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1.
Virol J ; 18(1): 209, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Porcine vesicular disease is caused by the Seneca Valley virus (SVV), it is a novel Picornaviridae, which is prevalent in several countries. However, the pathogenicity of SVV on 5-6 week old pigs and the transmission routes of SVV remain unknown. METHODS: This research mainly focuses on the pathogenicity of the CH-GX-01-2019 strain and the possible vector of SVV. In this study, 5-6 week old pigs infected with SVV (CH-GX-01-2019) and its clinical symptoms (including rectal temperatures and other clinical symptoms) were monitored, qRT-PCR were used to detect the viremia and virus distribution. Neutralization antibody assay was set up during this research. Mosquitoes and Culicoides were collected from pigsties after pigs challenge with SVV, and SVV detection within mosquitoes and Culicoides was done via RT-PCR. RESULTS: The challenged pigs presented with low fevers and mild lethargy on 5-8 days post infection. The viremia lasted more than 14 days. SVV was detected in almost all tissues on the 14th day following the challenge, and it was significantly higher in the hoofs (vesicles) and lymph nodes in comparison with other tissues. Neutralizing antibodies were also detected and could persist for more than 28 days, in addition neutralizing antibody titers ranged from 1:128 to 1:512. Mosquitoes and Culicoides were collected from the pigsty environments following SVV infection. Although SVV was not detected in the mosquitoes, it was present in the Culicoides, however SVV could not be isolated from the positive Culicoides. CONCLUSIONS: Our work has enriched the knowledge relating to SVV pathogenicity and possible transmission routes, which may lay the foundation for further research into the prevention and control of this virus.

2.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(9)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574864

RESUMO

Background: To compare healthcare expenditure, utilization and access between nonelderly adult cancer survivors enrolled in a high deductible health plan with a health savings account ("HDHP+HSA"), HDHP without HSA ("HDHP alone") and low deductible health plan ("LDHP"). Methods: 1735 cancer survivors, aged 18-64 years, with continuous private coverage identified from the 2012-2017 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey: HDHP alone (n = 353), HDHP+HSA (n = 242) and LDHP (n = 1140). Healthcare expenditures, utilization and inability/delay obtaining medical care were analyzed using generalized linear regressions with inverse propensity score weighting and doubly robust estimation. Results: HDHP alone group (23,255 USD) had significantly higher total healthcare expenditure compared to HDHP+HSA (15,580 USD, p = 0.012) and LDHP (16,261 USD, p = 0.016). HDHP alone (6089 USD; p = 0.002) and HDHP+HSA (5743 USD; p = 0.012) groups had significantly higher out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure compared to LDHP (4853 USD). HDHP alone (17,128 USD, p = 0.010) and LDHP (12,645 USD, p = 0.045) had significantly higher private insurer payments compared to HDHP+HSA (9216 USD). No differences were found in utilization or inability/delay obtaining medical care across groups. Conclusions: Non-elderly adult cancer survivors with continuous coverage and comparable sociodemographic characteristics enrolled in HDHP with HSA displayed the lowest healthcare costs compared to HDHP without HSA and LDHP. HDHP+HSA had a significantly higher OOP expenditure than LDHP. No significant differences were observed in utilization or access among groups.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(17)2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503177

RESUMO

Animal studies and a few clinical studies have reported mixed findings on the association between antibiotics and cancer incidence. Antibiotics may inhibit tumor cell growth, but could also alter the gut-microbiome-modulated immune system and increase the risk of cancer. Studies that assess how antibiotics affect the progression of cancer are limited. We evaluated the association between broad-spectrum antibiotic use and melanoma progression. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using IQVIA PharMetrics® Plus data (2008-2018). We identified patients with malignant melanoma who underwent wide local excision or Mohs micrographic surgery within 90 days of first diagnosis. Surgery date was the index date. Patients were excluded if they had any other cancer diagnosis or autoimmune disorders in 1 year before the index date ("baseline"). Exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics was identified in three time windows using three cohorts: 3 months prior to the index date, 1 month after the index date, and 3 months after the index date. The covariates were patients' demographic and clinical characteristics identified in the 1-year baseline period. The patients were followed from the index date until cancer progression, loss of enrollment, or the end of 2 years after the index date. Progression was defined as: (i) any hospice care after surgery, (ii) a new round of treatment for melanoma (surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or radiotherapy) 180 days after prior treatment, or (iii) a metastasis diagnosis or a diagnosis of a new nonmelanoma primary cancer at least 180 days after first melanoma diagnosis or prior treatment. A high-dimensional propensity score approach with inverse weighting was used to adjust for the patients' baseline differences. Cox proportional hazard regression was used for estimating the association. The final samples included 3930, 3831, and 3587 patients (mean age: 56 years). Exposure to antibiotics was 16% in the prior-3-months, 22% in the post-1-month, and 22% in the post-3-months. In the pre-3-months analysis, 9% of the exposed group and 9% of the unexposed group had progressed. Antibiotic use was not associated with melanoma progression (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.57-1.14). However, antibiotic use in subsequent 1 month and subsequent 3 months was associated with 31% reduction (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.51-0.92) and 32% reduction (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.51-0.91) in progression, respectively. In this cohort of patients with likely early-stage melanoma cancer, antibiotic use in 1 month and 3 months after melanoma surgery was associated with a lower risk of melanoma progression. Future studies are warranted to validate the findings.

4.
Addiction ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Prescribers are commonly confronted with discontinuing opioid therapy among patients prescribed chronic opioid therapy (COT). This study aimed to measure the association between discontinuing COT and diagnoses of substance use disorders (SUDs) and opioid-related adverse outcomes (AOs). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: United States Veterans Healthcare Administration. PARTICIPANTS: Veterans with chronic pain on COT who discontinued opioid therapy were compared with those continuing COT using data from fiscal years 2009 to 2015. MEASUREMENTS: Newly diagnosed substance use disorders (SUD composite; individual types: opioid, non-opioid drug and alcohol use disorders) and opioid-related adverse outcomes (AO composite; individual types: accidents resulting in wounds/injuries, opioid-related accidents/overdoses, alcohol and non-opioid medication-related accidents/overdoses, self-inflicted injuries and violence-related injuries) were evaluated. Primary analyses were conducted using 1:1 matching of discontinuers with those continuing COT based on propensity score and index date (±180-day window). Sensitivity analyses were conducted using logistic regressions with stabilized inverse probability of treatment weighting (SIPTW) and instrumental variable (IV) models. FINDINGS: A total of 15 695 (75.4%) and 17 337 (76.6%) discontinuers were matched with those continuing COT among the cohorts testing SUD and AO development respectively. In the primary propensity score matched analyses, the composite SUD outcome was not different between discontinuers and those continuing COT (OR = 0.932, 95% CI = 0.850, 1.022). The composite AO outcome was lower among discontinuers (OR = 0.660, 95% CI = 0.623, 0.699) compared with those continuing COT. SIPTW analyses found lower SUD (OR = 0.789, 95% CI = 0.743, 0.837), and AO (OR = 0.660, 95% CI = 0.623, 0.699) rates among discontinuers. IV models found mixed and sometimes contradictory results. CONCLUSIONS: Discontinuing patients from chronic opioid therapy appears to be associated with decreased diagnoses for opioid-related adverse outcomes. The association with substance use disorders appears to be inconclusive.

5.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 27: 1609775, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257619

RESUMO

Purpose: The Myc family, especially C-MYC and MYCL1, has been found involved in small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Identification of the frequency of C-MYC and MYCL1 expression among SCLC patients may help to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Our aim was to detect MYCL1 amplification, L-Myc and c-Myc expression, and investigate clinicopathological characteristics and survival status in patients with surgically resected SCLC. Methods: MYCL1 amplification was detected using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), while L-Myc and c-Myc protein expressions were determined using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the primary tumors of 46 resected SCLC patients. Results: Among the 46 evaluated specimens, MYCL1 amplification was identified in 3/46 cases (6.5%). One of the positive cases was MYCL1 gene amplification combined with fusion. 3/46 (6.5%) was positive for L-myc protein expression, and 4/46 (8.7%) was positive for c-Myc protein expression. Conclusion: Our study firstly multidimensional explored the expression of MYCL1 amplification, L-Myc and c-Myc protein and investigated clinicopathological characteristics and survival status in patients with surgically resected SCLC, which makes a contribution to subsequent research and therapeutic strategies.

6.
J Pain ; 2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186177

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in pain intensity among Veterans transitioning from long-term opioid therapy (LTOT) to either intermittent therapy or discontinuation compared to continued LTOT. Pain intensity was assessed using the Numeric Rating Scale in 90-day increments starting in the 90-day period prior to potential opioid transitions and the two ensuing 90-day periods after transition. Primary analyses used a 1:1 greedy propensity matched sample. A total of 29,293 Veterans switching to intermittent opioids and 5,972 discontinuing opioids were matched to Veterans continuing LTOT. Covariates were well balanced after matching except minor differences in baseline mean pain scores. Pain scores were lower in the follow up periods for those switching to intermittent opioids and discontinuing opioids compared to those continuing LTOT (0-90 days: Intermittent: 3.79, 95%CI: 3.76, 3.82; LTOT: 4.09, 95%CI: 4.06, 4.12, P < .0001; Discontinuation: 3.06, 95%CI: 2.99, 3.13; LTOT: 3.86, 95%CI: 3.79, 3.94, P = <.0001; 91-180 days: Intermittent: 3.76, 95%CI: 3.73, 3.79; LTOT: 3.99, 95%CI: 3.96, 4.02, P < .0001; Discontinuation: 3.01, 95%CI: 2.94, 3.09; LTOT: 3.80, 95%CI: 3.73, 3.87, P = <.0001). Sensitivity analyses found similar results. Discontinuing opioid therapy or switching to intermittent opioid therapy was not associated with increased pain intensity. PERSPECTIVE: This article evaluates the association of switching to intermittent opioid therapy or discontinuing opioids with pain intensity after using opioids long-term. Pain intensity decreased after switching to intermittent therapy or discontinuing opioids, but remained relatively stable for those continuing long-term opioid therapy. Switching to intermittent opioids or discontinuing opioids was not associated with increased pain intensity.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(26): 31129-31139, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156814

RESUMO

Harsh conditions are inevitable for long-term use of self-healing polymers. However, the majority of reported self-healing materials cannot remain stable under harsh conditions due to the presence of vulnerable dynamic crosslinking sites. Herein, a universal self-healing poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) polymer is reported. In our design, the PDMS polymer chains are crosslinked predominantly through physical entanglements. Owing to the invulnerable nature of the entanglement junctions and high mobility of polymer chains, the as-synthesized polymer exhibits autonomous self-healing capabilities not only under ambient conditions but also in a variety of harsh environments, including aqueous solutions, organic solvents, and extreme conditions (strong acid/alkali, redox agents, freezing temperature). Moreover, this polymer can be easily integrated with a eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn) alloy to achieve layer-by-layer self-healing electronic skin sensors, which realize the combination of excellent electrical conductivity, long-term sensing stability, and universal self-healing capability.

8.
AMB Express ; 11(1): 95, 2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176008

RESUMO

Sugarcane molasses are considered a potential source for bioethanol's commercial production because of its availability and low market price. It contains high concentrations of fermentable sugars that can be directly metabolized by microbial fermentation. Heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, especially Lactiplantibacillus casei, have a high potential to be a biocatalyst in ethanol production that they are characterized by strong abilities of carbohydrate metabolism, ethanol synthesis, and high alcohol tolerance. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of producing ethanol by Lactiplantibacillus casei used the ethanologen engineering strain L. casei E1 as a starter culture and cane molasses as substrate medium. The effects of environmental factors on the metabolism of L. casei E1 were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system, and the gene expression of key enzymes in carbon source metabolism was detected using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Results showed that the strain could grow well, ferment sugar quickly in cane molasses. By fermenting this bacterium anaerobically at 37 °C for 36 h incubation in 5 °BX molasses when the fermenter's pH was controlled at 6.0, ethanol yield reached 13.77 g/L, and carbohydrate utilization percentage was 78.60%. RT-qPCR results verified the strain preferentially ferment glucose and fructose of molasses to ethanol at the molecular level. In addition, the metabolism of sugars, especially fructose, would be inhibited by elevating acidity. Our findings support the theoretical basis for exploring Lactic acid bacteria as a starter culture for converting sugarcane molasses into ethanol.

9.
J Pain ; 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174385

RESUMO

Increasing emphasis on guidelines and prescription drug monitoring programs highlight the role of healthcare providers in pain treatment. Objectives of this study were to identify characteristics of key players and influence of opioid prescribers through construction of a referral network of patients with chronic pain. A retrospective cohort study was performed and patients with commercial or Medicaid coverage with chronic back, neck, or joint pain were identified using the Arkansas All-Payer Claims-Database. A social network comprised of providers connected by patient referrals based on 12-months of healthcare utilization following chronic pain was constructed. Network measures evaluated were indegree and eigen (referrals obtained), betweenness (involvement), and closeness centrality (reach). Outcomes included influence of providers, opioid prescribers, and brokerage status. Exposures included provider demographics, specialties and network characteristics. There were 51,941 chronic pain patients who visited 8,110 healthcare providers. Primary care providers showed higher betweenness and closeness whereas specialists had higher indegree. Opioid providers showed higher centrality compared to non-opioid providers, which decreased with increasing volume of opioid prescribing. Non-pharmacologic providers showed significant brokerage scores. Findings from this study such as primary care providers having better reach, non-central positions of high-volume prescribers and non-pharmacologic providers having higher brokerage can aid interventional physician detailing. PERSPECTIVE: Opioid providers held central positions in the network aiding provider-directed interventions. However, high-volume opioid providers were at the borders making them difficult targets for interventions. Primary care providers had the highest reach, specialists received the most referrals and non-pharmacological providers and specialists acted as brokers between non-opioid and opioid prescribers.

10.
Environ Res ; 199: 111318, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019897

RESUMO

Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in both of water and sludge phase of influent and effluent of the STP were investigated in Beijing of China in five seasons. Total OPFRs concentrations in water phase of influent in five seasons were between 600 and 838 ng/L, where total OPFRs concentration was the lowest in summer of 2018. In water phase of influent and effluent, two chlorinated OPFRs (TCEP and TCPP) were major. Alkyl OPFRs decreased the most in water phase from influent to effluent. In sludge phase, the OPFRs amounts in winter were the lowest. The main OPFRs in sludge phase were TEHP and EHDP, which can be explained by the two OPFRs properties (log Kow and log Koc). Higher the values of the log Kow and log Koc of OPFRs, more amounts in sludge phase. The mass flow of OPFRs in influent were analysed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), indicating that the influent amounts of TCEP, TDCP, TCPP and DCP were main OPFRs in four seasons to influence the characteristics of influent. Compared to OPFRs reduction in some STPs in other countries, alkyl and aryl OPFRs reduction rates were higher than chlorinated OPFRs. TBEP, TEHP and TPHP can always be effectively removed in different seasons and different STPs. The analysis methods of Pearson correlation and linear correlation were processed to check the possible factors affecting OPFRs reduction in STP. OPFRs reduction was related to some STP working parameters. Significant correlation also was found between OPFRs properties and reduction.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Purificação da Água , Pequim , China , Organofosfatos , Compostos Organofosforados , Estações do Ano
11.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(2(A)): 531-536, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819244

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse clinical and molecular features in patients with surgically resected patients with lung cancer harbouring anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion. METHODS: The retrospective study was conducted at Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou, China, and comprised data from November 2013 to August 2015 of lung cancer patients. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase, epidermal growth factor receptor, kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene, v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog, REarranged during Transfection proto-oncogene, c-ros oncogene 1 receptor kinase, V-Erb-B2 avian erythroblastic leukaemia viral oncogene homolog 2 and mesenchymal epithelial transition factor were noted using next generation sequencing. Clinicopathological parameters were also investigated. All patients were followed up till August 10, 2017. Data was analysed using SPSS 22. RESULTS: Of the 19 patients, 15(79%) were non-smokers. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements occurred in the acinar predominant in 6(31.6%), solid predominant 6(31.6%) and mucinous predominant 4(21%) adenocarcinomas. There was 1(5.2%) patient with epidermal growth factor receptor 21 G863D mutation. The 3-year disease-free survival rate in 5(26.3%) cases of anaplastic lymphoma kinase variant 1 was 5(100%), while in the 14(73.7%) cases of non-variant 1 group it was 9(64.3%) (p=0.257). CONCLUSIONS: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements did not tend to be accompanied with other driver genes. Difference between variant 1 and non-variant 1 patients was uncertain and needs to be further investigated.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/cirurgia , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Animais , China , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Camundongos , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Ratos , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246374, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556065

RESUMO

With the rapid global urbanization, the unlimited increasing transportation infrastructure has met the needs of urban expansion, but it has caused a series of ecological problems lacking consideration of ecological conservation. The land suitability assessment for supporting transport planning based on carrying capacity and demand for construction is an effective way to promote urban socioeconomic development and ecological conservation. Therefore, we constructed a logical framework of resources and environment supporting, traffic construction demand driving, and ecological protection red line and basic farmland constraining, and applied the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), GIS, three-dimensional magic cube method, and gravity model to evaluate the suitability of expressway development in Sichuan Province, China. The results showed that the spatial difference in the carrying capacity of resources and environment and the demand for expressway construction was relatively high in Sichuan, and those in eastern cities were even higher. The land suitability for supporting transport planning was relatively high, and the suitable areas with a grade from 8 to 10, accounted for 20.77% of the total study area, which could almost meet the demand for transportation infrastructure construction. The land suitability performed a circle structure with Chengdu as the core and gradually decreasing to the periphery. Overall, this study adds new insights to transport planning reform in other similar regions around the world and can provide important references for regional development planning and environmental protection.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Urbanização , China , Cidades , Reforma Urbana
13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(18): 9984-9989, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594781

RESUMO

Low temperature and atmospheric pressure plasma-induced polymerization was demonstrated as a fast and facile strategy for tailoring of packing phase of COF-1 as well as preparing diverse covalent organic frameworks (COFs) including both two-dimensional (2D) COFs and three-dimensional (3D) COFs. By regulating the solvents, the fast construction of well-ordered AB staggered COF-1 and AA eclipsed COF-1 was facilely realized in minutes. The plasma approach presented here led to the rapid preparation of eight classical 2D COFs, including boronate ester-linkage (COF-5, COF-8 and COF-10), azine-linkage (NUS-2), ß-ketoenamine-linkage (TpPa, TPBD), imine-linkage (ILCOF-1, Py-COF), and 3D-COF-102 (boroxine linkage) in less than 1 hour. Different from conventional methods, the proposed methodology required much less time, lower power, no extra heating, inert-gas protection and pressure. The fast nucleation and growth of COFs with good crystallinity, morphology and thermal stability can be achieved under mild conditions.

14.
Microb Pathog ; 150: 104729, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429053

RESUMO

The Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) cause a huge economic loss around the pig industry worldwide; the NADC30-like PRRSV have attracted much attention outbreaks in China in recent years. Recombination between PRRSV subtypes, point mutations, insertions and deletions that contribute to the emergence of new variants in the genome. In this study, the PRRSV-HB-16-China-2019 strain's full-length genomic sequence shares 93.0% nucleotide similarity to NADC30 PRRSV without any gene insertion. Compared with VR-2332, it has an NSP2 coding region that is different from NADC30, which has a discontinuous 206-aa (111-aa from position 323 to 433 and 95-aa from position 476 to 570) deletion. Compared with other NADC30-Like strains, it has a discontinuous 75-amino acid (75-aa from position 476 to 552) deletion, which was first reported. Notably, the strain, PRRSV-HB-16-China-2019, contained an addition a 1-aa deletion in ORF5 and a unique 3-nt deletion in 3'-UTR similar to NADC30, the strain is recombined between a NADC30-like strain and a vaccine strain named RespPRRS MLV(parental strain VR-2332). Our findings indicate that PRRSV-HB-16-China-2019 is a new NSP2-deletion NADC30-like strain with certain deletions and mutations. Our results show that the emergence of the new NADC30-like strain has increased the difficulty of PRRSV prevention in China.


Assuntos
Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Animais , China , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Recombinação Genética , Suínos
15.
Cancer Genet ; 250-251: 12-19, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217678

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic heterogeneity (carcinomatous vs. sarcomatous components) and predictive biomarkers in patients with pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC). METHODS: Genetic alterations and biomarkers of immunotherapy were performed in a discovery set (n = 6) of PSC. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) on a pan-cancer gene panel was applied to detect the genetic alterations in each component, and the respective mutation profiling and tumor mutation burden (TMB) were compared as well. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay with SP263 antibody was used to detect the protein expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in each component. RESULTS: Comparative genetic analysis revealed that the separate carcinomatous and sarcomatous components shared strikingly common mutations. TP53 (4/6, 66.7%) was the most common genetic alteration in 6 PSC patients. MET exon 14 skipping was detected in one case, accounting for 16.7%. An EZR-ROS1 fusion (EZR: intron10-ROS1: intron32) was identified in one case. The TMB of the two components was similar. Nevertheless, significantly higher PD-L1 expression was found in carcinomatous components compared to sarcomatous components. MDM2 amplification was detected in 2/6 (33.3%) of cases and STK11 mutation in 1/6 (16.7%) of cases. CONCLUSIONS: PSC containing carcinomatous and sarcomatous components had a mild heterogeneity; the two components may evolve from common ancestral cells. High PD-L1 expression suggests that immunotherapy could be used as a potential therapy for PSC patients, while patients with negative immune-responsive genes need to be screened out. Altogether, these findings further highlight that the detection of genetic alteration and PD-L1 expression plays an important role in treatment of patients with PSC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Heterogeneidade Genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Oncogenes , Sarcoma/genética , Idoso , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Mol Oral Microbiol ; 36(1): 67-79, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316854

RESUMO

Ligustrum robustum (Roxb.) Blume is utilized as a traditional Chinese herbal tea with various health benefits and protective effects. Streptococcus mutans is an important cariogenic oral bacteria species. The present study aimed to assess the influence of Ligustrum robustum extract (LRE) on the biofilm formation of S. mutans and the mechanism of its action, as well as to identify its chemical components. For chemical identification, HPLC-MS and nuclear magnetic resonance were applied and four identified phytochemicals were reported (Ligurobustoside B, Ligurobustoside N, Ligurobustoside J, and Ligurobustoside C). The dose-dependent (0.5 to 2.0 µg/µL) antimicrobial toxicity of LRE against S. mutans biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), Crystal violet stain, and CFU counting. The microstructure of S. mutans biofilm treated with LRE was investigated both on glass coverslips and ex vivo bovine dental enamel by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, LRE downregulated the expression of S. mutans glucosyltransferase-encoding genes gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD, and the quorum sensing (QS) factors comD and comE, suggesting its toxic mechanism. In addition, the result of CCK-8 test on human oral cells revealed an acceptable biocompatibility of LRE. These findings indicated the possible application of this daily consumed herbal tea for caries prevention.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Ligustrum , Animais , Biofilmes , Bovinos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans
17.
Infect Dis (Auckl) ; 13: 1178633720952078, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029073

RESUMO

Introduction: Critically ill patients and their pharmacokinetics present complexities often not considered by consensus guidelines from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists. Prior surveys have suggested discordance between certain guideline recommendations and reported infectious disease pharmacist practice. Vancomycin dosing practices, including institutional considerations, have not previously been well described in the critically ill patient population. Objectives: To evaluate critical care pharmacists' self-reported vancomycin practices in comparison to the 2009 guideline recommendations and other best practices identified by the study investigators. Methods: An online survey developed by the Research and Scholarship Committee of the Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology (CPP) Section of the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) was sent to pharmacist members of the SCCM CPP Section practicing in adult intensive care units in the spring of 2017. This survey queried pharmacists' self-reported practices regarding vancomycin dosing and monitoring in critically ill adults. Results: Three-hundred and sixty-four responses were received for an estimated response rate of 26%. Critical care pharmacists self-reported largely following the 2009 vancomycin dosing and monitoring guidelines. The largest deviations in guideline recommendation compliance involve consistent use of a loading dose, dosing weight in obese patients, and quality improvement efforts related to systematically monitoring vancomycin-associated nephrotoxicity. Variation exists regarding pharmacist protocols and other practices of vancomycin use in critically ill patients. Conclusion: Among critical care pharmacists, reported vancomycin practices are largely consistent with the 2009 guideline recommendations. Variations in vancomycin dosing and monitoring protocols are identified, and rationale for guideline non-adherence with loading doses elucidated.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(39): 44137-44146, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926620

RESUMO

Dielectric actuators are prone to be worn or partially damaged when operating at high electric fields. The introduction of self-healing features into dielectric actuators is favorable for extending its life span and security. Although many attempts have been made to produce self-healing dielectric actuators, most of them focus on the healing of either the electrodes or the dielectric layers. A dielectric actuator that exhibits integral self-healing is still unprecedented. Meanwhile, realizing integral self-healing in dielectric actuator is highly challenging because both the electrode and the dielectric layer need to be healed while the interface between the electrode and the dielectric layer should remain unaffected during the healing process. In this paper, we synthesized self-healing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymers containing different amounts of polyaniline (PANI) (denoted as PDMS-PANIn, where n represents the weight percentage of PANI) as the dielectric layer and electrode, respectively. PDMS-PANI2.5 polymer exhibits good dielectric properties (ε = 11.11 at 50 Hz) and was used as the dielectric layer, while PDMS-PANI20 polymer having a high conductivity of 4.5 × 10-5 S/cm was used as the electrode. As both of them have excellent self-healing ability and are compatible and diffusible to each other, the entire actuator device can still cause actuated strain after cutting and healing at room temperature for 48 h. Our strategy for realizing integral self-healing of actuator is also applicable to other electronic devices.

19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(35): 9524-9529, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786851

RESUMO

Antibiotic abuse in agricultural products leads to serious food safety issues. To this end, we proposed a mix-and-read and enzyme-free amplified assay for antibiotics based on a dual triple helix-aptamer probe, potentially applicable for on-site monitoring of antibiotic residues. A dual triple helix-aptamer probe can leverage the response toward target molecules without enzyme-based amplification, rendering it sensitive and robust for profiling target molecules. The proposed assay allowed mix-and-read detection of chloramphenicol with a detection limit of 0.18 nM. Besides, it accommodated for specifically resolving chloramphenicol among other antibiotics. Chloramphenicol residual in aquatic products in fish and milk can be precisely determined. Thus, the aptamer probe deems to enrich the toolbox for managing antibiotic use.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Leite/química , Técnica de Seleção de Aptâmeros/métodos , Animais , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Bovinos , Cloranfenicol/análise , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Peixes , Limite de Detecção
20.
Talanta ; 218: 121128, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797885

RESUMO

A novel and sensitive method for the selective determination of Cr(VI) and non-chromatographic speciation of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was developed based on chemical vapor generation (CVG) in KBH4-acid system for sample introduction into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) for detection. The CVG of Cr(VI), rather than Cr(III), was found to be remarkably enhanced in the presence of sodium diethylaminodithioformate (DDTC). After the oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) by KMnO4, the quantitation of Cr(III) could be obtained based on the difference between the concentration of total chromium and that of Cr(VI). Parameters affecting the CVG reaction and determination of Cr(VI) were evaluated in detail, including the concentrations of DDTC, hydrochloric acid and KBH4, the sample flow rate, as well as the length of reaction and transferring tubing. Under optimal conditions, the CVG efficiency and the limit of detection (LOD) of Cr(VI) were found to be 28% and 0.2 ng mL-1, respectively. The relative standard deviations for seven replicate measurements of 20 ng mL-1 of Cr(Ⅵ) was 1.8%. Furthermore, with excess DDTC (100 µg mL-1) added to the test solutions, possible interferences from Cu2+ (up to 400 ng mL-1) could be eliminated. The proposed method was thus successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI) in three real water samples and one certified reference water sample, as well as two simulated water samples of Cr(VI) and Cr(III), all with satisfactory results. The possible reasons were discussed for the varied degrees of enhancement between Cr(III) and Cr(VI).

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