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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(2)2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450815

RESUMO

Liquid biopsy-based biomarkers have advantages in monitoring the dynamics of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), a bone-predominant metastatic disease. Previous studies have demonstrated associations between circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and clinical outcomes of mCRPC patients, but little is known about the prognostic value of CTC-clusters. In 227 longitudinally collected blood samples from 64 mCRPC patients, CTCs and CTC-clusters were enumerated using the CellSearch platform. The associations of CTC and CTC-cluster counts with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), individually and jointly, were evaluated by Cox models. CTCs and CTC-clusters were detected in 24 (37.5%) and 8 (12.5%) of 64 baseline samples, and in 119 (52.4%) and 27 (11.9%) of 227 longitudinal samples, respectively. CTC counts were associated with both PFS and OS, but CTC-clusters were only independently associated with an increased risk of death. Among patients with unfavorable CTCs (≥5), the presence of CTC-clusters signified a worse survival (log-rank p = 0.0185). mCRPC patients with both unfavorable CTCs and CTC-clusters had the highest risk for death (adjusted hazard ratio 19.84, p = 0.0072), as compared to those with <5 CTCs. Analyses using longitudinal data yielded similar results. In conclusion, CTC-clusters provided additional prognostic information for further stratifying death risk among patients with unfavorable CTCs.

2.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: In contrast to many observational studies, large-scale randomized trials do not support the protective role of vitamin D for the prevention of colorectal neoplasia. However, in previous studies, individuals with blunted parathyroid hormone (PTH) response to vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency (BPRVID), were not differentiated from those with high PTH response to vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency (HPRVID). Individuals with BPRVID are responsive to magnesium treatment, particularly treatment of magnesium plus vitamin D while those with HPRVID are responsive to vitamin D treatment. We prospectively compared these two distinct groups (i.e. BPRVID and HPRVID) for risk of incident adenoma, metachronous adenoma, and incident colorectal cancer (CRC) METHODS: Three nested case-control studies in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) Screening Trial. RESULTS: We found optimal 25(OH)D levels were associated with a significantly reduced risk of CRC, primarily among women. The associations between 25(OH)D and CRC risk significantly differed by PTH levels, particularly among women. Compared to individuals with optimal levels for both 25(OH)D and PTH, all others were at an elevated risk of incident CRC, primarily in women. We found those with BPRVID had 2.56-fold significantly increased risk of CRC compared to 1.65-fold non-significantly increased risk for those with HPRVID. Among women, we observed those with BPRVID had 4.79-6.25-fold significantly increased risks of incident CRC and adenoma whereas those with HPRVID had 3.65-fold significantly increased risk of CRC. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with BPRVID are at higher risks of incident adenoma and CRC compared to those with HPRVID, particularly among women.

3.
AACE Clin Case Rep ; 6(5): e273-e278, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984537

RESUMO

Objective: Here we present 2 cases of papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PMCs) that had metastasized at presentation. The 2015 American Thyroid Association and the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) criteria do not recommend biopsy of the majority of subcentimeter thyroid nodules, as PMCs are mostly indolent with excellent prognosis. However, the paradigm of active surveillance presents a conundrum on how to identify the rare patient with distant metastatic disease while avoiding unnecessary intervention in the majority. Methods: After initial discovery of incidental lesions on chest computed tomography, core or wedge biopsies of the lung lesion were performed. Thyroid nodules on ultrasound were classified by TI-RADS. Tumor DNA was sequenced, annotated, filtered on 119 known cancer genes, and filtered for variants with an exome allele frequency of <0.001. Results: A 70-year-old woman and a 29-year-old woman presented with incidental pulmonary lesions on computed tomography scan. Lung biopsy revealed lung metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma. The thyroid nodules in both patients were TI-RADS 3 and American Thyroid Association low-suspicion. Molecular testing showed a c.1721C>G mutation (p.Thr574Ser) in the TSHR gene in patient 1 and a codon 61 mutation in the NRAS gene in patient 2. Both patients were iodine-avid, with complete structural remission in one patient and ongoing treatment with evidence of structural response in the other. Conclusion: The 2 presentations demonstrate unexpected and concerning behavior of PMCs. Both thyroid tumors were subcentimeter in diameter, meaning they would have escaped detection using traditional risk-stratification algorithms in active surveillance. Further knowledge of tumor genetics and microenvironment may assist in predicting tumor behavior in PMCs.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3905, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764609

RESUMO

It remains elusive whether some of the associations identified in genome-wide association studies of prostate cancer (PrCa) may be due to regulatory effects of genetic variants on CpG sites, which may further influence expression of PrCa target genes. To search for CpG sites associated with PrCa risk, here we establish genetic models to predict methylation (N = 1,595) and conduct association analyses with PrCa risk (79,194 cases and 61,112 controls). We identify 759 CpG sites showing an association, including 15 located at novel loci. Among those 759 CpG sites, methylation of 42 is associated with expression of 28 adjacent genes. Among 22 genes, 18 show an association with PrCa risk. Overall, 25 CpG sites show consistent association directions for the methylation-gene expression-PrCa pathway. We identify DNA methylation biomarkers associated with PrCa, and our findings suggest that specific CpG sites may influence PrCa via regulating expression of candidate PrCa target genes.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Fatores de Risco
5.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 217, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847609

RESUMO

Germline disease-causing variants are generally more spatially clustered in protein 3-dimensional structures than benign variants. Motivated by this tendency, we develop a fast and powerful protein-structure-based scan (PSCAN) approach for evaluating gene-level associations with complex disease and detecting signal variants. We validate PSCAN's performance on synthetic data and two real data sets for lipid traits and Alzheimer's disease. Our results demonstrate that PSCAN performs competitively with existing gene-level tests while increasing power and identifying more specific signal variant sets. Furthermore, PSCAN enables generation of hypotheses about the molecular basis for the associations in the context of protein structures and functional domains.

6.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(3): pkaa021, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596635

RESUMO

Background: Genome-wide association studies have identified common genetic risk variants in many loci associated with multiple cancers. We sought to systematically evaluate the utility of these risk variants in identifying high-risk individuals for eight common cancers. Methods: We constructed polygenic risk scores (PRS) using genome-wide association studies-identified risk variants for each cancer. Using data from 400 812 participants of European descent in a population-based cohort study, UK Biobank, we estimated hazard ratios associated with PRS using Cox proportional hazard models and evaluated the performance of the PRS in cancer risk prediction and their ability to identify individuals at more than a twofold elevated risk, a risk level comparable to a moderate-penetrance mutation in known cancer predisposition genes. Results: During a median follow-up of 5.8 years, 14 584 incident case patients of cancers were identified (ranging from 358 epithelial ovarian cancer case patients to 4430 prostate cancer case patients). Compared with those at an average risk, individuals among the highest 5% of the PRS had a two- to threefold elevated risk for cancer of the prostate, breast, pancreas, colorectal, or ovary, and an approximately 1.5-fold elevated risk of cancer of the lung, bladder, or kidney. The areas under the curve ranged from 0.567 to 0.662. Using PRS, 40.4% of the study participants can be classified as having more than a twofold elevated risk for at least one site-specific cancer. Conclusions: A large proportion of the general population can be identified at an elevated cancer risk by PRS, supporting the potential clinical utility of PRS for personalized cancer risk prediction.

7.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 181(3): 679-689, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367460

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Discordance between HER2 expression in tumor tissue (tHER2) and HER2 status on circulating tumor cells (cHER2) has been reported. It remains largely underexplored whether patients with tHER2-/cHER2+ can benefit from anti-HER2 targeted therapies. METHODS: cHER2 status was determined in 105 advanced-stage patients with tHER2- breast tumors. Association between cHER2 status and progression-free survival (PFS) was analyzed by univariate and multivariate Cox models and survival differences were compared by Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Compared to the patients with low-risk cHER2 (cHER2+ < 2), those with high-risk cHER2 (cHER2+ ≥ 2) had shorter survival time and an increased risk for disease progression (hazard ratio [HR] 2.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-3.88, P = 0.010). Among the patients with high-risk cHER2, those who received anti-HER2 targeted therapies had improved PFS compared with those who did not (HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.10-0.92, P = 0.035). In comparison, anti-HER2 targeted therapy did not affect PFS among those with low-risk cHER2 (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.36-1.38, P = 0.306). Similar results were obtained after adjusting covariates. A longitudinal analysis of 67 patients with cHER2 detected during follow-ups found that those whose cHER2 status changed from high-risk at baseline to low-risk at first follow-up exhibited a significantly improved survival compared to those whose cHER2 remained high-risk (median PFS: 11.7 weeks vs. 2.0 weeks, log-rank P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: In advanced-stage breast cancer patients with tHER2- tumors, cHER2 status has the potential to guide the use of anti-HER2 targeted therapy in patients with high-risk cHER2.

8.
Elife ; 92020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356724

RESUMO

Maintaining a healthy body weight requires an exquisite balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. To understand the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the regulation of body weight, an important first step is to establish the normal range of metabolic values and primary sources contributing to variability. Energy metabolism is measured by powerful and sensitive indirect calorimetry devices. Analysis of nearly 10,000 wild-type mice from two large-scale experiments revealed that the largest variation in energy expenditure is due to body composition, ambient temperature, and institutional site of experimentation. We also analyze variation in 2329 knockout strains and establish a reference for the magnitude of metabolic changes. Based on these findings, we provide suggestions for how best to design and conduct energy balance experiments in rodents. These recommendations will move us closer to the goal of a centralized physiological repository to foster transparency, rigor and reproducibility in metabolic physiology experimentation.

9.
Genet Med ; 22(7): 1191-1200, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296164

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The increasing use of electronic health records (EHRs) and biobanks offers unique opportunities to study Mendelian diseases. We described a novel approach to summarize clinical manifestations from patient EHRs into phenotypic evidence for cystic fibrosis (CF) with potential to alert unrecognized patients of the disease. METHODS: We estimated genetically predicted expression (GReX) of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and tested for association with clinical diagnoses in the Vanderbilt University biobank (N = 9142 persons of European descent with 71 cases of CF). The top associated EHR phenotypes were assessed in combination as a phenotype risk score (PheRS) for discriminating CF case status in an additional 2.8 million patients from Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) and 125,305 adult patients including 25,314 CF cases from MarketScan, an independent external cohort. RESULTS: GReX of CFTR was associated with EHR phenotypes consistent with CF. PheRS constructed using the EHR phenotypes and weights discovered by the genetic associations improved discriminative power for CF over the initially proposed PheRS in both VUMC and MarketScan. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates the power of EHRs for clinical description of CF and the benefits of using a genetics-informed weighing scheme in construction of a phenotype risk score. This research may find broad applications for phenomic studies of Mendelian disease genes.

10.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(4): e1007522, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282793

RESUMO

Studies of complex disorders benefit from integrative analyses of multiple omics data. Yet, sample mix-ups frequently occur in multi-omics studies, weakening statistical power and risking false findings. Accurately aligning sample information, genotype, and corresponding omics data is critical for integrative analyses. We developed DRAMS (https://github.com/Yi-Jiang/DRAMS) to Detect and Re-Align Mixed-up Samples to address the sample mix-up problem. It uses a logistic regression model followed by a modified topological sorting algorithm to identify the potential true IDs based on data relationships of multi-omics. According to tests using simulated data, the more types of omics data used or the smaller the proportion of mix-ups, the better that DRAMS performs. Applying DRAMS to real data from the PsychENCODE BrainGVEX project, we detected and corrected 201 (12.5% of total data generated) mix-ups. Of the 21 mix-ups involving errors of racial identity, DRAMS re-assigned all data to the correct racial group in the 1000 Genomes project. In doing so, quantitative trait loci (QTL) (FDR<0.01) increased by an average of 1.62-fold. The use of DRAMS in multi-omics studies will strengthen statistical power of the study and improve quality of the results. Even though very limited studies have multi-omics data in place, we expect such data will increase quickly with the needs of DRAMS.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Genômica/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Algoritmos , Cromatina/química , Simulação por Computador , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Genoma , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , RNA-Seq , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Software , Interface Usuário-Computador , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
11.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 75(1): 85-98, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32280092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deterioration of ionized calcium (Ca2+) handling in neurons could lead to neurodegenerative disease. Magnesium (Mg) antagonizes Ca during many physiologic activities, including energy metabolism and catalyzation of demethylation from 5-methylcytosine(5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine(5-hmC). OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that actively reducing the Ca:Mg intake ratio in the diet through Mg supplementation improves cognitive function, and to test whether this effect is partially mediated by modified cytosines in Apolipoprotein E (APOE). METHODS: This study is nested within the Personalized Prevention of Colorectal Cancer Trial (PPCCT), a double-blind 2×2 factorial randomized controlled trial, which enrolled 250 participants from Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Target doses for both Mg and placebo arms were personalized. RESULTS: Among those aged > 65 years old who consumed a high Ca:Mg ratio diet, we found that reducing the Ca:Mg ratio to around 2.3 by personalized Mg supplementation significantly improved cognitive function by 9.1% (p = 0.03). We also found that reducing the Ca:Mg ratio significantly reduced 5-mC at the cg13496662 and cg06750524 sites only among those aged > 65 years old (p values = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). Furthermore, the beneficial effect of reducing the Ca:Mg ratio on cognitive function in those aged over 65 years was partially mediated by reductions in 5-mC levels (i.e., cg13496662 and cg06750524) in APOE (p for indirect effect = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that, among those age 65 and over with a high dietary Ca:Mg ratio, optimal Mg status may improve cognitive function partially through modifications in APOE methylation. These findings, if confirmed, have significant implications for the prevention of cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease.Clinical Trial Registry number and website: #100106 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03265483.

12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1217, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139696

RESUMO

Known risk variants explain only a small proportion of breast cancer heritability, particularly in Asian women. To search for additional genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer, here we perform a meta-analysis of data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted in Asians (24,206 cases and 24,775 controls) and European descendants (122,977 cases and 105,974 controls). We identified 31 potential novel loci with the lead variant showing an association with breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10-8. The associations for 10 of these loci were replicated in an independent sample of 16,787 cases and 16,680 controls of Asian women (P < 0.05). In addition, we replicated the associations for 78 of the 166 known risk variants at P < 0.05 in Asians. These findings improve our understanding of breast cancer genetics and etiology and extend previous findings from studies of European descendants to Asian women.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
13.
Nat Med ; 26(1): 98-109, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932796

RESUMO

Discovery of genotype-phenotype relationships remains a major challenge in clinical medicine. Here, we combined three sources of phenotypic data to uncover a new mechanism for rare and common diseases resulting from collagen secretion deficits. Using a zebrafish genetic screen, we identified the ric1 gene as being essential for skeletal biology. Using a gene-based phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) in the EHR-linked BioVU biobank, we show that reduced genetically determined expression of RIC1 is associated with musculoskeletal and dental conditions. Whole-exome sequencing identified individuals homozygous-by-descent for a rare variant in RIC1 and, through a guided clinical re-evaluation, it was discovered that they share signs with the BioVU-associated phenome. We named this new Mendelian syndrome CATIFA (cleft lip, cataract, tooth abnormality, intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and revealed further disease mechanisms. This gene-based, PheWAS-guided approach can accelerate the discovery of clinically relevant disease phenome and associated biological mechanisms.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Fenômica , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Condrócitos/patologia , Condrócitos/ultraestrutura , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibroblastos/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Sistema Musculoesquelético/patologia , Osteogênese , Fenótipo , Pró-Colágeno/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico , Via Secretória , Síndrome , Peixe-Zebra
14.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(3): 295-304, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation plays a critical role in breast cancer development. Previous studies have identified DNA methylation marks in white blood cells as promising biomarkers for breast cancer. However, these studies were limited by low statistical power and potential biases. Using a new methodology, we investigated DNA methylation marks for their associations with breast cancer risk. METHODS: Statistical models were built to predict levels of DNA methylation marks using genetic data and DNA methylation data from HumanMethylation450 BeadChip from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 1595). The prediction models were validated using data from the Women's Health Initiative (n = 883). We applied these models to genomewide association study (GWAS) data of 122 977 breast cancer patients and 105 974 controls to evaluate if the genetically predicted DNA methylation levels at CpG sites (CpGs) are associated with breast cancer risk. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Of the 62 938 CpG sites CpGs investigated, statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk were observed for 450 CpGs at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P less than 7.94 × 10-7, including 45 CpGs residing in 18 genomic regions, that have not previously been associated with breast cancer risk. Of the remaining 405 CpGs located within 500 kilobase flaking regions of 70 GWAS-identified breast cancer risk variants, the associations for 11 CpGs were independent of GWAS-identified variants. Integrative analyses of genetic, DNA methylation, and gene expression data found that 38 CpGs may affect breast cancer risk through regulating expression of 21 genes. CONCLUSION: Our new methodology can identify novel DNA methylation biomarkers for breast cancer risk and can be applied to other diseases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metilação de DNA , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Risco , Transcriptoma
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(1): 112-120, 2020 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883642

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can improve assessment of low-frequency and rare variants, particularly in non-European populations that have been underrepresented in existing genomic studies. The genetic determinants of C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker of chronic inflammation, have been extensively studied, with existing genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted in >200,000 individuals of European ancestry. In order to discover novel loci associated with CRP levels, we examined a multi-ancestry population (n = 23,279) with WGS (∼38× coverage) from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program. We found evidence for eight distinct associations at the CRP locus, including two variants that have not been identified previously (rs11265259 and rs181704186), both of which are non-coding and more common in individuals of African ancestry (∼10% and ∼1% minor allele frequency, respectively, and rare or monomorphic in 1000 Genomes populations of East Asian, South Asian, and European ancestry). We show that the minor (G) allele of rs181704186 is associated with lower CRP levels and decreased transcriptional activity and protein binding in vitro, providing a plausible molecular mechanism for this African ancestry-specific signal. The individuals homozygous for rs181704186-G have a mean CRP level of 0.23 mg/L, in contrast to individuals heterozygous for rs181704186 with mean CRP of 2.97 mg/L and major allele homozygotes with mean CRP of 4.11 mg/L. This study demonstrates the utility of WGS in multi-ethnic populations to drive discovery of complex trait associations of large effect and to identify functional alleles in noncoding regulatory regions.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação
16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 477-486, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk variants identified so far for colorectal cancer explain only a small proportion of familial risk of this cancer, particularly in Asians. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of colorectal cancer in East Asians, including 23,572 colorectal cancer cases and 48,700 controls. To identify novel risk loci, we selected 60 promising risk variants for replication using data from 58,131 colorectal cancer cases and 67,347 controls of European descent. To identify additional risk variants in known colorectal cancer loci, we performed conditional analyses in East Asians. RESULTS: An indel variant, rs67052019 at 1p13.3, was found to be associated with colorectal cancer risk at P = 3.9 × 10-8 in Asians (OR per allele deletion = 1.13, 95% confidence interval = 1.08-1.18). This association was replicated in European descendants using a variant (rs2938616) in complete linkage disequilibrium with rs67052019 (P = 7.7 × 10-3). Of the remaining 59 variants, 12 showed an association at P < 0.05 in the European-ancestry study, including rs11108175 and rs9634162 at P < 5 × 10-8 and two variants with an association near the genome-wide significance level (rs60911071, P = 5.8 × 10-8; rs62558833, P = 7.5 × 10-8) in the combined analyses of Asian- and European-ancestry data. In addition, using data from East Asians, we identified 13 new risk variants at 11 loci reported from previous GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: In this large GWAS, we identified three novel risk loci and two highly suggestive loci for colorectal cancer risk and provided evidence for potential roles of multiple genes and pathways in the etiology of colorectal cancer. In addition, we showed that additional risk variants exist in many colorectal cancer risk loci identified previously. IMPACT: Our study provides novel data to improve the understanding of the genetic basis for colorectal cancer risk.

17.
EBioMedicine ; 48: 203-211, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously conducted a systematic field synopsis of 1059 breast cancer candidate gene studies and investigated 279 genetic variants, 51 of which showed associations. The major limitation of this work was the small sample size, even pooling data from all 1059 studies. Thereafter, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have accumulated data for hundreds of thousands of subjects. It's necessary to re-evaluate these variants in large GWAS datasets. METHODS: Of these 279 variants, data were obtained for 228 from GWAS conducted within the Asian Breast Cancer Consortium (24,206 cases and 24,775 controls) and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry). Meta-analyses were conducted to combine the results from these two datasets. FINDINGS: Of those 228 variants, an association was observed for 12 variants in 10 genes at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 2·19 × 10-4. The associations for four variants reached P < 5 × 10-8 and have been reported by previous GWAS, including rs6435074 and rs6723097 (CASP8), rs17879961 (CHEK2) and rs2853669 (TERT). The remaining eight variants were rs676387 (HSD17B1), rs762551 (CYP1A2), rs1045485 (CASP8), rs9340799 (ESR1), rs7931342 (CHR11), rs1050450 (GPX1), rs13010627 (CASP10) and rs9344 (CCND1). Further investigating these 10 genes identified associations for two additional variants at P < 5 × 10-8, including rs4793090 (near HSD17B1), and rs9210 (near CYP1A2), which have not been identified by previous GWAS. INTERPRETATION: Though most candidate gene variants were not associated with breast cancer risk, we found 14 variants showing an association. Our findings warrant further functional investigation of these variants. FUND: National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Caspase 8 , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vigilância da População , Risco
18.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(5): 691-699, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988527

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 schizophrenia (SCZ)-associated loci, but using these findings to illuminate disease biology remains a challenge. Here we present integrative risk gene selector (iRIGS), a Bayesian framework that integrates multi-omics data and gene networks to infer risk genes in GWAS loci. By applying iRIGS to SCZ GWAS data, we predicted a set of high-confidence risk genes, most of which are not the nearest genes to the GWAS index variants. High-confidence risk genes account for a significantly enriched heritability, as estimated by stratified linkage disequilibrium score regression. Moreover, high-confidence risk genes are predominantly expressed in brain tissues, especially prenatally, and are enriched for targets of approved drugs, suggesting opportunities to reposition existing drugs for SCZ. Thus, iRIGS can leverage accumulating functional genomics and GWAS data to advance our understanding of SCZ etiology and potential therapeutics.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica/métodos , Esquizofrenia/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Camundongos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Curr Protoc Hum Genet ; 101(1): e83, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849219

RESUMO

With the advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, whole genome and whole exome DNA sequencing has become affordable for routine genetic studies. Coupled with improved genotyping arrays and genotype imputation methodologies, it is increasingly feasible to obtain rare genetic variant information in large datasets. Such datasets allow researchers to gain a more complete understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits caused by rare variants. State-of-the-art statistical methods for the statistical genetics analysis of sequence-based association, including efficient algorithms for association analysis in biobank-scale datasets, gene-association tests, meta-analysis, fine mapping methods that integrate functional genomic dataset, and phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS), are reviewed here. These methods are expected to be highly useful for next generation statistical genetics analysis in the era of precision medicine. © 2019 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Algoritmos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
20.
Mol Cancer Res ; 17(5): 1024-1035, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683671

RESUMO

Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog signaling pathway has been linked to the formation of numerous cancer types, including the myogenic soft tissue sarcoma, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (eRMS). Here, we report PCG2, a novel mouse model in which human GLI2A, a constitutive activator of Hedgehog signaling, induced undifferentiated sarcomas that were phenotypically divergent from eRMS. Rather, sarcomas arising in PCG2 mice featured some characteristics that were reminiscent of Ewing sarcoma. Even though it is widely understood that Ewing sarcoma formation is driven by EWS-ETS gene fusions, a genetically defined mouse model is not well-established. While EWS-ETS gene fusions were not present in PCG2 sarcomas, precluding their designation as Ewing sarcoma, we did find that GLI2A induced expression of known EWS-ETS gene targets essential to Ewing pathogenesis, most notably, Nkx2.2. Moreover, we found that naïve mesenchymal progenitors originate tumors in PCG2 mice. Altogether, our work provides a novel genetic mouse model, which directly connects oncogenic Hedgehog activity to the etiology of undifferentiated soft tissue sarcomas for the first time. IMPLICATIONS: The finding that activation of Gli2 transcription factor is sufficient to induce Ewing-like sarcomas provides a direct transformative role of the Hedgehog signaling pathway in undifferentiated soft tissue sarcoma.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Sarcoma de Ewing/patologia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Proteína Gli3 com Dedos de Zinco/genética , Animais , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Sarcoma de Ewing/genética , Sarcoma de Ewing/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteína Gli3 com Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo
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