELD > 10. One-point incremental increase in pre-operative D-MELD (adjusted HR, 1.07, 95% CI: 1.04-1.10) was associated with higher 30-day post-LT mortality. Moreover, pre-operative D-MELD > 10 was associated with nearly a two-fold increased risk for 30-day post-LT mortality (adjusted HR, 1.89, 95% CI: 1.30-2.77) compared to D-MELD 0-4. The increased risk of pre-LT mortality associated with severity of clinical decompensation assessed by the magnitude of pre-operative D-MELD persists in the early post-LT period.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/cirurgia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Transplante de Fígado/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pré-Operatório , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , Listas de Espera
14.
Liver Int ; 39(9): 1661-1671, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Current estimates of the population-based disease burden of liver failure or end-stage liver disease (ESLD) are lacking. We investigated recent trends in hospitalizations and in-hospital mortality among patients with ESLD in the United States (US). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed utilizing the National Inpatient Sample from 2005 to 2014. We defined ESLD as either decompensated cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), criteria obtained from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision. Nationwide rates of hospitalization and in-hospital mortality were analysed from 2005 to 2014. RESULTS: Hospitalization rates for decompensated cirrhosis during this period increased from 105.3/100 000 persons to 159.9/100 000 persons. In terms of HCC, hospitalization rates increased from 13.6/100 000 to 22.1/100 000. In patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-related decompensated cirrhosis, the hospitalization rate increased from 13.4/100 000 to 32.1/100 000 with an annual incremental increase of 10.6%, a magnitude twofold higher than other aetiologies. The proportion of NAFLD among hospitalizations with ESLD steadily increased from 12.7% to 20.1% for decompensated cirrhosis while the proportion of chronic hepatitis C (HCV) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) declined (from 29.3% to 27.6% for HCV; from 39.0% to 37.4% for ALD). Although the overall in-hospital mortality rates for ESLD declined during the study, mortality rates for NAFLD-related decompensated cirrhosis showed no significant change. CONCLUSIONS: Among aetiologies of chronic liver disease, NAFLD demonstrated the fastest growing rate of hospitalizations in non-HCC patients with ESLD in the US. Our study highlights the need for a focus on NAFLD-related hospitalizations and its impact on resource utilization.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Hospitalização/tendências , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Doença Hepática Terminal/etiologia , Feminino , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
15.
Diabetologia ; 62(7): 1185-1194, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011776

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The determination of diabetes as underlying cause of death by using the death certificate may result in inaccurate estimation of national mortality attributed to diabetes, because individuals who die with diabetes generally have other conditions that may contribute to their death. We investigated the trends in age-standardised mortality due to diabetes as underlying or contributing cause of death and cause-specific mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD), complications of diabetes and cancer among individuals with diabetes listed on death certificates in the USA from 2007 to 2017. METHODS: Using the US Census and national mortality database, we calculated age-standardised mortality due to diabetes as underlying or contributing cause of death and cause-specific mortality rates among adults over 20 years with diabetes listed on death certificates. A total of 2,686,590 deaths where diabetes was underlying or contributing cause of death were analysed. We determined temporal mortality rate patterns by joinpoint regression analysis with estimates of annual percentage change (APC). RESULTS: Age-standardised diabetes mortality rates compared among underlying cause of death, contributing cause of death and all-cause mortality were 32.2 vs 75.7 vs 105.1 per 100,000 individuals during the study period. The age-standardised mortality rates due to diabetes as underlying or contributing cause of death declined from 112.2 per 100,000 individuals in 2007 to 104.3 per 100,000 individuals in 2017 with the most pronounced decline noted from 2007 to 2014 (APC -1.4%; 95% CI -1.9%, -1.0%) and stabilisation in decline from 2014 to 2017 (APC 1.1%; 95% CI -0.6%, 2.8%). In terms of cause-specific mortality among individuals with diabetes listed on death certificates, the age-standardised mortality rates for CVD declined at an annual rate of 1.2% with a marked decline of 2.3% between 2007 and 2014. Age-standardised diabetes-specific mortality rates as underlying cause of death decreased from 2007 to 2009 (APC -4.5%) and remained stable from 2009 to 2017. Age-standardised mortality rates for cancer steadily decreased with an average APC of -1.4% (95% CI -1.8%, -1.0%) during the 11-year period. Mortality in the subcategory of CVD demonstrated significant differences. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Current national estimates capture about 30% of all-cause mortality among individuals with diabetes listed as underlying or contributing cause of death on death certificates. The age-standardised mortality due to diabetes as underlying or contributing cause of death and cause-specific mortality from CVD in individuals with diabetes listed as underlying or contributing cause of death plateaued from 2014 onwards except for hypertensive heart disease and heart failure.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Humanos , Estados Unidos
16.
Liver Int ; 39(7): 1335-1342, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The relationship between bisphenol A (BPA) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is undefined. We studied the impact of BPA on NAFLD. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2014 among adults in the United States (US). NAFLD was diagnosed using the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and the US fatty liver index (USFLI) in the absence of other causes of chronic liver diseases. The first sample using HSI consisted of 7605 adults. The second sample using USFLI consisted of 3631 participants with availability of fasting data. RESULTS: Of the first 7605 participants (mean age 47 years, 48.4% male), the prevalence of NAFLD and abnormally elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels was correlated with urinary BPA levels (P < 0.05). Compared to the reference group with lowest quartile of urinary BPA levels, those with the third and fourth quartiles were 81% and 53% more likely to develop NAFLD defined by HSI. In a multivariate model, the ORs for NAFLD in the third and fourth quartiles were 1.69 (95% CI 1.39-2.04) and 1.44 (95% CI 1.19-1.76) respectively (P for trend <0.001). In the second sample using USFLI, high BPA levels (fourth quartile) remained an independent predictor of NAFLD (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.98, P for trend = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: High levels of urinary BPA were associated with NAFLD in a nationally representative sample of adults in the US. The pathophysiology remains unclear and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/urina , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Fenóis/urina , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/urina , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Diseases ; 7(1)2019 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30823570

RESUMO

Recent breakthrough in our understanding pertaining to the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has pointed to dysregulation or derangement of the gut microbiome, also known as dysbiosis. This has led to growing interest in probiotic supplementation as a potential treatment method for NAFLD due to its ability to retard and/or reverse dysbiosis and restore normal gut flora. A thorough review of medical literature was completed from inception through July 10, 2018 on the PubMed database by searching for key terms such as NAFLD, probiotics, dysbiosis, synbiotics, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). All studies reviewed indicate that probiotics had a beneficial effect in patients with NAFLD and its subset NASH. Results varied between studies, but there was evidence demonstrating improvement in liver enzymes, hepatic inflammation, hepatic steatosis, and hepatic fibrosis. No major adverse effects were noted. Currently, there are no guidelines addressing the use of probiotics in the setting of NAFLD. In conclusion, probiotics appear to be a promising option in the treatment of NAFLD. Future research is necessary to assess the efficacy of probiotics in patients with NAFLD.

18.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(8): 1634-1636, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30268562

RESUMO

The introduction of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents and the opioid epidemic have resulted in an increased interest in liver transplantation (LT) of organs from donors with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related viremia.1 In March of 2015, the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/United Network for Organ Sharing (OPTN/UNOS) implemented a policy to perform HCV nucleic acid testing (NAT) in all HCV-seropositive donors. An open-label, single-center experience with 10 patients using a multistep informed consent reported successful transplantation of HCV-seropositive viremic (HCV-V) kidneys into HCV-seronegative recipients.2 Subsequently, a case was reported in which an HCV-V liver was transplanted into a HCV-seronegative recipient.3 In collaboration with OPTN/UNOS, we identified cases in which HCV-V deceased donor livers were transplanted into HCV-seronegative recipients.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/análise , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/análise , Transplante de Fígado/tendências , Fígado/virologia , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Transplantados , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Hepatite C Crônica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doadores de Tecidos , Estados Unidos
20.
Transplantation ; 103(1): 131-139, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the United States, alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has recently become the leading indication for liver transplantation. METHODS: Using the United Network for Organ Sharing registry, we examined temporal trends in adult liver transplant waitlist (WL) registrants and recipients with chronic liver disease (CLD) due to ALD from 2007 to 2016. RESULTS: From 2007 to 2016, ALD accounted for 20.4% (18 399) of all CLD WL additions. The age-standardized ALD WL addition rate was 0.459 per 100 000 US population in 2007; nearly doubled to 0.872 per 100 000 US population in 2016 and increased with an average annual percent change of 47.56% (95% confidence interval, 30.33% to 64.72%).The ALD WL addition rate increased over twofold among young (18-39 years) and middle-aged (40-59 years) adults during the study period. Young adult ALD WL additions presented with a higher severity of liver disease including Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score compared to middle aged and older adults (≥60 years). The number of annual ALD WL deaths readily rose from 2014 to 2016, despite an overall annual decline in all CLD WL deaths. Severe hepatic encephalopathy, low body mass index (<18.5) and diabetes mellitus were significant predictors for 1-year WL mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Alcoholic liver disease-related WL registrations and liver transplantation have increased over the past decade with a disproportionate increase in young and middle-aged adults. These subpopulations within the ALD cohort need to be evaluated in future studies to improve our understanding of factors associated with these alarming trends.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Feminino , Humanos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Listas de Espera , Adulto Jovem
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