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2.
Endocrinology ; 162(3)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543238

RESUMO

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an essential coenzyme that regulates cellular energy metabolism in many cell types. The major purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that NAD+ in white adipose tissue (WAT) is a regulator of whole-body metabolic flexibility in response to changes in insulin sensitivity and with respect to substrate availability and use during feeding and fasting conditions. To this end, we first evaluated the relationship between WAT NAD+ concentration and metabolic flexibility in mice and humans. We found that WAT NAD+ concentration was increased in mice after calorie restriction and exercise, 2 enhancers of metabolic flexibility. Bariatric surgery-induced 20% weight loss increased plasma adiponectin concentration, skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity, and WAT NAD+ concentration in people with obesity. We next analyzed adipocyte-specific nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) knockout (ANKO) mice, which have markedly decreased NAD+ concentrations in WAT. ANKO mice oxidized more glucose during the light period and after fasting than control mice. In contrast, the normal postprandial stimulation of glucose oxidation and suppression of fat oxidation were impaired in ANKO mice. Data obtained from RNA-sequencing of WAT suggest that loss of NAMPT increases inflammation, and impairs insulin sensitivity, glucose oxidation, lipolysis, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and mitochondrial function in WAT, which are features of metabolic inflexibility. These results demonstrate a novel function of WAT NAMPT-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis in regulating whole-body metabolic flexibility, and provide new insights into the role of adipose tissue NAD+ biology in metabolic health.

3.
Brain Res Bull ; 170: 49-57, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556561

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Hematoma expansion (HE) aggravates brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and hypertension is a key contributor to HE. Plasma kallikrein (PK) is involved in hemorrhagic transformation in ischemic stroke mice. This study was conducted to explore the role of PK in HE in hypertensive ICH. METHODS: Hypertension was achieved by continuous infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II) with an osmotic pump in C57BL/6 mice. ICH was achieved by stereotactic intrastriatal injection of blood. PK-specific antibody and platelet glycoprotein VI (GPVI) agonists were administered to intervene in hematoma expansion. The hematoma volume was indicated by the erythrocyte components hemoglobin and carbonic anhydrase-1 in the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. RESULTS: Ang II-induced hypertensive mice showed enhanced hematoma expansion and worsened neurologic deficits after ICH modeling. Moreover, intrastriatal injection of blood from Ang II-treated mice into normal mice increased the area of secondary hemorrhage more than blood from untreated mice. Mechanistically, elevated PK was found in Ang II-infused mice whereas, inhibition of PK and administration of the GPVI agonist convulxin decreased hematoma expansion and improved neurologic deficits after ICH. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that PK inhibition and GPVI agonist treatment might serve as potential methods to intervene in HE after ICH.

4.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 26, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early detection of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) would help to identify tumors when curative treatments are available and beneficial. However, current screening methods for CRC, e.g., colonoscopy, may affect patients' compliance due to the uncomfortable, invasive and time-consuming process. In recent decades, methylation profiles of blood-based circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) have shown promising results in the early detection of multiple tumors. Here we conducted a study to investigate the performance of ctDNA methylation markers in early detection of CRC. RESULTS: In total, 742 participants were enrolled in the study including CRC (n = 332), healthy control (n = 333), benign colorectal disease (n = 65) and advanced adenoma (n = 12). After age-matched and randomization, 298 participants (149 cancer and 149 healthy control) were included in training set and 141 (67 cancer and 74 healthy control) were in test set. In the training set, the specificity was 89.3% (83.2-93.7%) and the sensitivity was 88.6% (82.4-93.2%). In terms of different stages, the sensitivities were 79.4% (62.1-91.2%) in patients with stage I, 88.9% (77.3-95.8%) in patients with stage II, 91.4% (76.9-98.2%) in patients with stage III and 96.2% (80.3-99.9%) in patients with stage IV. Similar results were validated in the test set with the specificity of 91.9% (83.1-97.0%) and sensitivity of 83.6% (72.5-91.6%). Sensitivities for stage I-III were 87.0% (79.7-92.4%) in the training set and 82.5% (70.2-91.3%) in the test set, respectively. In the unmatched total population, the positive ratios were 7.8% (5.2-11.2%) in healthy control, 30.8% (19.9-43.5%) in benign colorectal disease and 58.3% (27.5-84.7%) in advanced adenoma, while the sensitivities of stage I-IV were similar with training and test sets. Compared with methylated SEPT9 model, the present model had higher sensitivity (87.0% [81.8-91.2%] versus 41.2% [34.6-48.1%], P < 0.001) under comparable specificity (90.1% [85.4-93.7%] versus 90.6% [86.0-94.1%]). CONCLUSIONS: Together our findings showed that ctDNA methylation markers were promising in the early detection of CRC. Further validation of this model is warranted in prospective studies.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1261, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441976

RESUMO

ß-Conglycinin (ß-CG), an anti-nutritional factor, is a major allergen in soybeans to induce intestinal dysfunction and diarrhea in neonatal animals, including piglets and human infants. This study with a piglet model determined the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on intestinal function and autophagy in response to ß-CG challenge. Twenty-four 12-day-old piglets (3.44 ± 0.28 kg), which had been weaned at 7 days of age and adapted for 5 days after weaning, were randomly allocated to the control, ß-CG, and ß-CG + NAC groups. Piglets in the control group were fed a liquid diet containing 10% casein, whereas those in the ß-CG and ß-CG + NAC groups were fed the basal liquid diets containing 9.5% casein and 0.5% ß-CG for 2 days. Thereafter, pigs in the ß-CG + NAC group were orally administrated with 50 mg (kg BW)-1 NAC for 3 days, while pigs in the other two groups were orally administrated with the same volume of sterile saline. NAC numerically reduced diarrhea incidence (- 46.2%) and the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde, but increased claudin-1 and intestinal fatty-acid binding protein (iFABP) protein abundances and activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the jejunum of ß-CG-challenged piglets. Although ß-CG challenge decreased the villus height, villus height/crypt depth ratio, and mRNA levels of claudin-1 and occludin, no significant differences were observed in these indices between the control and ß-CG + NAC groups, suggesting the positive effects of NAC supplementation on intestinal mucosal barrier function. Moreover, NAC increased the concentrations of citrulline and D-xylose in the plasma, as well as the expression of genes for aquaporin (AQP) 3, AQP4, peptide transporter 1 (PepT1), sodium/glucose co-transporter-1 (SGLT-1), potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 13 (KCNJ13), and solute carrier family 1 member 1 (SLC1A1) in the jejunum, demonstrating that NAC augmented intestinal metabolic activity and absorptive function. Remarkably, NAC decreased Atg5 protein abundance and the LC3II/LC3I ratio (an indicator of autophagy) in the jejunum of ß-CG-challenged piglets. Taken together, NAC supplementation improved intestinal function and attenuated intestinal autophagy in ß-CG-challenged piglets.

7.
Cancer Med ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A combination of programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) inhibitors and radiotherapy (RT) is increasingly being used to treat non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the safety and efficacy of this approach remains controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the related research. METHODS: We searched the China Biology Medicine, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and PubMed databases for all the relevant studies. The Stata software, version 12.0 was used for the meta-analysis. RESULTS: The study included 20 clinical trials that enrolled 2027 patients with NSCLC. Compared with non-combination therapy, combination therapy using PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors and RT was associated with prolonged overall survival (OS) (1-year OS: odds ratio [OR] 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-2.33, p = 0.000; 2-year OS: OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.35-2.33, p = 0.000) and progression-free survival (PFS) (0.5-year PFS: OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.13-2.98, p = 0.014; 1-year PFS: OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.29-3.38, p = 0.003; 2-year PFS: OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.13-5.37, p = 0.023). Combination therapy also improved the objective response rate (OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.06-7.19, p = 0.038) and disease control rate (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.21-2.68, p = 0.004). This meta-analysis showed that compared with non-combination therapy, combination therapy using PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors and RT did not increase the serious adverse event rates (≥grade 3); however, this approach increased the rate of grade 1-2 immune-related or radiation pneumonitis. Subgroup analyses revealed that the sequence of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors followed RT outperformed in which concurrent PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor and RT followed PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor. Combination of stereotactic body RT or stereotactic radiosurgery with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors may be more effective than a combination of conventional RT with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in patients with advanced NSCLC. CONCLUSION: Combination therapy using PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors and RT may improve OS, PFS, and tumor response rates without an increase in serious adverse events in patients with advanced NSCLC. However, combination therapy was shown to increase the incidence of mild pneumonitis.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143638, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288260

RESUMO

High environmental arsenic exposure can increase chronic oxidative stress in experimental studies and in occupational epidemiology studies. Many regulatory agencies have put forth arsenic exposure limits, it is still unclear that whether low environmental arsenic exposure was associated with adverse health outcome in general population. This study aimed to explore the association of low blood arsenic with malondialdehyde in community-dwelling older adults. We used a cross-sectional study of 2384 older adult individuals aged ≥65 years (mean age: 85 years) from the Healthy Aging and Biomarkers Cohort Study in 2017. The median blood arsenic level was 1.41 µg/L. High oxidative stress was categorized according to the 95th percentile of MDA levels (7.47 nmol/mL). Restricted cubic spline models showed that blood arsenic levels were positively associated with malondialdehyde levels (P < 0.01); and the risk of high oxidative stress was no longer significantly increased when blood arsenic level up to 8.74 µg/L. After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds ratios of high oxidative stress for the second, third, and fourth quartiles of blood arsenic were 2.35 (1.11-4.96), 3.87 (1.90-7.91), and 4.18 (2.00-8.72) (Ptrend < 0.01), compared with the first quartile. We concluded that even low arsenic exposure was associated with higher risk of oxidative stress, in a nonlinear dose-response.

9.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ephrin type-A receptors (EPHA) are members of family of receptor tyrosine kinases and are related to tumor immunogenicity and immune microenvironment, however, the association between EPHA mutation (EPHAmut ) and efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has not been investigated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Multiple cohorts were used to assess the immunotherapeutic predictive performance of EPHAmut , including one discovery cohort (n=79) and two public validation cohort (cohort 1: NSCLC, n=165; cohort 2: pan-cancer, n=1662). The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort was used for prognostic analysis and mechanism exploration. RESULTS: In the discovery cohort, patients with EPHAmut had superior disease control rate (72.2% vs 36.1%, p=0.01) and progression-free survival (PFS) (HR 0.38; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.68; p<0.001) compared with those with wide-type EPHA (EPHAwt ) in NSCLC. The association between EPHAmut and immunotherapy outcomes in NSCLC was consistently observed in the validation cohorts by multivariable models (cohort 1, PFS HR 0.59; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.96; p=0.03; cohort 2, overall survival (OS) HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.98; p=0.04). Further pooled estimates of the discovery and validation cohorts showed that patients with EPHAmut exhibited a significantly longer PFS and OS in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) while not squamous cell lung cancer (LUSC). Consistently, mechanism analysis revealed that patients with EPHAmut was associated with increased T cell signatures and downregulated transforming growth factor-ß signaling compared with patients with EPHAwt in LUAD while not LUSC. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that EPHAmut is an independent classifier that could stratify patients with LUAD for ICIs therapy. Further prospective studies are warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCC2016JZ-03, NCC2018-092.

10.
Front Public Health ; 8: 579705, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33330321

RESUMO

Radiation therapy is an important component of the comprehensive treatment of esophageal cancer. However, conventional radiation resistance is one of the main reasons for treatment failure. The superiority of heavy ion radiation in physics and biology has been increasingly highlighted in radiation therapy research. The Janus Kinase 2/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) pathway plays an important role in the occurrence, development and metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and is related to the development of resistance to ionizing radiation in ESCC. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between carbon ion inhibition of the proliferation and metastasis of esophageal carcinoma cells and the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. The results demonstrated that carbon ion beams significantly reduced cell viability and stimulated apoptosis in human ESCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, carbon ion beams induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in ESCC cells and inhibited tumor metastasis in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, poorly differentiated KYSE150 cells were more sensitive to the same carbon ion beam dose than moderately differentiated ECA109 cells. Carbon ion beam exposure regulated the relative expression of metastasis-related molecules at the transcriptional and translational levels in ESCC cells. Carbon ion beams also regulated CDH1 and MMP2 downstream of the STAT3 pathway and inhibited ESCC cell metastasis, which activated the STAT3 signaling pathway. This study confirmed the inhibition of cell proliferation and the metastatic effect of carbon ion beam therapy in ESCC cells.

11.
FEBS Open Bio ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159715

RESUMO

Biallelic loss-of-function MEGF10 mutations lead to MEGF10 myopathy, also known as early onset myopathy with areflexia, respiratory distress, and dysphagia (EMARDD). MEGF10 is expressed in muscle satellite cells, but the contribution of satellite cell dysfunction to MEGF10 myopathy is unclear. Myofibers and satellite cells were isolated and examined from Megf10-/- and wild-type mice. A separate set of mice underwent repeated intramuscular barium chloride injections. Megf10-/- muscle satellite cells showed reduced proliferation and migration, while Megf10-/- mouse skeletal muscles showed impaired regeneration. Megf10 deficiency is associated with impaired muscle regeneration, due in part to defects in satellite cell function. Efforts to rescue Megf10 deficiency will have therapeutic implications for MEGF10 myopathy and other inherited muscle diseases involving impaired muscle regeneration.

14.
Environ Int ; 146: 106252, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242729

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Globally, developed countries such as the United States, Canada, Germany, Korea, have carried out long-term and systematic biomonitoring programs for environmental chemicals in their populations. The China National Human Biomonitoring (CNHBM) was to document the extent of human exposure to a wide array of environmental chemicals, to understand exposure profiles, magnitude and ongoing trends in exposure in the general Chinese population, and to establish a national biorepository. METHODS: CNHBM adopted three-stage sampling method to obtain a nationally representative sample of the population. A total of 21,888 participants who were permanent residents in 31 provinces were designed to interviewed in this national biomonitoring (152 monitoring sites × 3 survey units × 2 sexes × 6 age groups × 4 persons = 21,888 persons) in 2017-2018. Unlike the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the CNHBM will follow the same participants in subsequent cycles allowing for dynamic, longitudinal data sets for epidemiologic follow-up. Each survey cycle of CNHBM will last 2 years and each subsequent cycle will occur 3 years after the prior cycle's completion. RESULTS: In 2017-2018, the CNHBM created a large cohort of Chinese citizens that included districts/counties questionnaire, community questionnaire collecting information on villages/communities, individual questionnaire, household questionnaire, comprehensive medical examination, and collection of blood and urine samples for measurement of clinical and exposure biomarkers. A total of 21,746 participants were finally included in CNHBM, accounting for 99.4% of the designed sample size; and 152 PSUs questionnaires, 454 community questionnaires, 21,619 family questionnaires, 21,712 cases of medical examinations, 21,700 individual questionnaires, 21,701 blood samples and 21,704 urine samples were collected, respectively. Planned analyses of blood and urine samples were to measure both inorganic and organic chemicals, including 13 heavy metals and metalloids, 18 poly- and per-fluorinated alkyl substances, 12 phthalate metabolites, 9 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites, 4 environmental alkylated phenols, and 2 benzene metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: CNHBM established the first nationally representative, prospective cohort in the Chinese population to understand the baseline and trend of internal exposure of environmental chemicals in general population, and to understand environmental toxicity.

15.
Anal Chem ; 92(19): 13427-13433, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872766

RESUMO

Electrochemical aptamer-based (E-AB) sensors, exploiting binding-induced changes in biomolecular conformation, are rapid, specific, and selective and perform well even in a complex matrix, such as directly in whole blood and even in vivo. However, like all sensors employing biomolecular recognitions, E-AB sensors suffer from an inherent limitation of single-site binding, i.e., its fixed dose-response curve. To circumvent this, we employ here distal-site mutation and allosteric inhibition to rationally tune the dynamic range of E-AB sensors, achieving sets of sensors with a significantly varied target affinity (∼3 orders of magnitude). Using their combination, we recreate several approaches to narrow (down to 5-fold) or extend (up to 2000-fold) the dynamic range of biological receptors. The thermodynamic consequences of aptamer-surface interactions are estimated via the free-energy difference in solution-phase and surface-bound biosensors employing the same aptamer as a recognition element, revealing that an allostery strategy provides a more predictable and efficient means to finely control the target affinity and dynamic range. Such an ability to rationally modulate the affinity of biomolecule receptors would open the door to applications including cancer therapy, bioelectronics, and many other fields employing biomolecule recognition.

16.
Curr Mol Pharmacol ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the quercetin's effects on Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) translocation in condition of high glucose and try to clarify the underlying mechanisms and provide new ideas for the treatment of diabetic cataract (DC). METHODS: Human lens epithelial lines SRA01/04 cells were divided into groups below: normal glucose, high glucose with specific time (0 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, 24 h), high glucose plus the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002, high glucose plus mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin, and high glucose plus quercetin with different doses (2 µmol/L, 4 µmol/L and 8 µmol/L). Western blotting assay was used to detect the protein kinase B (Akt), phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) and AQP1. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of AQP1. A Membrane and Cytosol Protein Extraction Kit was applied to separate membrane proteins. Immunofluorescence assay was performed to evaluate the expression and location of AQP1. The effect of quercetin on the expression of AQP1 and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling was detected. RESULTS: AQP1 protein was significantly increased at the time of 24 hour when exposured to high glucose (P<0.01). LY294002 and rapamycin inhibited PI3K/Akt/mTOR and AQP1 expression (P<0.01), prevented the change of AQP1 location in SRA01/04 plasma membrane (P<0.01). This effect was further proved by immunofluorescence. In different doses of quercetin groups (2 µmol/L, 4 µmol/L and 8 µmol/L), the phosphorylation of mTOR and Akt were decreased and AQP1 in membrane was changed compared with high glucose group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Quercetin significantly decreased the AQP1 elevation and prevented the change of AQP1 location through inhibiting the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in high-glucose-cultured SRA01/04 cells, which might have the preventable and inhibitory effects on the early development of diabetic cataract. The specific pathophysiological role of quercetin still needs to be verified.

18.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 17: 58, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760432

RESUMO

Objectives: Both low vitamin D status and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are worldwide concerns, and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are associated with MetS; however, related epidemiological evidence based on elderly Chinese individuals, especially those over 80 years of age, is limited. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the association between serum 25(OH)D and MetS in elderly Chinese individuals. Method: Serum 25(OH)D was measured in a cross-sectional sample of 2493 elderly people aged 65-112 years from eight areas of China in which the density of centenarians is exceptionally high. MetS was diagnosed according to blood pressure, lipid, and blood sugar levels; waist circumference; and body mass index (BMI). Adjusted multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between vitamin D and MetS based on different diagnostic criterias. Results: A total of 890 (35.7%) of the recruited elderly individuals had insufficient levels of vitamin D, and 1029 participants (41.3%) were vitamin D deficient. High serum vitamin D concentrations were associated with a low prevalence of MetS according to the modified Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria for adequate versus deficient vitamin D levels (OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.45, 0.88) and inadequate versus deficient vitamin D levels (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.92). Each 10 ng/ml increase in serum vitamin D was significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of MetS according to the modified ATP III criteria for people with normal waist circumference (WC) (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.43,0.71). However, no significant statistical correlation was found among elderly people with a high WC. Additionally, in the analysis of the individual components, the ORs of adequate versus deficient vitamin D levels were 0.46 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.71) for elevated triglycerides and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.97) for reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) after adjustment for other components. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is very common among elderly Chinese individuals. Vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for MetS; however, the association was only statistically significant among elderly people with noncentral obesity. Further studies are needed to examine the causal direction of the association.

19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(33): 41157-41174, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815007

RESUMO

Awareness concerning the degradation of groundwater quality and their exacerbating adverse effects due to salinization processes is gaining traction, raising for adequate understanding of the distribution, sources, genesis, and environmental concerns of salinity in groundwater. Saline groundwater is widely distributed all over the world, with an area of 24 million km2 (16% of the total land area on earth) and 1.1 billion people living in the affected areas, especially the arid/semi-arid areas in developing countries. These large-scale groundwater salinization problems are sourced from two major ways: natural and anthropogenic. The natural sources are diversified from connate saline groundwater, seawater intrusion, evaporation, dissolution of soluble salts, membrane filtration process to geothermal origin. The anthropogenic sources include irrigation return flow, road deicing salts, industrial and agricultural wastewater, and gas and oil production activities. The integrated approach of geochemical tracers and multiple isotopes (δ18OH2O, δ2HH2O, δ11B, δ36Cl, δ34Ssulfate, 87Sr/86Sr, and δ7Li) is proved to be useful in the constraints of the origin and transport of solutes in groundwater. Groundwater salinization is often associated with high levels of some toxic elements like arsenic, fluoride, selenium, and boron. Four "triggers" lead to this association: salt effect, competing adsorption, microbial processes, and cation exchange.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Salinidade , Água do Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
Acta Diabetol ; 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816106

RESUMO

AIMS: Glomerular mesangial cell (MC) proliferation is one of the main pathological changes in diabetic nephropathy (DN), but its mechanism needs further elaboration. The Hippo and PI3K/Akt signalling pathways are involved in the regulation of MC proliferation, but their relationship in hyperglycaemia-induced MC proliferation has not been reported. METHODS: We used db/db mice and high-glucose-cultured mesangial cells to generate a diabetic nephropathy model. An MST1-knockdown plasmid was used to identify whether the PI3K/Akt pathway is linked to the Hippo pathway through MST1. LY294002 and SC79 were used to verify the role of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway in MC cells. RNA silencing and overexpression were performed by using YAP and PTEN-expression/knockdown plasmids to investigate the function of YAP and PTEN, respectively, in the Hippo and PI3K/Akt signalling pathways. RESULTS: By examining a potential feedback loop, we found decreased phosphorylation of MST1 and Lats1 and increased PI3K/Akt activation in db/db mice and high glucose-treated MCs, along with increased MC proliferation. The results of our gene silencing experiment proved PI3K/Akt-mediated intervention in the Hippo pathway and the regulatory effect of YAP on PI3K/Akt through PTEN. CONCLUSIONS: The Hippo pathway is inhibited under diabetic conditions, leading to YAP activation and promoting MC proliferation. The PI3K/Akt pathway is activated through the inhibitory effect of YAP on its repressor, PTEN. Finally, activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway inhibits the Hippo pathway, resulting in nuclear YAP accumulation and accelerating MC proliferation and DN formation.

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