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1.
Int Health ; 12(2): 77-85, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strategies are urgently needed to mitigate the risk of zoonotic disease emergence in southern China, where pathogens with zoonotic potential are known to circulate in wild animal populations. However, the risk factors leading to emergence are poorly understood, which presents a challenge in developing appropriate mitigation strategies for local communities. METHODS: Residents in rural communities of Yunnan, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces were recruited and enrolled in this study. Data were collected through ethnographic interviews and field observations, and thematically coded and analysed to identify both risk and protective factors for zoonotic disease emergence at the individual, community and policy levels. RESULTS: Eighty-eight ethnographic interviews and 55 field observations were conducted at nine selected sites. Frequent human-animal interactions and low levels of environmental biosecurity in local communities were identified as risks for zoonotic disease emergence. Policies and programmes existing in the communities provide opportunities for zoonotic risk mitigation. CONCLUSIONS: This study explored the relationship among zoonotic risk and human behaviour, environment and policies in rural communities in southern China. It identifies key behavioural risk factors that can be targeted for development of tailored risk-mitigation strategies to reduce the threat of novel zoonoses.

2.
Bioorg Chem ; 96: 103620, 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028064

RESUMO

Glycolysis is enhanced in cancer cells. Cancer cells utilize glycolysis as their primary energy source, even under aerobic conditions. This is known as the Warburg effect. Thus, effective inhibition of the glycolytic pathway is a crucial component of cancer therapy. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an important enzyme in glycolysis and overexpresses in cancers. Therefore, targeting GAPDH to inhibit its role in glycolysis is important for GAPDH functional studies and the treatment of cancers. However, only a few GAPDH inhibitors have been reported. In our current study, we identified a GAPDH inhibitor, DC-5163, using docking-based virtual screening and biochemical and biophysical analysis. DC-5163 is a small molecule compound that inhibits GAPDH enzyme activity and cancer cell proliferation (normal cells were tolerant to it). It can inhibit glycolysis pathway partially, which was manifested by decreased glucose uptake and lactic acid production. And it also leaded to cell death through apoptotic pathways. This study reflects the pivotal role of GAPDH in cancer cells and demonstrates that DC-5163 is a useful inhibitor and can be of value in studying the role of GAPDH and the development of new clinical cancer treatments.

3.
Chem Biol Interact ; : 108968, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004530

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent degenerative joint diseases, and the risk of developing OA significantly increases with age as well as with concomitant diseases, such as diabetes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in the body over time and are associated with increased expression of various molecules involved in the pathophysiology of OA. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), along with its precursor cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, plays an integral role in the pathogenesis of OA and is highly upregulated in response to AGEs. The most significant event in OA is excessive degradation of the cartilage extracellular matrix, which is composed primarily of type II collagen and aggrecan. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of the receptor for glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 in the response of chondrocytes to insult from AGEs using the selective GLP-1 agonist dulaglutide. Firstly, our results indicate that AGEs reduced the expression of the receptor for GLP-1 (GLP-1R) in human SW1353 chondrocytes. Interestingly, we found that treatment with dulaglutide could ameliorate deterioration of the components of the articular extracellular matrix (ECM), such as type II collagen and aggrecan, induced by AGEs through downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 and MMP-13 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS)-4 and ADAMTS-5. We also found that dulaglutide exerted a potent inhibitory effect against the expression of several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines closely associated with OA, as well as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Finally, we showed that the effects of dulaglutide were mediated through the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathway. Our findings indicate that dulaglutide displayed a robust protective effect against AGEs-induced damage in chondrocytes, suggesting that it might be a possible therapeutic agent for the treatment of OA.

4.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 50, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies demonstrated impaired lipid metabolism and augmented aerobic glycolysis in AF. The authors aimed to investigate whether the use of metformin, an AMPK activator, could reverse this metabolic remodeling in chronic AF and to explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: We conducted chronic AF animal models with 18 beagle dogs and divided them into SR (pacemaker implanted without pacing), AF (pacemaker implanted with sustained pacing at a frequency of 400 beats/min for 6 weeks), and metformin+AF group (daily oral administration of metformin was initiated 1 week before surgery and continued throughout the study period). After electrophysiological measurements, the left atrial appendage tissue samples were taken from the beating heart for further analysis. Protein expression, histological analysis, and biochemical measurements were conducted. RESULTS: The AF groups showed decreased expression of FAT/CD36, CPT-1, VLCAD, increased concentration of free fatty acid and triglyceride, and increased lipid deposition. The activation of AMPK/PGC-1α/PPARα pathway was decreased. The key factors of the Warburg effect, including HIF-1α, GLUT-1, PDK1, HK, and LDH, increased in AF group compared to SR group. The expression of PDH decreased significantly, accompanied by increased atrial lactate production. The extent of fibrosis increased significantly in the left atrial appendage of AF group. dERP, ∑WOV, and AF inducibility increased while ERP decreased in AF group compared to SR group. The use of metformin attenuated all these changes effectively. CONCLUSIONS: Metformin improves lipid metabolism and reverses the Warburg effect in chronic AF via AMPK activation. It attenuates atrial electrical and structural remodeling.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054593

RESUMO

Extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma (ENKL), nasal type is a kind of rare disease with a low survival rate that primarily affects Asian and South American populations. Segmentation of ENKL lesions is crucial for clinical decision support and treatment planning. This paper is the first study on computer-aided diagnosis systems for the ENKL segmentation problem. We propose an automatic, coarse-to-fine approach for ENKL segmentation using adversarial networks. In the coarse stage, we extract the region of interest bounding the lesions utilizing a segmentation neural network. In the fine stage, we use an adversarial segmentation network and further introduce a multi-scale L1 loss function to drive the network to learn both global and local features. The generator and discriminator are alternately trained by backpropagation in an adversarial fashion in a min-max game. Furthermore, we present the first exploration of zone-based uncertainty estimates based on Monte Carlo dropout technique in the context of deep networks for medical image segmentation. Specifically, we propose the uncertainty criteria based on the lesion and the background, and then linearly normalize them to a specific interval. This is not only the crucial criterion for evaluating the superiority of the algorithm, but also permits subsequent optimization by engineers and revision by clinicians after quantitatively understanding the main source of uncertainty from the background or the lesion zone. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is more effective and lesion-zone stable than state-of-the-art deep-learning based segmentation model.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(3): e18841, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been reported the rs10757274 SNP (present on locus 9p21 in the gene for CDKN2BAS1) might be associated with susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD). Owing to mixed and inconclusive results, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between rs10757274 polymorphism and the risk of CAD. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between rs10757274 polymorphism and the risk of CAD. METHODS: All studies of the rs10757274 SNP with CAD that were published between 2007 and 2018 were retrieved from the PubMed database. Meta-analysis was performed with Stata 14.0 software. The effect size of the rs10757274 SNP with CAD risk was assessed based on the odds ratios (ORs) with calculation of 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Eleven studies including 52,209 subjects (cases: 7990, controls: 44,219) were included in the final data combination. Pooled overall analyses showed that rs10757274 (allele model: P < .001; dominant model: P < .001; recessive model: P < .001; Heterozygote codominant: P = .002; Homozygote codominant: P < .001) polymorphisms were significantly associated with the likelihood of CAD. Significant heterogeneity between individual studies appears in all 5 models. Further subgroup analyses revealed that rs10757274 polymorphisms were all significantly correlated with the likelihood of CAD and no heterogeneity were observed in West Asians. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that rs10757274 polymorphisms may serve as genetic biomarkers of CAD, especially in West Asians.

7.
Transgenic Res ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078127

RESUMO

The size of skeletal muscle mass plays a significant role in glucose uptake in healthy and diabetic human subjects. Previously, we have generated myostatin-deficient (MSTN-/-) transgenic pigs via animal cloning technology. MSTN-/- pigs had dramatic phenotype with individual muscle mass increase by 100% over their wild-type controls, which provides a unique large animal model to investigate how enhanced skeletal muscles are beneficial to glucose update in diabetes. We employed intravenous administration of stretozotocin (STZ) to male MSTN-/- and wild-type pigs (100 mg/kg body weight). One month later, blood glucose and insulin concentrations and pancreas histology were examined, STZ-induced diabetes occurred in both MSTN transgenic and wild-type pigs. Histology of pancreas, analysis of pAKT and Glut4 transporter proteins by Western blotting, and real-time qPCR for MSTN gene expression were used in the study. The STZ-treated pigs had increased levels of fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels in comparison with animals receiving sodium citrate buffer, their pancreas also had reduced beta cells and slight increases in lymphocyte. There are significant lower concentrations of fasting plasma glucose and insulin in MSTN-/- pigs than that of wild-type pigs after STZ administration. Detections of pAKT and Glut4 transporter proteins by Western blotting in muscle tissue indicates significant elevations of both proteins in MSTN-/- pigs compared with the wild-type pigs. The results from this pig model suggest that enhanced skeletal muscle by manipulation of myostatin function can improve glucose uptake even in the status of diabetes.

8.
ACS Sens ; 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939293

RESUMO

A sensitive photoacoustic sensor system for the detection of ppb-level sulfur dioxide (SO2) was developed by the use of a continuous-wave room-temperature, high-power quantum cascade laser (QCL) with an external diffraction grating cavity geometry. The excitation wavelength of the QCL was set to 7.41 µm for the strongest SO2 absorption line strength. A custom-made differential photoacoustic cell (PAC) with two identical resonators was designed to allow a gas flow rate up to 1200 sccm. A qualitative theoretical model was employed in order to understand the dynamic adsorption and desorption processes of SO2 in the PAC walls. A 1σ detection limit of 2.45 ppb, corresponding to a normalized noise equivalent absorption value of 3.32 × 10-9 cm-1 W/Hz1/2, was achieved after measures for suppressing the absorption-desorption effect were taken.

9.
Ann Nucl Med ; 34(1): 38, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925671

RESUMO

The corresponding author of the article would like to remove "Jian Wang" in the author group.

10.
Ann Nucl Med ; 34(1): 31-37, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT in diagnosing Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT imaging was performed in 34 healthy controls and 96 PD patients 2.5 h later after injection. The striatal image was evaluated visually and semi-quantitively. Sensitivity and specificity of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT were analyzed according to Hoehn and Yahr scale (HYS). Based on HYS, the PD patients were divided into mild (HYS 1-2) and moderate (HYS 3-5) groups. The uptake ratios of striatum (ST) and cerebellum (CB) in contralateral, ipsilateral and bilateral striatum in different groups were calculated and analyzed. The safety was assessed. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT to discriminate PD patients from healthy subjects were 98.96% and 94.12% and it has perfect agreement with HYS (κ = 0.94, p < 0.001). The sensitivity to diagnose mild and moderate PD was 43.42% and 95% separately. The uptake ratio in PD patients was significantly lower than that in healthy controls (1.37 ± 0.13 vs 1.68 ± 0.18, p < 0.001). And the uptake ratio in contralateral side was markedly reduced in unilateral PD patients as compared with the ipsilateral side (1.50 ± 0.20 vs 1.46 ± 0.21, p < 0.001). The striatal uptakes in affected striatum and bilateral striatum were reduced with increasing disease severity between healthy control versus mild stage versus moderate stage in the affected striatum and bilateral striatum in PD patients. No serious adverse events or death was observed after injecting 99mTc-TRODAT-1. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that 99mTc-TRODAT-1 was a safety radiotracer which can be used in clinic to diagnose PD using SPECT.

11.
Toxicol Lett ; 319: 85-94, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730885

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic hepatic disease associated with the excessive accumulation of lipids in the liver. Premenopausal women are protected from the liver metabolic complications of obesity compared with body mass index (BMI)-matched men. This protection may be related to estrogen's ability to limit liver fat accumulation. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a novel regulator of NAFLD, may be an important target for regulating estrogen homeostasis. In present study, we used benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a classic and potent ligand of AhR, to activate AhR pathway causes overexpression of the estrogen-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and affects the expression of important genes involved in hepatic lipid regulation. BaP induces CYP1A1 expression through AhR signaling and inhibits the protective effect of 17ß-estradiol (E2) on hepatic steatosis, characterized by triglyceride accumulation, and markers of liver damage are significantly elevated. The expression of adipogenic genes involved in the hepatic lipid metabolism of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) was increased compared with that in the control group. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), which is involved in fatty acid oxidation, were significantly reduced. Taken together, our results revealed that the steatotic effect of AhR is likely due to overexpression of the E2 metabolic enzyme CYP1A1, which affects the estrogen signaling pathway, leading to the suppression of fatty acid oxidation, inhibition of the hepatic export of triglycerides, and an increase in peripheral fat mobilization. The results from this study may help establish AhR as a novel therapeutic and preventive target for fatty liver disease.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/genética , Animais , Benzo(a)pireno/farmacologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/biossíntese , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Estradiol/farmacologia , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , PPAR alfa/biossíntese , PPAR alfa/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/agonistas , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/biossíntese , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
12.
J Psychol ; : 1-15, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815608

RESUMO

Based on the integration of the group socialization theory and the individual-context interaction model, we examined whether moral disengagement mediated the association between deviant peer affiliation and bullying perpetration and whether this mediation model was moderated by moral identity. A total of 438 adolescents participated in the current study. They completed measures regarding deviant peer affiliation, bullying perpetration, moral disengagement, and moral identity. Deviant peer affiliation positively predicted adolescents' bullying perpetration at six months later and this relationship was partially mediated by moral disengagement. Moral identity did not moderate the direct relationship between deviant peer affiliation and adolescents' bullying perpetration. Moral identity moderated the relationship between moral disengagement and adolescents' bullying perpetration and in turn moderated the indirect relationship between deviant peer affiliation and bullying perpetration. Specifically, the relationship between moral disengagement and bullying perpetration and the indirect relationship between deviant peer affiliation and bullying perpetration via moral disengagement both became nonsignificant for adolescents with high moral identity.

13.
EPMA J ; 10(4): 395-414, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832114

RESUMO

Background: Non-functional pituitary adenoma (NFPA) is highly heterogeneous with different hormone expression subtypes. Of them, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-positive expression is an important subtype of NFPAs. It is well-known that FSH exerted its functions through binding its receptor. However, the expression rate of FSH receptor was significantly higher in aggressive pituitary adenomas. This study aimed to investigate the molecular characteristics of FSH-positive NFPAs for effective stratification of patient, target treatment, prognostic assessment, and personalized treatment of FSH-positive NFPAs. Methods: Tandem mass tag (TMT)-based quantitative proteomics was used to investigate differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between FSH-positive and negative NFPAs. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses were used to analyze the DEPs. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between invasive and non-invasive NFPAs from GEO database were analyzed with pathway enrichment analysis. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed based on DEPs in excetral cellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and PI3K-Akt pathways. Cytoscape was used to obtain most significant modules. Western blot was used to validate the expressions of upregulated proteins (ITGA1, ITGA6, and ITGB4), the expression and phosphorylated status of Akt in PI3K-Akt pathway, and the expression of FSH receptors in FSH-positive relative to negative NFPAs. Results: A total of 594 DEPs (374 upregulated and 220 downregulated) were identified between FSH-positive and negative NFPAs. Nineteen KEGG pathway networks were identified to involve DEPs, and reveal molecular differences between FSH-positive and negative NFPAs, including three important pathways that were significantly associated with tumor invasiveness and aggressiveness: ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. Further, focal adhesion pathway was also confirmed with invasiveness-related NFPA DEG data that were derived from GEO database. Moreover, the significantly upregulated DEPs (ITGA1, ITGA6, and ITGB4) that were associated with tumor invasiveness and aggressiveness were confirmed by immunoaffinity analysis in FSH-positive vs. negative NFPAs. Also, the phosphorylation level but not its expression level of AKT in PI3K-AKT signaling was significantly increased, and the expression level of FSH receptor was significantly increased in FSH-positive relative to negative NFPAs. Also, overlapping analysis of 594 DEPs and 898 DEGs revealed 45 invasiveness-related DEPs, including 11 upregulated DEPs (ITGA6, FARP1, PALLD, PPBP, LIMA1, SCD, UACA, BAG3, CLU, PLEC, and GATM) that were also upregulated genes in invasive NFPAs, and 8 downregulated DEPs (ALCAM, HP, FSTL4, IL13RA2, NPTX2, DPP6, CRABP2, and SLC27A2) that were also downregulated genes in invasive NFPAs. Conclusions: FSH-positive expression was an important NFPA subtype. It was the first time for this study to reveal FSH-related proteomic variations and the corresponding molecular network alterations in FSH-positive relative to negative NFPAs. Also, three signaling pathways (ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways) and involved upregulated proteins (ITGA1, ITGA6, ITGB4, pAKT, and FSHR) were significantly associated with tumor invasiveness and aggressiveness, and a set of invasiveness-related DEPs were identified with overlapping analysis of 594 DEPs in FSH-positive vs. negative NFPAs and 898 DEGs in invasive vs. non-invasive NFPAs. These findings offered the scientific evidence to in-depth understand molecular characteristics of FSH-positive NFPAs, and effectively stratify the post-surgery patients for personalized prognostic assessment and targeted treatment of FSH-positive NFPAs.

14.
Proteomes ; 7(4)2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671630

RESUMO

Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) is an important and well-established technical platform enabling extensive top-down proteomic analysis. However, the long-held but now largely outdated conventional concepts of 2DE have clearly impacted its application to in-depth investigations of proteomes at the level of protein species/proteoforms. It is time to popularize a new concept of 2DE for proteomics. With the development and enrichment of the proteome concept, any given "protein" is now recognized to consist of a series of proteoforms. Thus, it is the proteoform, rather than the canonical protein, that is the basic unit of a proteome, and each proteoform has a specific isoelectric point (pI) and relative mass (Mr). Accordingly, using 2DE, each proteoform can routinely be resolved and arrayed according to its different pI and Mr. Each detectable spot contains multiple proteoforms derived from the same gene, as well as from different genes. Proteoforms derived from the same gene are distributed into different spots in a 2DE pattern. High-resolution 2DE is thus actually an initial level of separation to address proteome complexity and is effectively a pre-fractionation method prior to analysis using mass spectrometry (MS). Furthermore, stable isotope-labeled 2DE coupled with high-sensitivity liquid chromatography-tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) has tremendous potential for the large-scale detection, identification, and quantification of the proteoforms that constitute proteomes.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17781, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opinion regarding whether Helicobacter pylori infection can promote the occurrence and development of nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) is divided. Therefore, we aimed to assess the exact relationship between H pylori infection and NAFLD by integrating all available data. METHODS: The articles about H pylori infection and NAFLD were collected by searching the databases of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and WanFang. The random-effects model was used for data analysis, followed by subgroup analysis and meta-regression to explore sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: Twenty-one articles were included in the study. Pooled analysis showed that H pylori infection indeed promoted NAFLD. Subgroup analysis and regression analysis showed that case-control ratio may be one of the sources of heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: H pylori infection is indeed one of the factors that promotes the progression of NAFLD for the Asian population. This provides new approaches for clinical prevention and treatment for NAFLD.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/microbiologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733000

RESUMO

Fly maggot meal has been regarded as one of the substitutes of fish meal and soybean meal in pig feed. However, its effects on pig growth performance and faecal micro-organism remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary fly maggot meal on fattening performance, plasma indices related to gut hormones, immunity and faecal microbial communities composition of finishing pigs. A total of 40 Ningxiang fattening pigs were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments and pigs in each group were arranged by control group (CK) diet or 8% maggot meal group (MMG) diet for 45 days respectively. Growth performance, indices of gut hormones and immunity in plasma were evaluated. Microbiota composition in faeces was determined using 16S rDNA Amplicon Sequencing. The results showed that dietary MMG did not affect gut hormones and immune proteins in the trial compared with CK group (p > .05). However, dietary MMG significantly increased average daily gain (ADG). The population of the Firmicutes in MMG treatment was increased, while the percentage of the Bacteroidetes was decreased (p < .05). In particular, the number of Clostridiales related to hydrolyzed sugar and protein were increased (p < .05). It can inhibit the growth of harmful intestinal bacteria, promote the proliferation of beneficial bacteria and effectively improve the ability of digestion and absorption of nutrients. In conclusion, a diet containing 8% MMG changed the proportion of intestinal micro-organisms in finishing pigs, especially the higher richness of Firmicutes, and promoted the fattening ability of pigs to a certain extent. These changes should benefit finishing pig production during fattening period.

19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4514, 2019 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586070

RESUMO

Nano-ordered intermetallic compounds have generated great interest in fuel cell applications. However, the synthesis of non-preciousearly transition metal intermetallic nanoparticles remains a formidable challenge owing to the extremely oxyphilic nature and very negative reduction potentials. Here, we have successfully synthesized non-precious Co3Ta intermetallic nanoparticles, with uniform size of 5 nm. Atomic structural characterizations and X-ray absorption fine structure measurements confirm the atomically ordered intermetallic structure. As electrocatalysts for the hydrazine oxidation reaction, Co3Ta nanoparticles exhibit an onset potential of -0.086 V (vs. reversible hydrogen electrode) and two times higher specific activity relative to commercial Pt/C (+0.06 V), demonstrating the top-level performance among reported electrocatalysts. The Co-Ta bridge sites are identified as the location of the most active sites thanks to density functional theory calculations. The activation energy of the hydrogen dissociation step decreases significantly upon N2H4 adsorption on the Co-Ta bridge active sites, contributing to the significantly enhanced activity.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Main vessel (MV) stent deformation and overstretch caused by classical kissing balloon inflation (C-KBI) using two balloons with a longer overlapping in the MV for bifurcation lesions has caused a widespread concern. PURPOSE: This bench study tested our hypothesis that mini-KBI (M-KBI) with a shorter protrusion of side branch (SB) balloon would ascertain a better result after Culotte stenting. METHODS: Twenty-four coronary stents were deployed using Culotte approach in twelve bifurcation models with a bifurcation angle of 45°, 3.5 mm in MV diameter, and 3.0 mm in SB diameter. After stent implantation, the final KBI were assigned to C-KBI (two kissing balloons juxtaposed within the MV stent, at least overlap for 3 mm; n = 6) and M-KBI (the proximal marker of SB balloon just sited at the level of upper edge of SB ostium; n = 6). Proximal optimization technique (POT) was performed after KBI. Stent geometry was visually evaluated based on bench photos, microscopy, videoscopy, micro-CT, and scanning electron microscopy. Stent deformation index, minimal lumen diameter, and cross-sectional area at either carina level of MV and ostium of SB were measured from optical coherence tomography (OCT). RESULTS: In Culotte technique, C-KBI was associated with visually significant stent deformation, overexpansion and the "bottleneck" effect of the MV stent, which could not be effectively rectified by POT, while M-KBI could keep the circle shape of MV stent with good stent apposition in both MV and SB stent. By quantitative measurements, deformation index of MV was 0.06 ± 0.01 after M-KBI, significantly lower than 0.25 ± 0.02 if C-KBI was performed. In the line in carina, compared to C-KBI, M-KBI has smaller CSA-stent/CSA-reference, which indicated a less overstretch of MV stent. However, minimal lumen diameter and cross-sectional area of SB ostium was not different in the mini-KBI group (3.0958 ± 0.0285 mm and 7.9667 ± 0.1741 mm), when compared those after C-KBI (3.1217 ± 0.0772 mm and 7.9083 ± 0.3115 mm, p > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Followed by POT, M-KBI is preferable than C-KBI in preventing stent deformation, overexpansion in MV stent and could get well apposed of MV stent and well-opened SB stent as expected in a Culotte technique.

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