*Phys Rev Lett ; 124(18): 180503, 2020 May 08.*

##### RESUMO

Quantum networks illustrate the use of connected nodes of quantum systems as the backbone of distributed quantum information processing. When the network nodes are entangled in graph states, such a quantum platform is indispensable to almost all the existing distributed quantum tasks. Unfortunately, real networks unavoidably suffer from noise and technical restrictions, making nodes transit from quantum to classical at worst. Here, we introduce a figure of merit in terms of the number of classical nodes for quantum networks in arbitrary graph states. Such a network property is revealed by exploiting a novel Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steerability. Experimentally, we demonstrate photonic quantum networks of n_{q} quantum nodes and n_{c} classical nodes with n_{q} up to 6 and n_{c} up to 18 using spontaneous parametric down-conversion entanglement sources. We show that the proposed method is faithful in quantifying the classical defects in prepared multiphoton quantum networks. Our results provide novel identification of generic quantum networks and nonclassical correlations in graph states.

*Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3093, 2020 Feb 20.*

##### RESUMO

Quantum teleportation enables networking participants to move an unknown quantum state between the nodes of a quantum network, and hence constitutes an essential element in constructing large-sale quantum processors with a quantum modular architecture. Herein, we propose two protocols for teleporting qubits through an N-node quantum network in a highly-entangled box-cluster state or chain-type cluster state. The proposed protocols are systematically scalable to an arbitrary finite number N and applicable to arbitrary size of modules. The protocol based on a box-cluster state is implemented on a 14-qubit IBM quantum computer for N up to 12. To identify faithful networking teleportation, namely that the elements on real devices required for the networking teleportation process are all qualified for achieving teleportation task, we quantify quantum-mechanical processes using a generic classical-process model through which any classical strategies of mimicry of teleportation can be ruled out. From the viewpoint of achieving a genuinely quantum-mechanical process, the present work provides a novel toolbox consisting of the networking teleportation protocols and the criteria for identifying faithful teleportation for universal quantum computers with modular architectures and facilitates further improvements in the reliability of quantum-information processing.

*Sci Rep ; 9(1): 20316, 2019 Dec 30.*

##### RESUMO

Physical processes in the quantum regime possess non-classical properties of quantum mechanics. However, methods for quantitatively identifying such processes are still lacking. Accordingly, in this study, we develop a framework for characterizing and quantifying the ability of processes to cause quantum-mechanical effects on physical systems. We start by introducing a new concept, referred to as quantum process capability, to evaluate the effects of an experimental process upon a prescribed quantum specification. Various methods are then introduced for measuring such a capability. It is shown that the methods are adapted to quantum process tomography for implementation of process capability measure and applicable to all physical processes that can be described using the general theory of quantum operations. The utility of the proposed framework is demonstrated through several examples, including processes of entanglement, coherence, and superposition. The formalism proposed in this study provides a generic approach for the identification of dynamical processes in quantum mechanics and facilitates the general classification of quantum-information processing.

*Sci Rep ; 7(1): 13588, 2017 10 19.*

##### RESUMO

The act of describing how a physical process changes a system is the basis for understanding observed phenomena. For quantum-mechanical processes in particular, the affect of processes on quantum states profoundly advances our knowledge of the natural world, from understanding counter-intuitive concepts to the development of wholly quantum-mechanical technology. Here, we show that quantum-mechanical processes can be quantified using a generic classical-process model through which any classical strategies of mimicry can be ruled out. We demonstrate the success of this formalism using fundamental processes postulated in quantum mechanics, the dynamics of open quantum systems, quantum-information processing, the fusion of entangled photon pairs, and the energy transfer in a photosynthetic pigment-protein complex. Since our framework does not depend on any specifics of the states being processed, it reveals a new class of correlations in the hierarchy between entanglement and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering and paves the way for the elaboration of a generic method for quantifying physical processes.

*Sci Rep ; 7(1): 3728, 2017 06 16.*

##### RESUMO

We introduce the concept of spatio-temporal steering (STS), which reduces, in special cases, to Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering and the recently-introduced temporal steering. We describe two measures of this effect referred to as the STS weight and robustness. We suggest that these STS measures enable a new way to assess nonclassical correlations in an open quantum network, such as quantum transport through nano-structures or excitation transfer in a complex biological system. As one of our examples, we apply STS to check nonclassical correlations among sites in a photosynthetic pigment-protein complex in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson model.

*Sci Rep ; 6: 22088, 2016 Feb 26.*

##### RESUMO

Quantum correlations between spatially separated parts of a d-dimensional bipartite system (d ≥ 2) have no classical analog. Such correlations, also called entanglements, are not only conceptually important, but also have a profound impact on information science. In theory the violation of Bell inequalities based on local realistic theories for d-dimensional systems provides evidence of quantum nonlocality. Experimental verification is required to confirm whether a quantum system of extremely large dimension can possess this feature, however it has never been performed for large dimension. Here, we report that Bell inequalities are experimentally violated for bipartite quantum systems of dimensionality d = 16 with the usual ensembles of polarization-entangled photon pairs. We also estimate that our entanglement source violates Bell inequalities for extremely high dimensionality of d > 4000. The designed scenario offers a possible new method to investigate the entanglement of multipartite systems of large dimensionality and their application in quantum information processing.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 116(2): 020503, 2016 Jan 15.*

##### RESUMO

Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering is a type of quantum correlation which allows one to remotely prepare, or steer, the state of a distant quantum system. While EPR steering can be thought of as a purely spatial correlation, there does exist a temporal analogue, in the form of single-system temporal steering. However, a precise quantification of such temporal steering has been lacking. Here, we show that it can be measured, via semidefinite programing, with a temporal steerable weight, in direct analogy to the recently proposed EPR steerable weight. We find a useful property of the temporal steerable weight in that it is a nonincreasing function under completely positive trace-preserving maps and can be used to define a sufficient and practical measure of strong non-Markovianity.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 115(1): 010402, 2015 Jul 03.*

##### RESUMO

Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering demonstrates that two parties share entanglement even if the measurement devices of one party are untrusted. Here, going beyond this bipartite concept, we develop a novel formalism to explore a large class of EPR steering from generic multipartite quantum systems of arbitrarily high dimensionality and degrees of freedom, such as graph states and hyperentangled systems. All of these quantum characteristics of genuine high-order EPR steering can be efficiently certified with few measurement settings in experiments. We faithfully demonstrate for the first time such generality by experimentally showing genuine four-partite EPR steering and applications to universal one-way quantum computing. Our formalism provides a new insight into the intermediate type of genuine multipartite Bell nonlocality and potential applications to quantum information tasks and experiments in the presence of untrusted measurement devices.

*Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 88(3): 032120, 2013 Sep.*

##### RESUMO

We investigate, using the hierarchy method, the entanglement and the excitation transfer efficiency of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex under two different local modifications: the suppression of transitions between particular sites and localized changes to the protein environment. We find that inhibiting the connection between site 5 and site 6, or completely disconnecting site 5 from the complex, leads to a dramatic enhancement of the entanglement between site 6 and site 7. Similarly, the transfer efficiency actually increases if site 5 is entirely disconnected from the complex. We further show that if sites 5 and 7 are conjointly removed, the efficiency falls. This suggests that while not contributing to the transport efficiency in a normal complex, site 5 may introduce a redundant transport route in case of damage to site 7. Our results suggest an overall robustness of the excitation-energy transfer in the FMO complex under mutations, local defects, and other abnormal situations.

*Sci Rep ; 3: 2514, 2013.*

##### RESUMO

If two identical emitters are coupled to a common reservoir, entanglement can be generated during the decay process. When using Bell's inequality to examine the non-locality, however, it is possible that the bound cannot be violated in some cases. Here, we propose to use the steering inequality to examine the non-locality induced by a common reservoir. Compared with the Bell inequality, we find that the steering inequality has a better tolerance for examining non-locality. In view of the dynamic nature of the entangling process, we also propose to observe the quantum coherent dynamics by using the Leggett-Garg inequalities. We also suggest a feasible scheme, which consists of two quantum dots coupled to nanowire surface plasmons, for possible experimental realization.

##### Assuntos

Retroalimentação , Modelos Teóricos , Pontos Quânticos , Teoria Quântica , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/métodos , Simulação por Computador*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 109(50): 20347-51, 2012 Dec 11.*

##### RESUMO

Quantum teleportation and quantum memory are two crucial elements for large-scale quantum networks. With the help of prior distributed entanglement as a "quantum channel," quantum teleportation provides an intriguing means to faithfully transfer quantum states among distant locations without actual transmission of the physical carriers [Bennett CH, et al. (1993) Phys Rev Lett 70(13):1895-1899]. Quantum memory enables controlled storage and retrieval of fast-flying photonic quantum bits with stationary matter systems, which is essential to achieve the scalability required for large-scale quantum networks. Combining these two capabilities, here we realize quantum teleportation between two remote atomic-ensemble quantum memory nodes, each composed of â¼10(8) rubidium atoms and connected by a 150-m optical fiber. The spin wave state of one atomic ensemble is mapped to a propagating photon and subjected to Bell state measurements with another single photon that is entangled with the spin wave state of the other ensemble. Two-photon detection events herald the success of teleportation with an average fidelity of 88(7)%. Besides its fundamental interest as a teleportation between two remote macroscopic objects, our technique may be useful for quantum information transfer between different nodes in quantum networks and distributed quantum computing.

*Sci Rep ; 2: 869, 2012.*

##### RESUMO

We show how to realize a single-photon Dicke state in a large one-dimensional array of two-level systems, and discuss how to test its quantum properties. The realization of single-photon Dicke states relies on the cooperative nature of the interaction between a field reservoir and an array of two-level-emitters. The resulting dynamics of the delocalized state can display Rabi-like oscillations when the number of two-level emitters exceeds several hundred. In this case, the large array of emitters is essentially behaving like a "mirror-less cavity". We outline how this might be realized using a multiple-quantum-well structure or a dc-SQUID array coupled to a transmission line, and discuss how the quantum nature of these oscillations could be tested with an extension of the Leggett-Garg inequality.

*Sci Rep ; 2: 885, 2012.*

##### RESUMO

Quantum coherence is one of the primary non-classical features of quantum systems. While protocols such as the Leggett-Garg inequality (LGI) and quantum tomography can be used to test for the existence of quantum coherence and dynamics in a given system, unambiguously detecting inherent "quantumness" still faces serious obstacles in terms of experimental feasibility and efficiency, particularly in complex systems. Here we introduce two "quantum witnesses" to efficiently verify quantum coherence and dynamics in the time domain, without the expense and burden of non-invasive measurements or full tomographic processes. Using several physical examples, including quantum transport in solid-state nanostructures and in biological organisms, we show that these quantum witnesses are robust and have a much finer resolution in their detection window than the LGI has. These robust quantum indicators may assist in reducing the experimental overhead in unambiguously verifying quantum coherence in complex systems.

##### Assuntos

Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz , Teoria Quântica , Nanoestruturas*Opt Lett ; 37(8): 1337-9, 2012 Apr 15.*

##### RESUMO

Generating entangled states is a vital ingredient for quantum information engineering. Here, we investigate the entanglement generation between two quantum dots coupled to nanoring surface plasmons with asymmetric coupling strength g(1) and g(2). The dynamics of concurrence C is obtained by solving the corresponding master equation. High entanglement can be generated at appropriate times through the scatterings of the incident field and its scattered field. Furthermore, we find that maximum entanglement can be created when r≡g(1)/g(2) is the ratio of odd numbers. Contrary to intuition, relative high entanglement (C≃1) can remain even if the ratio r is far off the required values, which is useful in real experiments.

*J Chem Phys ; 134(13): 134103, 2011 Apr 07.*

##### RESUMO

The implementations of quantum logic gates realized by the rovibrational states of a C(12)O(16) molecule in the X((1)Σ(+)) electronic ground state are investigated. Optimal laser fields are obtained by using the modified multitarget optimal theory (MTOCT) which combines the maxima of the cost functional and the fidelity for state and quantum process. The projection operator technique together with modified MTOCT is used to get optimal laser fields. If initial states of the quantum gate are pure states, states at target time approach well to ideal target states. However, if the initial states are mixed states, the target states do not approach well to ideal ones. The process fidelity is introduced to investigate the reliability of the quantum gate operation driven by the optimal laser field. We found that the quantum gates operate reliably whether the initial states are pure or mixed.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 105(21): 210504, 2010 Nov 19.*

##### RESUMO

High-order entanglement embedded in multipartite multilevel quantum systems (qudits) with many degrees of freedom (DOFs) plays an important role in quantum foundation and quantum engineering. Verifying high-order entanglement without the restriction of system complexity is a critical need in any experiments on general entanglement. Here, we introduce a scheme to efficiently detect genuine high-order entanglement, such as states close to genuine qudit Bell, Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger, and cluster states as well as multilevel multi-DOF hyperentanglement. All of them can be identified with two local measurement settings per DOF regardless of the qudit or DOF number. The proposed verifications together with further utilities such as fidelity estimation could pave the way for experiments by reducing dramatically the measurement overhead.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 99(12): 120503, 2007 Sep 21.*

##### RESUMO

We report an experimental realization of one-way quantum computing on a two-photon four-qubit cluster state. This is accomplished by developing a two-photon cluster state source entangled both in polarization and spatial modes. With this special source, we implemented a highly efficient Grover's search algorithm and high-fidelity two-qubit quantum gates. Our experiment demonstrates that such cluster states could serve as an ideal source and a building block for rapid and precise optical quantum computation.